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Items: 6

1.

Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy

PLA2G6-associated neurodegeneration (PLAN) comprises a continuum of three phenotypes with overlapping clinical and radiologic features: Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD). Atypical neuroaxonal dystrophy (atypical NAD). PLA2G6-related dystonia-parkinsonism. INAD usually begins between ages six months and three years with psychomotor regression or delay, hypotonia, and progressive spastic tetraparesis. Many affected children never learn to walk or lose the ability shortly after attaining it. Strabismus, nystagmus, and optic atrophy are common. Disease progression is rapid, resulting in severe spasticity, progressive cognitive decline, and visual impairment. Many affected children do not survive beyond their first decade. Atypical NAD shows more phenotypic variability than INAD. In general, onset is in early childhood but can be as late as the end of the second decade. The presenting signs may be gait instability, ataxia, or speech delay and autistic features, which are sometimes the only evidence of disease for a year or more. Strabismus, nystagmus, and optic atrophy are common. Neuropsychiatric disturbances including impulsivity, poor attention span, hyperactivity, and emotional lability are also common. The course is fairly stable during early childhood and resembles static encephalopathy but is followed by neurologic deterioration between ages seven and 12 years. PLA2G6-related dystonia-parkinsonism has a variable age of onset, but most individuals present in early adulthood with gait disturbance or neuropsychiatric changes. Affected individuals consistently develop dystonia and parkinsonism (which may be accompanied by rapid cognitive decline) in their late teens to early twenties. Dystonia is most common in the hands and feet but may be more generalized. The most common features of parkinsonism in these individuals are bradykinesia, resting tremor, rigidity, and postural instability. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
82852
Concept ID:
C0270724
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation 5

Beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration (BPAN) is typically characterized by early-onset seizures, infantile-onset developmental delay, intellectual disability, absent-to-limited expressive language, motor dysfunction (ataxia), and abnormal behaviors often similar to autism spectrum disorder. Seizure types including generalized (absence, tonic, atonic, tonic-clonic and myoclonic), focal with impaired consciousness, and epileptic spasms, as well as epileptic syndromes (West syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome) can be seen. With age seizures tend to resolve or become less prominent, whereas cognitive decline and movement disorders (progressive parkinsonism and dystonia) emerge as characteristic findings. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
763887
Concept ID:
C3550973
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation 7

Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation-7 (NBIA7) is characterized by iron accumulation in the basal ganglia and manifests as a progressive extrapyramidal syndrome with dystonia, rigidity, and choreoathetosis. Severity and rate of progression are variable (Drecourt et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of NBIA, see NBIA1 (234200). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1647672
Concept ID:
C4693583
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation 8

Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation-8 (NBIA8) is characterized by iron accumulation in the basal ganglia and manifests as a progressive extrapyramidal syndrome with dystonia, rigidity, and choreoathetosis (Drecourt et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of NBIA, see NBIA1 (234200). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1645224
Concept ID:
C4693587
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Ferro-cerebro-cutaneous syndrome

A rare genetic metabolic liver disease with characteristics of progressive neurodegeneration, cutaneous abnormalities including varying degrees of ichthyosis or seborrheic dermatitis, and systemic iron overload. Patients manifest with infantile-onset seizures, encephalopathy, abnormal eye movements, axial hypotonia with peripheral hypertonia, brisk reflexes, cortical blindness and deafness, myoclonus and hepato/splenomegaly, as well as oral manifestations including microdontia, widely spaced and pointed teeth with delayed eruption and gingival overgrowth. [from SNOMEDCT_US]

MedGen UID:
1658844
Concept ID:
C4751570
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Iron accumulation in brain

An abnormal build up of iron (Fe) in brain tissue. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
866729
Concept ID:
C4021076
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