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1.

Prader-Willi syndrome

Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is characterized by severe hypotonia and feeding difficulties in early infancy, followed in later infancy or early childhood by excessive eating and gradual development of morbid obesity (unless eating is externally controlled). Motor milestones and language development are delayed. All individuals have some degree of cognitive impairment. A distinctive behavioral phenotype (with temper tantrums, stubbornness, manipulative behavior, and obsessive-compulsive characteristics) is common. Hypogonadism is present in both males and females and manifests as genital hypoplasia, incomplete pubertal development, and, in most, infertility. Short stature is common (if not treated with growth hormone); characteristic facial features, strabismus, and scoliosis are often present. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
46057
Concept ID:
C0032897
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Celiac disease, susceptibility to, 1

Celiac disease is a systemic autoimmune disease that can be associated with gastrointestinal findings (diarrhea, malabsorption, abdominal pain and distension, bloating, vomiting, and weight loss) and/or highly variable non-gastrointestinal findings (dermatitis herpetiformis, chronic fatigue, joint pain/inflammation, iron deficiency anemia, migraines, depression, attention-deficit disorder, epilepsy, osteoporosis/osteopenia, infertility and/or recurrent fetal loss, vitamin deficiencies, short stature, failure to thrive, delayed puberty, dental enamel defects, and autoimmune disorders). Classic celiac disease, characterized by mild to severe gastrointestinal symptoms, is less common than non-classic celiac disease, characterized by absence of gastrointestinal symptoms. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
395227
Concept ID:
C1859310
Finding
3.

Hemochromatosis type 2A

Juvenile hemochromatosis is characterized by onset of severe iron overload occurring typically in the first to third decades of life. Males and females are equally affected. Prominent clinical features include hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, cardiomyopathy, glucose intolerance and diabetes, arthropathy, and liver fibrosis or cirrhosis. Hepatocellular cancer has been reported occasionally. The main cause of death is cardiac disease. If juvenile hemochromatosis is detected early enough and if blood is removed regularly through the process of phlebotomy to achieve iron depletion, morbidity and mortality are greatly reduced. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
356321
Concept ID:
C1865614
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 7 with or without anosmia

Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency (IGD) is characterized by inappropriately low serum concentrations of the gonadotropins LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in the presence of low circulating concentrations of sex steroids. IGD is associated with a normal sense of smell (normosmic IGD) in approximately 40% of affected individuals and an impaired sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome) in approximately 60%. IGD can first become apparent in infancy, adolescence, or adulthood. Infant boys with congenital IGD often have micropenis and cryptorchidism. Adolescents and adults with IGD have clinical evidence of hypogonadism and incomplete sexual maturation on physical examination. Adult males with IGD tend to have prepubertal testicular volume (i.e., <4 mL), absence of secondary sexual features (e.g., facial and axillary hair growth, deepening of the voice), decreased muscle mass, diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. Adult females have little or no breast development and primary amenorrhea. Although skeletal maturation is delayed, the rate of linear growth is usually normal except for the absence of a distinct pubertal growth spurt. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
87440
Concept ID:
C0342384
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Primary ciliary dyskinesia 15

Primary ciliary dyskinesia-15 (CILD15) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by recurrent respiratory infections associated with defects in ciliary inner dynein arms and axonemal disorganization (summary by Becker-Heck et al., 2011). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see CILD1 (244400). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
462487
Concept ID:
C3151137
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Primary ciliary dyskinesia 13

Primary ciliary dyskinesia is a disorder characterized by chronic respiratory tract infections, abnormally positioned internal organs, and the inability to have children (infertility). The signs and symptoms of this condition are caused by abnormal cilia and flagella. Cilia are microscopic, finger-like projections that stick out from the surface of cells. They are found in the linings of the airway, the reproductive system, and other organs and tissues. Flagella are tail-like structures, similar to cilia, that propel sperm cells forward.

In the respiratory tract, cilia move back and forth in a coordinated way to move mucus towards the throat. This movement of mucus helps to eliminate fluid, bacteria, and particles from the lungs. Most babies with primary ciliary dyskinesia experience breathing problems at birth, which suggests that cilia play an important role in clearing fetal fluid from the lungs. Beginning in early childhood, affected individuals develop frequent respiratory tract infections. Without properly functioning cilia in the airway, bacteria remain in the respiratory tract and cause infection. People with primary ciliary dyskinesia also have year-round nasal congestion and a chronic cough. Chronic respiratory tract infections can result in a condition called bronchiectasis, which damages the passages, called bronchi, leading from the windpipe to the lungs and can cause life-threatening breathing problems.

Approximately 12 percent of people with primary ciliary dyskinesia have a condition known as heterotaxy syndrome or situs ambiguus, which is characterized by abnormalities of the heart, liver, intestines, or spleen. These organs may be structurally abnormal or improperly positioned. In addition, affected individuals may lack a spleen (asplenia) or have multiple spleens (polysplenia). Heterotaxy syndrome results from problems establishing the left and right sides of the body during embryonic development. The severity of heterotaxy varies widely among affected individuals.

Some individuals with primary ciliary dyskinesia have abnormally placed organs within their chest and abdomen. These abnormalities arise early in embryonic development when the differences between the left and right sides of the body are established. About 50 percent of people with primary ciliary dyskinesia have a mirror-image reversal of their internal organs (situs inversus totalis). For example, in these individuals the heart is on the right side of the body instead of on the left. Situs inversus totalis does not cause any apparent health problems. When someone with primary ciliary dyskinesia has situs inversus totalis, they are often said to have Kartagener syndrome.

Primary ciliary dyskinesia can also lead to infertility. Vigorous movements of the flagella are necessary to propel the sperm cells forward to the female egg cell. Because their sperm do not move properly, males with primary ciliary dyskinesia are usually unable to father children. Infertility occurs in some affected females and is likely due to abnormal cilia in the fallopian tubes.

Another feature of primary ciliary dyskinesia is recurrent ear infections (otitis media), especially in young children. Otitis media can lead to permanent hearing loss if untreated. The ear infections are likely related to abnormal cilia within the inner ear.

Rarely, individuals with primary ciliary dyskinesia have an accumulation of fluid in the brain (hydrocephalus), likely due to abnormal cilia in the brain. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
413399
Concept ID:
C2750790
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Partial androgen insensitivity syndrome

Individuals with androgen insensitivity have a 46,XY karyotype and testes that produce age-appropriate androgen levels but have undermasculinized external genitalia due to defects in androgen action. The phenotype in PAIS varies depending on residual androgen receptor function, ranging from severe undermasculinization presenting as female-like external genitalia to male-appearing genitalia. The typical presentation comprises micropenis, severe hypospadias, and bifid scrotum with or without cryptorchidism (summary by Mongan et al., 2015). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
82785
Concept ID:
C0268301
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Primary ciliary dyskinesia 2

Primary ciliary dyskinesia is a disorder characterized by chronic respiratory tract infections, abnormally positioned internal organs, and the inability to have children (infertility). The signs and symptoms of this condition are caused by abnormal cilia and flagella. Cilia are microscopic, finger-like projections that stick out from the surface of cells. They are found in the linings of the airway, the reproductive system, and other organs and tissues. Flagella are tail-like structures, similar to cilia, that propel sperm cells forward.

In the respiratory tract, cilia move back and forth in a coordinated way to move mucus towards the throat. This movement of mucus helps to eliminate fluid, bacteria, and particles from the lungs. Most babies with primary ciliary dyskinesia experience breathing problems at birth, which suggests that cilia play an important role in clearing fetal fluid from the lungs. Beginning in early childhood, affected individuals develop frequent respiratory tract infections. Without properly functioning cilia in the airway, bacteria remain in the respiratory tract and cause infection. People with primary ciliary dyskinesia also have year-round nasal congestion and a chronic cough. Chronic respiratory tract infections can result in a condition called bronchiectasis, which damages the passages, called bronchi, leading from the windpipe to the lungs and can cause life-threatening breathing problems.

Approximately 12 percent of people with primary ciliary dyskinesia have a condition known as heterotaxy syndrome or situs ambiguus, which is characterized by abnormalities of the heart, liver, intestines, or spleen. These organs may be structurally abnormal or improperly positioned. In addition, affected individuals may lack a spleen (asplenia) or have multiple spleens (polysplenia). Heterotaxy syndrome results from problems establishing the left and right sides of the body during embryonic development. The severity of heterotaxy varies widely among affected individuals.

Some individuals with primary ciliary dyskinesia have abnormally placed organs within their chest and abdomen. These abnormalities arise early in embryonic development when the differences between the left and right sides of the body are established. About 50 percent of people with primary ciliary dyskinesia have a mirror-image reversal of their internal organs (situs inversus totalis). For example, in these individuals the heart is on the right side of the body instead of on the left. Situs inversus totalis does not cause any apparent health problems. When someone with primary ciliary dyskinesia has situs inversus totalis, they are often said to have Kartagener syndrome.

Primary ciliary dyskinesia can also lead to infertility. Vigorous movements of the flagella are necessary to propel the sperm cells forward to the female egg cell. Because their sperm do not move properly, males with primary ciliary dyskinesia are usually unable to father children. Infertility occurs in some affected females and is likely due to abnormal cilia in the fallopian tubes.

Another feature of primary ciliary dyskinesia is recurrent ear infections (otitis media), especially in young children. Otitis media can lead to permanent hearing loss if untreated. The ear infections are likely related to abnormal cilia within the inner ear.

Rarely, individuals with primary ciliary dyskinesia have an accumulation of fluid in the brain (hydrocephalus), likely due to abnormal cilia in the brain. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
338258
Concept ID:
C1847554
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Primary ciliary dyskinesia 22

Primary ciliary dyskinesia-22 (CILD22) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by defective structure and function of cilia or flagella. Ciliary dysfunction causes respiratory distress in term neonates, impaired mucociliary clearance, chronic cough, sinusitis, bronchiectasis, and male infertility. Defective motility of embryonic nodal cilia leads to situs abnormalities in about 50% of patients. CILD22 is characterized by defects of the inner and outer dynein arms (summary by Zariwala et al., 2013). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see CILD1 (244400). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
815873
Concept ID:
C3809543
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Primary ciliary dyskinesia 25

Primary ciliary dyskinesia-25 is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by defective ciliary movement. Affected individuals have recurrent upper and lower airway disease, bronchiectasis, and decreased fertility. About half of patients show laterality defects, including situs inversus totalis. Respiratory cilia from patients show defects in the inner and outer dynein arms (summary by Tarkar et al., 2013). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see 244400. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
815971
Concept ID:
C3809641
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Primary ciliary dyskinesia 24

Primary ciliary dyskinesia-24 is an autosomal recessive disorder resulting from defects of motile cilia. It is characterized clinically by sinopulmonary infection and subfertility; situs inversus is not observed. Ultrastructural examination of mutant cilia shows defects of the central microtubule complex and radial spokes (summary by Kott et al., 2013). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see 244400. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
815964
Concept ID:
C3809634
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Primary ciliary dyskinesia 29

Primary ciliary dyskinesia-29 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by early childhood onset of recurrent respiratory infections due to defective mucociliary clearance. Patients do not have situs inversus (summary by Wallmeier et al., 2014). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see 244400. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
862971
Concept ID:
C4014534
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Primary ciliary dyskinesia 26

Primary ciliary dyskinesia-26 is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by defective ciliary movement. Affected individuals have neonatal respiratory distress, recurrent upper and lower airway disease, and bronchiectasis. About half of patients show laterality defects, including situs inversus totalis. Respiratory cilia from patients show defects in the inner and outer dynein arms (summary by Austin-Tse et al., 2013). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see 244400. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
816014
Concept ID:
C3809684
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Testosterone 17-beta-dehydrogenase deficiency

HSD17B3 deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder that manifests, in males, as undermasculinization characterized by hypoplastic-to-normal internal genitalia (epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, and ejaculatory ducts) but female external genitalia and the absence of a prostate. This phenotype is caused by inadequate testicular synthesis of testosterone, which, in turn, results in insufficient formation of dihydrotestosterone in the anlage of the external genitalia and prostate during fetal development. At the expected time of puberty, there is a marked increase in plasma leuteinizing hormone and, consequently, in testicular secretion of androstenedione. Hence, a diagnostic hallmark of this disorder is a decreased plasma testosterone-to-androstenedione ratio. Significant amounts of the circulating androstenedione are, however, converted to testosterone, in peripheral tissues, thereby causing virilization (summary by Lindqvist et al., 2001). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
120626
Concept ID:
C0268296
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 24 without anosmia

Congenital idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) is a disorder characterized by absent or incomplete sexual maturation by the age of 18 years, in conjunction with low levels of circulating gonadotropins and testosterone and no other abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism can be caused by an isolated defect in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GNRH; 152760) release, action, or both. Other associated nonreproductive phenotypes, such as anosmia, cleft palate, and sensorineural hearing loss, occur with variable frequency. In the presence of anosmia, idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism has been called 'Kallmann syndrome (KS),' whereas in the presence of a normal sense of smell, it has been termed 'normosmic idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (nIHH)' (summary by Raivio et al., 2007). Because families have been found to segregate both KS and nIHH, the disorder is here referred to as 'hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with or without anosmia (HH).' For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with or without anosmia, see 147950. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1806136
Concept ID:
C5574957
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Primary ciliary dyskinesia 32

Primary ciliary dyskinesia-32 is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by defective structure and function of cilia. Ciliary dysfunction causes respiratory distress in term neonates, impaired mucociliary clearance, chronic respiratory infections, bronchiectasis, and infertility. The ciliary defect affects the central pair complex and radial spokes of the 9+2 motile cilia; affected individuals do not have situs abnormalities (summary by Jeanson et al., 2015). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see CILD1 (244400). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
896106
Concept ID:
C4225311
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Glucocorticoid resistance

Generalized glucocorticoid resistance is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by increased plasma cortisol concentration and high urinary free cortisol, resistance to adrenal suppression by dexamethasone, and the absence of clinical stigmata of Cushing syndrome. The clinical expression of the disease is variable. Common features include hypoglycemia, hypertension, and metabolic alkalosis. In females, overproduction of adrenal androgens has been associated with infertility, male-pattern baldness, hirsutism, and menstrual irregularities. Other features include chronic fatigue and profound anxiety (summary by Chrousos et al., 1983; Donner et al., 2013). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
333960
Concept ID:
C1841972
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Isolated prolactin deficiency

A reduced level of prolactin in the blood circulation. Prolactin is a protein hormone that is secreted by lactotrophs in the anterior pituitary and that stimulates mammary gland development and milk production. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
75758
Concept ID:
C0271586
Finding
19.

46,XX sex reversal 2

Nonsyndromic 46,XX testicular disorders/differences of sex development (DSD) are characterized by: the presence of a 46,XX karyotype; external genitalia ranging from typical male to ambiguous; two testicles; azoospermia; absence of müllerian structures; and absence of other syndromic features, such as congenital anomalies outside of the genitourinary system, learning disorders / cognitive impairment, or behavioral issues. Approximately 85% of individuals with nonsyndromic 46,XX testicular DSD present after puberty with normal pubic hair and normal penile size but small testes, gynecomastia, and sterility resulting from azoospermia. Approximately 15% of individuals with nonsyndromic 46,XX testicular DSD present at birth with ambiguous genitalia. Gender role and gender identity are reported as male. If untreated, males with 46,XX testicular DSD experience the consequences of testosterone deficiency. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
411414
Concept ID:
C2749215
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Ciliary dyskinesia, primary, 38

Primary ciliary dyskinesia-38 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by chronic airway disease and recurrent sinopulmonary infections beginning in infancy and caused by defective ciliary function. Affected individuals often have neonatal respiratory distress and may later have infertility. About half of patients have laterality defects due to ciliary dysfunction in early embryonic development (summary by Fassad et al., 2018 and Hoben et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary ciliary dyskinesia, see CILD1 (244400). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1648465
Concept ID:
C4748052
Disease or Syndrome
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