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1.

Pituitary hormone deficiency, combined, 2

PROP1-related combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD) is associated with deficiencies of: growth hormone (GH); thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH); the two gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH); prolactin (PrL); and occasionally adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). At birth, in contrast to individuals with congenital CPHD of other etiologies, neonates with PROP1-related CPHD lack perinatal signs of hypopituitarism. Mean birth weights and lengths are usually within the normal range and neonatal hypoglycemia and prolonged neonatal jaundice are not prevalent findings. Most affected individuals are ascertained because of short stature during childhood. Although TSH deficiency can present shortly after birth, TSH deficiency usually occurs with or after the onset of GH deficiency. Hypothyroidism is usually mild. FSH and LH deficiencies are typically identified at the age of onset of puberty. Affected individuals can have absent or delayed and incomplete secondary sexual development with infertility. Untreated males usually have a small penis and small testes. Some females experience menarche but subsequently require hormone replacement therapy. ACTH deficiency is less common and, when present, usually occurs in adolescence or adulthood. Neuroimaging of hypothalamic-pituitary region usually demonstrates a hypoplastic or normal anterior pituitary lobe and a normal posterior pituitary lobe. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
209236
Concept ID:
C0878683
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Pituitary hormone deficiency, combined, 1

Combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD) in man denotes impaired production of growth hormone (GH; 139250) and one or more of the other 5 anterior pituitary hormones. Mutations of the POU1F1 gene in the human and Pit1 in the mouse are responsible for pleiotropic deficiencies of GH, prolactin (PRL; 176760), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH; see 188540), while the production of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH; see 176830), luteinizing hormone (LH; 152780), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH; 136530) are preserved (Wu et al., 1998). Some patients exhibit only GH deficiency, although approximately 50% of isolated GH deficiency progresses to CPHD (Gergics et al., 2021). In infancy severe growth deficiency from birth as well as distinctive facial features with prominent forehead, marked midfacial hypoplasia with depressed nasal bridge, deep-set eyes, and a short nose with anteverted nostrils and hypoplastic pituitary gland by MRI examination can be seen (Aarskog et al., 1997). Some cases present with severe mental retardation along with short stature (Radovick et al., 1992). Reviews Voss and Rosenfeld (1992) reviewed the development and differentiation of the 5 pituitary cell types: galactotropes, gonadotropes, corticotropes, thyrotropes, and somatotropes. As indicated by the mutations in PIT1 described later, combined pituitary hormone deficiency can have either autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive inheritance, depending on the part of the PIT1 molecule affected by the mutation. Some mutations have a dominant-negative effect. Genetic Heterogeneity of Combined Pituitary Hormone Deficiency CPHD2 (262600), associated with hypogonadism, is caused by mutation in the PROP1 gene (601538). CPHD3 (221750), which is associated with rigid cervical spine and variable sensorineural deafness, is caused by mutation in the LHX3 gene (600577). CPHD4 (262700) is caused by mutation in the LHX4 gene (602146). CPHD5 (see septooptic dysplasia, 182230) is caused by mutation in the HESX1 gene (601802). CPHD6 (613986) is caused by mutation in the OTX2 gene (600037). CPHD7 (618160) is caused by mutation in the RNPC3 gene (618016). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
414421
Concept ID:
C2751608
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Orthostatic hypotension 1

Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) deficiency is characterized by lack of sympathetic noradrenergic function but normal parasympathetic and sympathetic cholinergic function. Affected individuals exhibit profound deficits in autonomic regulation of cardiovascular function that predispose to orthostatic hypotension. Although DBH deficiency appears to be present from birth, the diagnosis is not generally recognized until late childhood. The combination of ptosis of the eyelids in infants and children, together with hypotension, is suggestive of the disease. In the perinatal period, DBH deficiency has been complicated by vomiting, dehydration, hypotension, hypothermia, and hypoglycemia requiring repeated hospitalization; children have reduced exercise capacity. By early adulthood, individuals have profound orthostatic hypotension, greatly reduced exercise tolerance, ptosis of the eyelids, and nasal stuffiness. Presyncopal symptoms include dizziness, blurred vision, dyspnea, nuchal discomfort, and chest pain; symptoms may worsen in hot environments or after heavy meals or alcohol ingestion. Life expectancy is unknown, but some affected individuals have lived beyond age 60 years. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1648402
Concept ID:
C4746777
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Trichomegaly-retina pigmentary degeneration-dwarfism syndrome

PNPLA6 disorders span a phenotypic continuum characterized by variable combinations of cerebellar ataxia; upper motor neuron involvement manifesting as spasticity and/or brisk reflexes; chorioretinal dystrophy associated with variable degrees of reduced visual function; and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (delayed puberty and lack of secondary sex characteristics). The hypogonadotropic hypogonadism occurs either in isolation or as part of anterior hypopituitarism (growth hormone, thyroid hormone, or gonadotropin deficiencies). Common but less frequent features are peripheral neuropathy (usually of axonal type manifesting as reduced distal reflexes, diminished vibratory sensation, and/or distal muscle wasting); hair anomalies (long eyelashes, bushy eyebrows, or scalp alopecia); short stature; and impaired cognitive functioning (learning disabilities in children; deficits in attention, visuospatial abilities, and recall in adults). Some of these features can occur in distinct clusters on the phenotypic continuum: Boucher-Neuhäuser syndrome (cerebellar ataxia, chorioretinal dystrophy, and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism); Gordon Holmes syndrome (cerebellar ataxia, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and – to a variable degree – brisk reflexes); Oliver-McFarlane syndrome (trichomegaly, chorioretinal dystrophy, short stature, intellectual disability, and hypopituitarism); Laurence-Moon syndrome; and spastic paraplegia type 39 (SPG39) (upper motor neuron involvement, peripheral neuropathy, and sometimes reduced cognitive functioning and/or cerebellar ataxia). [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
338532
Concept ID:
C1848745
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Isolated prolactin deficiency

A reduced level of prolactin in the blood circulation. Prolactin is a protein hormone that is secreted by lactotrophs in the anterior pituitary and that stimulates mammary gland development and milk production. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
75758
Concept ID:
C0271586
Finding
6.

X-linked central congenital hypothyroidism with late-onset testicular enlargement

Central hypothyroidism and testicular enlargement (CHTE) is characterized by central hypothyroidism, delayed pubertal testosterone rise, adult macroorchidism, variable prolactin deficiency, and occasional transient partial GH deficiency. Some carrier females also exhibit central hypothyroidism and mild prolactin deficiency. Inter- and intrafamilial variability has been observed (summary by Joustra et al., 2016). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
763877
Concept ID:
C3550963
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Prolactin deficiency with obesity and enlarged testes

MedGen UID:
341515
Concept ID:
C1849698
Disease or Syndrome
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