U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Format
Items per page

Send to:

Choose Destination

Search results

Items: 20

1.

Peutz-Jeghers syndrome

Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS) is characterized by the association of gastrointestinal (GI) polyposis, mucocutaneous pigmentation, and cancer predisposition. PJS-type hamartomatous polyps are most common in the small intestine (in order of prevalence: jejunum, ileum, and duodenum) but can also occur in the stomach, large bowel, and extraintestinal sites including the renal pelvis, bronchus, gall bladder, nasal passages, urinary bladder, and ureters. GI polyps can result in chronic bleeding, anemia, and recurrent obstruction and intussusception requiring repeated laparotomy and bowel resection. Mucocutaneous hyperpigmentation presents in childhood as dark blue to dark brown macules around the mouth, eyes, and nostrils, in the perianal area, and on the buccal mucosa. Hyperpigmented macules on the fingers are common. The macules may fade in puberty and adulthood. Recognition of the distinctive skin manifestations is important especially in individuals who have PJS as the result of a de novo pathogenic variant as these skin findings often predate GI signs and symptoms. Individuals with PJS are at increased risk for a wide variety of epithelial malignancies (colorectal, gastric, pancreatic, breast, and ovarian cancers). Females are at risk for sex cord tumors with annular tubules (SCTAT), a benign neoplasm of the ovaries, and adenoma malignum of the cervix, a rare aggressive cancer. Males occasionally develop large calcifying Sertoli cell tumors of the testes, which secrete estrogen and can lead to gynecomastia, advanced skeletal age, and ultimately short stature, if untreated. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
18404
Concept ID:
C0031269
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome

The WAS-related disorders, which include Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, X-linked thrombocytopenia (XLT), and X-linked congenital neutropenia (XLN), are a spectrum of disorders of hematopoietic cells, with predominant defects of platelets and lymphocytes caused by pathogenic variants in WAS. WAS-related disorders usually present in infancy. Affected males have thrombocytopenia with intermittent mucosal bleeding, bloody diarrhea, and intermittent or chronic petechiae and purpura; eczema; and recurrent bacterial and viral infections, particularly of the ear. At least 40% of those who survive the early complications develop one or more autoimmune conditions including hemolytic anemia, immune thrombocytopenic purpura, immune-mediated neutropenia, rheumatoid arthritis, vasculitis, and immune-mediated damage to the kidneys and liver. Individuals with a WAS-related disorder, particularly those who have been exposed to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), are at increased risk of developing lymphomas, which often occur in unusual, extranodal locations including the brain, lung, or gastrointestinal tract. Males with XLT have thrombocytopenia with small platelets; other complications of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, including eczema and immune dysfunction, are usually mild or absent. Males with XLN have congenital neutropenia, myeloid dysplasia, and lymphoid cell abnormalities. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
21921
Concept ID:
C0043194
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Celiac disease, susceptibility to, 1

Celiac disease is a systemic autoimmune disease that can be associated with gastrointestinal findings (diarrhea, malabsorption, abdominal pain and distension, bloating, vomiting, and weight loss) and/or highly variable non-gastrointestinal findings (dermatitis herpetiformis, chronic fatigue, joint pain/inflammation, iron deficiency anemia, migraines, depression, attention-deficit disorder, epilepsy, osteoporosis/osteopenia, infertility and/or recurrent fetal loss, vitamin deficiencies, short stature, failure to thrive, delayed puberty, dental enamel defects, and autoimmune disorders). Classic celiac disease, characterized by mild to severe gastrointestinal symptoms, is less common than non-classic celiac disease, characterized by absence of gastrointestinal symptoms. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
395227
Concept ID:
C1859310
Finding
4.

Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome type 1

Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS), caused by defective lymphocyte homeostasis, is characterized by the following: Non-malignant lymphoproliferation (lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly with or without hypersplenism) that often improves with age. Autoimmune disease, mostly directed toward blood cells. Lifelong increased risk for both Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. In ALPS-FAS (the most common and best-characterized type of ALPS, associated with heterozygous germline pathogenic variants in FAS), non-malignant lymphoproliferation typically manifests in the first years of life, inexplicably waxes and wanes, and then often decreases without treatment in the second decade of life; in many affected individuals, however, neither splenomegaly nor the overall expansion of lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood decreases. Although autoimmunity is often not present at the time of diagnosis or at the time of the most extensive lymphoproliferation, autoantibodies can be detected before autoimmune disease manifests clinically. In ALPS-FAS caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous (biallelic) pathogenic variants in FAS, severe lymphoproliferation occurs before, at, or shortly after birth, and usually results in death at an early age. ALPS-sFAS, resulting from somatic FAS pathogenic variants in selected cell populations, notably the alpha/beta double-negative T cells (a/ß-DNT cells), appears to be similar to ALPS-FAS resulting from heterozygous germline pathogenic variants in FAS, although lower incidence of splenectomy and lower lymphocyte counts have been reported in ALPS-sFAS and no cases of lymphoma have yet been published. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
231300
Concept ID:
C1328840
Disease or Syndrome
5.

X-linked erythropoietic protoporphyria

X-linked protoporphyria (XLP) is characterized in affected males by cutaneous photosensitivity (usually beginning in infancy or childhood) that results in tingling, burning, pain, and itching within minutes of sun/light exposure and may be accompanied by swelling and redness. Blistering lesions are uncommon. Pain, which may seem out of proportion to the visible skin lesions, may persist for hours or days after the initial phototoxic reaction. Photosensitivity is lifelong. Multiple episodes of acute photosensitivity may lead to chronic changes of sun-exposed skin (lichenification, leathery pseudovesicles, grooving around the lips) and loss of lunulae of the nails. An unknown proportion of individuals with XLP develop liver disease. Except for those with advanced liver disease, life expectancy is not reduced. The phenotype in heterozygous females ranges from asymptomatic to as severe as in affected males. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
394385
Concept ID:
C2677889
Disease or Syndrome
6.

ALG2-congenital disorder of glycosylation

Congenital disorder of glycosylation type Ii (CDG1I) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by neurologic involvement, including a convulsive syndrome of unknown origin, axial hypotonia, and mental and motor regression (summary by Papazoglu et al., 2021). For a general discussion of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
334618
Concept ID:
C1842836
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome type 2A

Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS), caused by defective lymphocyte homeostasis, is characterized by the following: Non-malignant lymphoproliferation (lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly with or without hypersplenism) that often improves with age. Autoimmune disease, mostly directed toward blood cells. Lifelong increased risk for both Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. In ALPS-FAS (the most common and best-characterized type of ALPS, associated with heterozygous germline pathogenic variants in FAS), non-malignant lymphoproliferation typically manifests in the first years of life, inexplicably waxes and wanes, and then often decreases without treatment in the second decade of life; in many affected individuals, however, neither splenomegaly nor the overall expansion of lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood decreases. Although autoimmunity is often not present at the time of diagnosis or at the time of the most extensive lymphoproliferation, autoantibodies can be detected before autoimmune disease manifests clinically. In ALPS-FAS caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous (biallelic) pathogenic variants in FAS, severe lymphoproliferation occurs before, at, or shortly after birth, and usually results in death at an early age. ALPS-sFAS, resulting from somatic FAS pathogenic variants in selected cell populations, notably the alpha/beta double-negative T cells (a/ß-DNT cells), appears to be similar to ALPS-FAS resulting from heterozygous germline pathogenic variants in FAS, although lower incidence of splenectomy and lower lymphocyte counts have been reported in ALPS-sFAS and no cases of lymphoma have yet been published. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
349065
Concept ID:
C1858968
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Ogden syndrome

Ogden syndrome (OGDNS) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by postnatal growth failure, severely delayed psychomotor development, variable dysmorphic features, and hypotonia. Many patients also have cardiac malformations or arrhythmias (summary by Popp et al., 2015). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
477078
Concept ID:
C3275447
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Congenital bile acid synthesis defect 5

Any congenital bile acid synthesis defect in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the ABCD3 gene. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
904751
Concept ID:
C4225390
Congenital Abnormality
10.

Protein-losing enteropathy

Complement hyperactivation, angiopathic thrombosis, and protein-losing enteropathy (CHAPLE) is characterized by abdominal pain and diarrhea, primary intestinal lymphangiectasia, hypoproteinemic edema, and malabsorption. Some patients also exhibit bowel inflammation, recurrent infections associated with hypogammaglobulinemia, and/or angiopathic thromboembolic disease. Patient T lymphocytes show increased complement activation, causing surface deposition of complement and generating soluble C5a (Ozen et al., 2017). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
19522
Concept ID:
C0033680
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Breath-holding Spells

The diagnosis of severe breath-holding spells (BHS) in childhood is based on a distinctive and stereotyped sequence of clinical events beginning with a provocation resulting in crying or emotional upset that leads to a noiseless state of expiration accompanied by color change and ultimately loss of consciousness and postural tone (Lombroso and Lerman, 1967; DiMario, 1992). Two clinical types are recognized based on the child's coloration (cyanotic or pallid) during these events. Most children experience the cyanotic type, although some experience mixed types. BHS is an involuntary, nonvolitional, reflexic, nonepileptic paroxysmal phenomenon of childhood. The episodes occur during full expiration despite its misnomer. Autonomic dysregulation has been hypothesized as an underlying mechanism that results in loss of consciousness (Hunt, 1990; DiMario and Burleson, 1993; Dimario et al., 1998). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
105400
Concept ID:
C0476287
Sign or Symptom
12.

Blue rubber bleb nevus

A rare vascular malformation disorder with cutaneous and visceral lesions frequently associated with serious, potentially fatal bleeding and anemia. [from ORDO]

MedGen UID:
83401
Concept ID:
C0346072
Congenital Abnormality
13.

Polyglandular autoimmune syndrome, type 2

Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type II (APS2), or Schmidt syndrome, is characterized by the presence of autoimmune Addison disease in association with either autoimmune thyroid disease or type I diabetes mellitus, or both. Chronic candidiasis is not present. APS2 may occur at any age and in both sexes, but is most common in middle-aged females and is very rare in childhood (summary by Betterle et al., 2004). See 240300 for a phenotypic description of autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type I (APS1). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
39126
Concept ID:
C0085860
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Cytosolic phospholipase-A2 alpha deficiency associated bleeding disorder

Recurrent gastrointestinal ulceration with dysfunctional platelets (GURDP) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by onset of severe gastrointestinal mucosal ulceration in early childhood. Affected individuals may have secondary iron deficiency anemia or malnourishment. Studies of platelet aggregation show a functional defect associated with decreased thromboxane-A2 production and decreased eicosanoid biosynthesis. The gastrointestinal disease is believed to result from decreased or absent production of prostaglandins that protect the gut mucosa (summary by Adler et al., 2008 and Faioni et al., 2014). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1799074
Concept ID:
C5567651
Disease or Syndrome
15.

DEGCAGS syndrome

DEGCAGS syndrome is an autosomal recessive syndromic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay, coarse and dysmorphic facial features, and poor growth and feeding apparent from infancy. Affected individuals have variable systemic manifestations often with significant structural defects of the cardiovascular, genitourinary, gastrointestinal, and/or skeletal systems. Additional features may include sensorineural hearing loss, hypotonia, anemia or pancytopenia, and immunodeficiency with recurrent infections. Death in childhood may occur (summary by Bertoli-Avella et al., 2021). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1794177
Concept ID:
C5561967
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Protoporphyria, erythropoietic, 2

Erythropoietic porphyria-2 is an autosomal dominant metabolic disorder of heme biosynthesis, resulting in abnormal accumulation of the heme biosynthesis intermediate protoporphyrin IX (PPIX). Affected individuals may have photosensitivity (summary by Yien et al., 2017) For discussion of genetic heterogeneity of EPP, see EPP1 (177000). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1645733
Concept ID:
C4693947
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Congenital disorder of glycosylation, type iit

Congenital disorder of glycosylation type IIt (CDG2t) is an autosomal recessive multisystemic metabolic disorder characterized by global developmental delay, poor overall growth, severely impaired intellectual development with absent language, and behavioral abnormalities. Most patients develop early-onset seizures; brain imaging tends to show white matter abnormalities. Variable dysmorphic features, including long face, almond-shaped eyes, protruding maxilla, and short philtrum, are also present. The disorder, which is associated with low levels of HDL cholesterol, results from defective posttranslational O-linked glycosylation of certain plasma lipids and proteins (summary by Zilmer et al., 2020). For an overview of congenital disorders of glycosylation, see CDG1A (212065) and CDG2A (212066). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1709627
Concept ID:
C5394387
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis

Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis is a respiratory disease due to repeated episodes of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage without any underlying apparent cause, most often in children. Anemia, cough, and pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiographs are found in majority of the patients. [from ORDO]

MedGen UID:
9403
Concept ID:
C0020807
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Autoinflammatory syndrome, familial, X-linked, Behcet-like 2

X-linked familial Behcet-like autoinflammatory syndrome-2 (AIFBL2) is an X-linked recessive disorder characterized by the onset of inflammatory symptoms in the first decade of life in male patients. Affected males often present with oral mucosal ulceration and skin inflammation. More variable features may include gastrointestinal ulceration, arthritis, recurrent fevers, and iron deficiency anemia. Laboratory studies are consistent with immune dysregulation manifest as increased inflammatory markers and variable immune cell abnormalities, such as decreased NK cells and low memory B cells. One patient presented with recurrent infections and immunodeficiency in addition to autoinflammation. The disorder results from a defect in ELF4, which normally acts as a negative regulator of inflammatory disease. Symptoms may respond to blockade of IL1 (see 147760) or TNFA (191160) (summary by Tyler et al., 2021 and Sun et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of AIFBL, see AIFBL1 (616744). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1808082
Concept ID:
C5575495
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Iron deficiency anemia

Anemia caused by low iron intake, inefficient iron absorption in the gastrointestinal tract, or chronic blood loss. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
57668
Concept ID:
C0162316
Disease or Syndrome
Format
Items per page

Send to:

Choose Destination

Supplemental Content

Find related data

Search details

See more...

Recent activity