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1.

Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia type 1

Autosomal dominant multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED) presents in early childhood, usually with pain in the hips and/or knees after exercise. Affected children complain of fatigue with long-distance walking. Waddling gait may be present. Adult height is either in the lower range of normal or mildly shortened. The limbs are relatively short in comparison to the trunk. Pain and joint deformity progress, resulting in early-onset osteoarthritis, particularly of the large weight-bearing joints. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
325376
Concept ID:
C1838280
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Spondyloperipheral dysplasia

Spondyloperipheral dysplasia is a disorder that impairs bone growth. This condition is characterized by flattened bones of the spine (platyspondyly) and unusually short fingers and toes (brachydactyly), with the exception of the first (big) toes. Other skeletal abnormalities associated with spondyloperipheral dysplasia include short stature, shortened long bones of the arms and legs, exaggerated curvature of the lower back (lordosis), and an inward- and upward-turning foot (clubfoot). Additionally, some affected individuals have nearsightedness (myopia), hearing loss, and intellectual disability. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
163223
Concept ID:
C0796173
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Namaqualand hip dysplasia

Mild spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia due to COL2A1 mutation with early-onset osteoarthritis is a type 2 collagen-related bone disorder characterized by precocious, generalized osteoarthritis (with onset as early as childhood) and mild, dysplastic spinal changes (flattening of vertebrae, irregular endplates and wedge-shaped deformities) resulting in a mildly short trunk. [from ORDO]

MedGen UID:
609409
Concept ID:
C0432214
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, Schmid type

Schmid metaphyseal chondrodysplasia (SMCD) is characterized by progressive short stature that develops by age two years. The clinical and radiographic features are usually not present at birth, but manifest in early childhood with short limbs, genu varum, and waddling gait. Facial features and head size are normal. Radiographs show metaphyseal irregularities of the long bones (e.g., splaying, flaring, cupping); shortening of the tubular bones; widened growth plates; coxa vara; and anterior cupping, sclerosis, and splaying of the ribs. Mild hand involvement often includes shortening of the tubular bones and metaphyseal cupping of the metacarpals and proximal phalanges. Platyspondyly and vertebral end-plate irregularities are less common. Hand and vertebral involvement can resolve with age. Early motor milestones may be delayed due to orthopedic complications. Intelligence is normal. Joint pain in the knees and hips is common and may limit physical activity. Adult height is typically more than 3.5 SD below the mean, although a wide spectrum that overlaps normal height has been reported. There are no extraskeletal manifestations. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
78550
Concept ID:
C0265289
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Epiphyseal dysplasia, multiple, 6

Autosomal dominant multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED) presents in early childhood, usually with pain in the hips and/or knees after exercise. Affected children complain of fatigue with long-distance walking. Waddling gait may be present. Adult height is either in the lower range of normal or mildly shortened. The limbs are relatively short in comparison to the trunk. Pain and joint deformity progress, resulting in early-onset osteoarthritis, particularly of the large weight-bearing joints. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
436517
Concept ID:
C2675767
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Spondyloenchondrodysplasia with immune dysregulation

Spondyloenchondrodysplasia with immune dysregulation (SPENCDI) is an immunoosseous dysplasia combining the typical metaphyseal and vertebral bone lesions of spondyloenchondrodysplasia (SPENCD) with immune dysfunction and neurologic involvement. The skeletal dysplasia is characterized by radiolucent and irregular spondylar and metaphyseal lesions that represent islands of chondroid tissue within bone. The vertebral bodies show dorsally accentuated platyspondyly with disturbance of ossification. Clinical abnormalities such as short stature, rhizomelic micromelia, increased lumbar lordosis, barrel chest, facial anomalies, and clumsy movements may be present (Menger et al., 1989). Central nervous system involvement includes spasticity, mental retardation, and cerebral calcifications, and immune dysregulation ranges from autoimmunity to immunodeficiency. Neurologic and autoimmune manifestations have been observed in different combinations within a single family, suggesting that this disorder may be defined by specific radiographic features but has remarkably pleiotropic manifestations (Renella et al., 2006). Briggs et al. (2016) also noted variability in skeletal, neurologic, and immune phenotypes, which was sometimes marked between members of the same family. Classification of the Enchondromatoses In their classification of the enchondromatoses, Spranger et al. (1978) called Ollier disease and Maffucci syndrome types I and II enchondromatosis, respectively; metachondromatosis (156250), type III; and spondyloenchondrodysplasia (SPENCD), also called spondyloenchondromatosis, type IV; enchondromatosis with irregular vertebral lesions, type V; and generalized enchondromatosis, type VI. Halal and Azouz (1991) added 3 tentative categories to the 6 in the classification of Spranger et al. (1978). Pansuriya et al. (2010) suggested a new classification of enchondromatosis (multiple enchondromas). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
375009
Concept ID:
C1842763
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia with congenital joint dislocations

CHST3-related skeletal dysplasia is characterized by short stature of prenatal onset, joint dislocations (knees, hips, radial heads), clubfeet, and limitation of range of motion that can involve all large joints. Kyphosis and occasionally scoliosis with slight shortening of the trunk develop in childhood. Minor heart valve dysplasia has been described in several persons. Intellect and vision are normal. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
373381
Concept ID:
C1837657
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, spondylocheirodysplastic type

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome spondylodysplastic type 3 (EDSSPD3) is characterized by short stature, hyperelastic skin and hypermobile joints, protuberant eyes with bluish sclerae, finely wrinkled palms, and characteristic radiologic features (Giunta et al., 2008). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of the spondylodysplastic type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, see 130070. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
393515
Concept ID:
C2676510
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata type 2

Rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata (RCDP) is a peroxisomal disorder characterized by disproportionately short stature primarily affecting the proximal parts of the extremities, a typical facial appearance including a broad nasal bridge, epicanthus, high-arched palate, dysplastic external ears, and micrognathia, congenital contractures, characteristic ocular involvement, dwarfism, and severe mental retardation with spasticity. Biochemically, plasmalogen synthesis and phytanic acid alpha-oxidation are defective. Most patients die in the first decade of life. RCDP1 (215100) is the most frequent form of RCDP (summary by Wanders and Waterham, 2005). Whereas RCDP1 is a peroxisomal biogenesis disorder (PBD), RCDP2 is classified as a single peroxisome enzyme deficiency (Waterham and Ebberink, 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of rhizomelic chondrodysplasia punctata, see 215100. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
341734
Concept ID:
C1857242
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Geroderma osteodysplastica

Geroderma osteodysplasticum (GO) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by skin wrinkling limited to the dorsa of hands and feet and to the abdomen, bowed long bones, and osteopenia with frequent fractures. There is a distinctive facial appearance with droopy skin at the cheeks, maxillary hypoplasia, and large ears. Adult patients appear prematurely aged (summary by Rajab et al., 2008). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
98149
Concept ID:
C0432255
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia with metatarsal shortening

Czech dysplasia is an autosomal dominant skeletal dysplasia characterized by early-onset, progressive pseudorheumatoid arthritis, platyspondyly, and short third and fourth toes (Marik et al., 2004; Kozlowski et al., 2004). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
324580
Concept ID:
C1836683
Congenital Abnormality
12.

Wolcott-Rallison dysplasia

Wolcott-Rallison syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by permanent neonatal or early infancy insulin-dependent diabetes. Epiphyseal dysplasia, osteoporosis, and growth retardation develop at a later age. Other frequent multisystem manifestations include hepatic and renal dysfunction, mental retardation, and cardiovascular abnormalities (summary by Delepine et al., 2000). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
140926
Concept ID:
C0432217
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with joint laxity, type 1, with or without fractures

Any spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with joint laxity in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the B3GALT6 gene. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
865814
Concept ID:
C4017377
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Primrose syndrome

Primrose syndrome is characterized by macrocephaly, hypotonia, developmental delay, intellectual disability with expressive speech delay, behavioral issues, a recognizable facial phenotype, radiographic features, and altered glucose metabolism. Additional features seen in adults: sparse body hair, distal muscle wasting, and contractures. Characteristic craniofacial features include brachycephaly, high anterior hairline, deeply set eyes, ptosis, downslanted palpebral fissures, high palate with torus palatinus, broad jaw, and large ears with small or absent lobes. Radiographic features include calcification of the external ear cartilage, multiple Wormian bones, platybasia, bathrocephaly, slender bones with exaggerated metaphyseal flaring, mild epiphyseal dysplasia, and spondylar dysplasia. Additional features include hearing impairment, ocular anomalies, cryptorchidism, and nonspecific findings on brain MRI. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
162911
Concept ID:
C0796121
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Roifman syndrome

Roifman syndrome is a multisystem disorder characterized by growth retardation, spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, retinal dystrophy, distinctive facial dysmorphism, and immunodeficiency (summary by de Vries et al., 2006). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
375801
Concept ID:
C1846059
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with multiple dislocations

Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with joint laxity type 2 (SEMDJL2) is characterized by short stature, distinctive midface retrusion, progressive knee malalignment (genu valgum and/or varum), generalized ligamentous laxity, and mild spinal deformity. Intellectual development is not impaired. Radiographic characteristics include significantly retarded epiphyseal ossification that evolves into epiphyseal dysplasia and precocious osteoarthritis, metaphyseal irregularities and vertical striations, constricted femoral neck, slender metacarpals and metatarsals, and mild thoracolumbar kyphosis or scoliosis with normal or mild platyspondyly (summary by Min et al., 2011). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of SEMD with joint laxity, see SEMDJL1 (271640). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
350960
Concept ID:
C1863732
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, PAPSS2 type

This form of brachyolmia, here designated brachyolmia type 4, is characterized by short-trunk stature with normal intelligence and facies. The radiographic features include rectangular vertebral bodies with irregular endplates and narrow intervertebral discs, precocious calcification of rib cartilages, short femoral neck, mildly shortened metacarpals, and mild epiphyseal and metaphyseal changes of the tubular bones (summary by Miyake et al., 2012). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
411234
Concept ID:
C2748515
Congenital Abnormality
18.

Microcephalic osteodysplastic dysplasia, Saul-Wilson type

Saul-Wilson syndrome (SWS) is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by profound short stature, distinctive craniofacial features, short distal phalanges of fingers and toes, and often clubfoot. Early development (primarily speech and motor) is delayed; cognition is normal. Other findings can include hearing loss (conductive, sensorineural, and mixed), lamellar cataracts, and/or rod-cone retinal dystrophy. To date, 16 affected individuals have been reported. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
722057
Concept ID:
C1300285
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with joint laxity, type 3

Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with joint laxity-3 (SEMDJL3) is characterized by multiple joint dislocations at birth, severe joint laxity, scoliosis, gracile metacarpals and metatarsals, delayed bone age, and poorly ossified carpal and tarsal bones (Girisha et al., 2016). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of SEMD with joint laxity, see SEMDJL1 (271640). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1677378
Concept ID:
C5193073
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, Genevieve type

Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia of the Genevieve type (SEMDG) is characterized by infantile-onset severe developmental delay and skeletal dysplasia, including short stature, premature carpal ossification, platyspondyly, longitudinal metaphyseal striations, and small epiphyses (summary by van Karnebeek et al., 2016). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
355314
Concept ID:
C1864872
Disease or Syndrome
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