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1.

Ataxia-telangiectasia syndrome

Classic ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia beginning between ages one and four years, oculomotor apraxia, choreoathetosis, telangiectasias of the conjunctivae, immunodeficiency, frequent infections, and an increased risk for malignancy, particularly leukemia and lymphoma. Individuals with A-T are unusually sensitive to ionizing radiation. Non-classic forms of A-T have included adult-onset A-T and A-T with early-onset dystonia. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
439
Concept ID:
C0004135
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Niemann-Pick disease, type A

The phenotype of acid sphingomyelinase deficiency (ASMD) occurs along a continuum. Individuals with the severe early-onset form, infantile neurovisceral ASMD, were historically diagnosed with Niemann-Pick disease type A (NPD-A). The later-onset, chronic visceral form of ASMD is also referred to as Niemann-Pick disease type B (NPD-B). A phenotype with intermediate severity is also known as chronic neurovisceral ASMD (NPD-A/B). The most common presenting symptom in NPD-A is hepatosplenomegaly, usually detectable by age three months; over time the liver and spleen become massive in size. Psychomotor development progresses no further than the 12-month level, after which neurologic deterioration is relentless. Failure to thrive typically becomes evident by the second year of life. A classic cherry-red spot of the macula of the retina, which may not be present in the first few months, is eventually present in all affected children. Interstitial lung disease caused by storage of sphingomyelin in pulmonary macrophages results in frequent respiratory infections and often respiratory failure. Most children succumb before the third year of life. NPD-B generally presents later than NPD-A, and the manifestations are less severe. NPD-B is characterized by progressive hepatosplenomegaly, gradual deterioration in liver and pulmonary function, osteopenia, and atherogenic lipid profile. No central nervous system (CNS) manifestations occur. Individuals with NPD-A/B have symptoms that are intermediate between NPD-A and NPD-B. The presentation in individuals with NPD-A/B varies greatly, although all are characterized by the presence of some CNS manifestations. Survival to adulthood can occur in individuals with NPD-B and NPD-A/B. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
78650
Concept ID:
C0268242
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease

PLP1 disorders of central nervous system myelin formation include a range of phenotypes from Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) to spastic paraplegia 2 (SPG2). PMD typically manifests in infancy or early childhood with nystagmus, hypotonia, and cognitive impairment; the findings progress to severe spasticity and ataxia. Life span is shortened. SPG2 manifests as spastic paraparesis with or without CNS involvement and usually normal life span. Intrafamilial variation of phenotypes can be observed, but the signs are usually fairly consistent within families. Heterozygous females may manifest mild-to-moderate signs of the disease. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
61440
Concept ID:
C0205711
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Early-onset generalized limb-onset dystonia

DYT1 early-onset isolated dystonia typically presents in childhood or adolescence and only on occasion in adulthood. Dystonic muscle contractions causing posturing or irregular tremor of a leg or arm are the most common presenting findings. Dystonia is usually first apparent with specific actions such as writing or walking. Over time, the contractions frequently (but not invariably) become evident with less specific actions and spread to other body regions. No other neurologic abnormalities are present. Disease severity varies considerably even within the same family. Isolated writer's cramp may be the only sign. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
338823
Concept ID:
C1851945
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome 1

Most characteristically, Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) manifests as an early-onset encephalopathy that usually, but not always, results in severe intellectual and physical disability. A subgroup of infants with AGS present at birth with abnormal neurologic findings, hepatosplenomegaly, elevated liver enzymes, and thrombocytopenia, a picture highly suggestive of congenital infection. Otherwise, most affected infants present at variable times after the first few weeks of life, frequently after a period of apparently normal development. Typically, they demonstrate the subacute onset of a severe encephalopathy characterized by extreme irritability, intermittent sterile pyrexias, loss of skills, and slowing of head growth. Over time, as many as 40% develop chilblain skin lesions on the fingers, toes, and ears. It is becoming apparent that atypical, sometimes milder, cases of AGS exist, and thus the true extent of the phenotype associated with pathogenic variants in the AGS-related genes is not yet known. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
162912
Concept ID:
C0796126
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Nemaline myopathy 2

Nemaline myopathy-2 (NEM2) is an autosomal recessive skeletal muscle disorder with a wide range of severity. The most common clinical presentation is early-onset (in infancy or childhood) muscle weakness predominantly affecting proximal limb muscles. Muscle biopsy shows accumulation of Z-disc and thin filament proteins into aggregates named 'nemaline bodies' or 'nemaline rods,' usually accompanied by disorganization of the muscle Z discs. The clinical and histologic spectrum of entities caused by variants in the NEB gene is a continuum, ranging in severity. The distribution of weakness can vary from generalized muscle weakness, more pronounced in proximal limb muscles, to distal-only involvement, although neck flexor weakness appears to be rather consistent. Histologic patterns range from a severe usually nondystrophic disturbance of the myofibrillar pattern to an almost normal pattern, with or without nemaline bodies, sometimes combined with cores (summary by Lehtokari et al., 2014). Genetic Heterogeneity of Nemaline Myopathy See also NEM1 (255310), caused by mutation in the tropomyosin-3 gene (TPM3; 191030) on chromosome 1q22; NEM3 (161800), caused by mutation in the alpha-actin-1 gene (ACTA1; 102610) on chromosome 1q42; NEM4 (609285), caused by mutation in the beta-tropomyosin gene (TPM2; 190990) on chromosome 9p13; NEM5A (605355), also known as Amish nemaline myopathy, NEM5B (620386), and NEM5C (620389), all caused by mutation in the troponin T1 gene (TNNT1; 191041) on chromosome 19q13; NEM6 (609273), caused by mutation in the KBTBD13 gene (613727) on chromosome 15q22; NEM7 (610687), caused by mutation in the cofilin-2 gene (CFL2; 601443) on chromosome 14q13; NEM8 (615348), caused by mutation in the KLHL40 gene (615340), on chromosome 3p22; NEM9 (615731), caused by mutation in the KLHL41 gene (607701) on chromosome 2q31; NEM10 (616165), caused by mutation in the LMOD3 gene (616112) on chromosome 3p14; and NEM11 (617336), caused by mutation in the MYPN gene (608517) on chromosome 10q21. Several of the genes encode components of skeletal muscle sarcomeric thin filaments (Sanoudou and Beggs, 2001). Mutations in the NEB gene are the most common cause of nemaline myopathy (Lehtokari et al., 2006). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
342534
Concept ID:
C1850569
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Salla disease

Free sialic acid storage disorders (FSASDs) are a spectrum of neurodegenerative disorders resulting from increased lysosomal storage of free sialic acid. Historically, FSASD was divided into separate allelic disorders: Salla disease, intermediate severe Salla disease, and infantile free sialic acid storage disease (ISSD). The mildest type was Salla disease, characterized by normal appearance and absence of neurologic findings at birth, followed by slowly progressive neurologic deterioration resulting in mild-to-moderate psychomotor delays, spasticity, athetosis, and epileptic seizures. Salla disease was named for a municipality in Finnish Lapland where a specific founder variant is relatively prevalent. However, the term Salla has been used in the literature to refer to less severe FSASD. More severe FSASD is historically referred to as ISSD, and is characterized by severe developmental delay, coarse facial features, hepatosplenomegaly, and cardiomegaly; death usually occurs in early childhood. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
203368
Concept ID:
C1096903
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome

Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome (AHDS), an X-linked disorder, is characterized in males by neurologic findings (hypotonia and feeding difficulties in infancy, developmental delay / intellectual disability ranging from mild to profound) and later-onset pyramidal signs, extrapyramidal findings (dystonia, choreoathetosis, paroxysmal movement disorder, hypokinesia, masked facies), and seizures, often with drug resistance. Additional findings can include dysthyroidism (manifest as poor weight gain, reduced muscle mass, and variable cold intolerance, sweating, elevated heart rate, and irritability) and pathognomonic thyroid test results. Most heterozygous females are not clinically affected but may have minor thyroid test abnormalities. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
208645
Concept ID:
C0795889
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome, myopathic form

TK2-related mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) maintenance defect is a phenotypic continuum that ranges from severe to mild. To date, approximately 107 individuals with a molecularly confirmed diagnosis have been reported. Three main subtypes of presentation have been described: Infantile-onset myopathy with neurologic involvement and rapid progression to early death. Affected individuals experience progressive muscle weakness leading to respiratory failure. Some individuals develop dysarthria, dysphagia, and/or hearing loss. Cognitive function is typically spared. Juvenile/childhood onset with generalized proximal weakness and survival to at least 13 years. Late-/adult-onset myopathy with facial and limb weakness and mtDNA deletions. Some affected individuals develop respiratory insufficiency, chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia, dysphagia, and dysarthria. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
461100
Concept ID:
C3149750
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Syndromic X-linked intellectual disability Lubs type

MECP2 duplication syndrome is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by early-onset hypotonia, feeding difficulty, gastrointestinal manifestations including gastroesophageal reflux and constipation, delayed psychomotor development leading to severe intellectual disability, poor speech development, progressive spasticity, recurrent respiratory infections (in ~75% of affected individuals), and seizures (in ~50%). MECP2 duplication syndrome is 100% penetrant in males. Occasionally females have been described with a MECP2 duplication and a range of findings from mild intellectual disability to a phenotype similar to that seen in males. In addition to the core features, autistic behaviors, nonspecific neuroradiologic findings on brain MRI, mottled skin, and urogenital anomalies have been observed in several affected boys. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
337496
Concept ID:
C1846058
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Biotin-responsive basal ganglia disease

Biotin-thiamine-responsive basal ganglia disease (BTBGD) may present in childhood, early infancy, or adulthood. The classic presentation of BTBGD occurs in childhood (age 3-10 years) and is characterized by recurrent subacute encephalopathy manifest as confusion, seizures, ataxia, dystonia, supranuclear facial palsy, external ophthalmoplegia, and/or dysphagia which, if left untreated, can eventually lead to coma and even death. Dystonia and cogwheel rigidity are nearly always present; hyperreflexia, ankle clonus, and Babinski responses are common. Hemiparesis or quadriparesis may be seen. Episodes are often triggered by febrile illness or mild trauma or stress. Simple partial or generalized seizures are easily controlled with anti-seizure medication. An early-infantile Leigh-like syndrome / atypical infantile spasms presentation occurs in the first three months of life with poor feeding, vomiting, acute encephalopathy, and severe lactic acidosis. An adult-onset Wernicke-like encephalopathy presentation is characterized by acute onset of status epilepticus, ataxia, nystagmus, diplopia, and ophthalmoplegia in the second decade of life. Prompt administration of biotin and thiamine early in the disease course results in partial or complete improvement within days in the childhood and adult presentations, but most with the infantile presentation have had poor outcome even after supplementation with biotin and thiamine. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
375289
Concept ID:
C1843807
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome, encephalomyopathic form with methylmalonic aciduria

SUCLA2-related mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion syndrome, encephalomyopathic form with methylmalonic aciduria is characterized by onset of the following features in infancy or childhood (median age of onset 2 months; range of onset birth to 6 years): psychomotor retardation, hypotonia, dystonia, muscular atrophy, sensorineural hearing impairment, postnatal growth retardation, and feeding difficulties. Other less frequent features include distinctive facial features, contractures, kyphoscoliosis, gastroesophageal reflux, ptosis, choreoathetosis, ophthalmoplegia, and epilepsy (infantile spasms or generalized convulsions). The median survival is 20 years; approximately 30% of affected individuals succumb during childhood. Affected individuals may have hyperintensities in the basal ganglia, cerebral atrophy, and leukoencephalopathy on head MRI. Elevation of methylmalonic acid (MMA) in the urine and plasma is found in a vast majority of affected individuals, although at levels that are far below those typically seen in individuals with classic methylmalonic aciduria. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
413170
Concept ID:
C2749864
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Agenesis of the corpus callosum with peripheral neuropathy

Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with agenesis of the corpus callosum (HMSN/ACC), a neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by severe progressive sensorimotor neuropathy with resulting hypotonia, areflexia, and amyotrophy, and by variable degrees of dysgenesis of the corpus callosum. Mild-to-severe intellectual disability and "psychotic episodes" during adolescence are observed. Sensory modalities are moderately to severely affected beginning in infancy. The average age of onset of walking is 3.8 years; the average age of loss of walking is 13.8 years; the average age of death is 33 years. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
162893
Concept ID:
C0795950
Disease or Syndrome
14.

3-methylglutaconic aciduria with deafness, encephalopathy, and Leigh-like syndrome

The phenotypic spectrum of SERAC1 deficiency comprises MEGD(H)EL syndrome (3-methylglutaconic aciduria with deafness-dystonia, [hepatopathy], encephalopathy, and Leigh-like syndrome), juvenile-onset complicated hereditary spastic paraplegia (in 1 consanguineous family), and adult-onset generalized dystonia (in 1 adult male). MEGD(H)EL syndrome is characterized in neonates by hypoglycemia and a sepsis-like clinical picture for which no infectious agent can be found. During the first year of life feeding problems, failure to thrive, and/or truncal hypotonia become evident; many infants experience (transient) liver involvement ranging from undulating transaminases to prolonged hyperbilirubinemia and near-fatal liver failure. By age two years progressive deafness, dystonia, and spasticity prevent further psychomotor development and/or result in loss of acquired skills. Affected children are completely dependent on care for all activities of daily living; speech is absent. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
873604
Concept ID:
C4040739
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency

Adenylosuccinase deficiency is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism caused by an enzymatic defect in de novo purine synthesis (DNPS) pathway. ADSL deficiency leads to the accumulation of toxic intermediates, including succinyladenosine (S-Ado) and succinylaminoimidazole carboxamide riboside (SAICAr) in body fluids. There are 3 major phenotypic forms of the disorder that correlate with different values of the S-Ado and SAICAr concentration ratios (S-Ado/SAICAr) in the cerebrospinal fluid. These include the most severe fatal neonatal encephalopathy (S-Ado/SAICAr ratio less than 1); childhood form (type I) with severe psychomotor retardation (S-Ado/SAICAr ratio close to 1), and a milder form (type II) with psychomotor retardation or hypotonia (S-Ado/SAICAr ratio greater than 2) (summary by Baresova et al., 2012). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
78641
Concept ID:
C0268126
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 2

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-2 (DEE2) is an X-linked dominant severe neurologic disorder characterized by onset of seizures in the first months of life and severe global developmental delay resulting in impaired intellectual development and poor motor control. Other features include lack of speech development, subtle dysmorphic facial features, sleep disturbances, gastrointestinal problems, and stereotypic hand movements. There is some phenotypic overlap with Rett syndrome (312750), but DEE2 is considered to be a distinct entity (summary by Fehr et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1663579
Concept ID:
C4750718
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 20

Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, stereotypic hand movements, and impaired language (NEDHSIL) is characterized by global developmental delay with hypotonia, poor motor development with limited walking, impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech, and behavioral abnormalities. Almost all affected individuals demonstrate repetitive stereotypic hand movements that can be categorized as hyperkinetic and resembling those of Rett syndrome (RTT; 312750). About 80% of patients develop various types of seizures that may be refractory to treatment. Additional features may include dysmorphic facial features, particularly dysplastic ears, poor eye contact, episodic hyperventilation, tendency to infection, and abnormalities on brain imaging, such as enlarged ventricles, thin corpus callosum, and delayed myelination (summary by Vrecar et al., 2017, Paciorkowski et al., 2013). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
462050
Concept ID:
C3150700
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Schaaf-Yang syndrome

Schaaf-Yang syndrome (SYS) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder that shares multiple clinical features with the genetically related Prader-Willi syndrome. It usually manifests at birth with muscular hypotonia in all and distal joint contractures in a majority of affected individuals. Gastrointestinal/feeding problems are particularly pronounced in infancy and childhood, but can transition to hyperphagia and obesity in adulthood. Respiratory distress is present in many individuals at birth, with approximately half requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation, and approximately 20% requiring tracheostomy. Skeletal manifestations such as joint contractures, scoliosis, and decreased bone mineral density are frequently observed. All affected individuals show developmental delay, resulting in intellectual disability of variable degree, from low-normal intelligence to severe intellectual disability. Other findings may include short stature, seizures, eye anomalies, and hypogonadism. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1807366
Concept ID:
C5575066
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy (congenital with intellectual disability), type B1

Congenital muscular dystrophies resulting from defective glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan (DAG1; 128239) are characterized by early onset of muscle weakness, usually before ambulation is achieved; intellectual disability mild brain anomalies are variable (Balci et al., 2005; Godfrey et al., 2007). Congenital muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathies with or without impaired intellectual development (type B) represent the intermediate range of the spectrum of dystroglycanopathies. They are less severe than muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy with brain and eye anomalies (type A; see MDDGA1, 236670), previously designated Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) or muscle-eye-brain disease (MEB), and more severe than limb-girdle muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy (type C; see MDDGC1, 609308). Genetic Heterogeneity of Congenital Muscular Dystrophy-Dystroglycanopathy with or without Impaired Intellectual Development (Type B) Congenital muscular dystrophy with impaired intellectual development due to defective glycosylation of DAG1 is genetically heterogeneous. See also MDDGB2 (613156), caused by mutation in the POMT2 gene (607439); MDDGB3 (613151), caused by mutation in the POMGNT1 gene (606822); MDDGB4 (613152), caused by mutation in the FKTN gene (607440); MDDGB5 (616612), caused by mutation in the FKRP gene (606596); MDDGB6 (608840), caused by mutation in the LARGE gene (603590); MDDGB14 (615351), caused by mutation in the GMPPB gene (615320); and MDDGB15 (618992), caused by mutation in the DPM3 gene (605951). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1774807
Concept ID:
C5436962
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Warburg micro syndrome 3

RAB18 deficiency is the molecular deficit underlying both Warburg micro syndrome (characterized by eye, nervous system, and endocrine abnormalities) and Martsolf syndrome (characterized by similar – but milder – findings). To date Warburg micro syndrome comprises >96% of reported individuals with genetically defined RAB18 deficiency. The hallmark ophthalmologic findings are bilateral congenital cataracts, usually accompanied by microphthalmia, microcornea (diameter <10), and small atonic pupils. Poor vision despite early cataract surgery likely results from progressive optic atrophy and cortical visual impairment. Individuals with Warburg micro syndrome have severe to profound intellectual disability (ID); those with Martsolf syndrome have mild to moderate ID. Some individuals with RAB18 deficiency also have epilepsy. In Warburg micro syndrome, a progressive ascending spastic paraplegia typically begins with spastic diplegia and contractures during the first year, followed by upper-limb involvement leading to spastic quadriplegia after about age five years, often eventually causing breathing difficulties. In Martsolf syndrome infantile hypotonia is followed primarily by slowly progressive lower-limb spasticity. Hypogonadism – when present – manifests in both syndromes, in males as micropenis and/or cryptorchidism and in females as hypoplastic labia minora, clitoral hypoplasia, and small introitus. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
481833
Concept ID:
C3280203
Disease or Syndrome
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