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Items: 8

1.

Retinoblastoma

Retinoblastoma is a malignant tumor of the developing retina that occurs in children, usually before age five years. Retinoblastoma develops from cells that have cancer-predisposing variants in both copies of RB1. Retinoblastoma may be unifocal or multifocal. About 60% of affected individuals have unilateral retinoblastoma with a mean age of diagnosis of 24 months; about 40% have bilateral retinoblastoma with a mean age of diagnosis of 15 months. Heritable retinoblastoma is an autosomal dominant susceptibility for retinoblastoma. Individuals with heritable retinoblastoma are also at increased risk of developing non-ocular tumors. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
20552
Concept ID:
C0035335
Neoplastic Process
2.

Atrophia bulborum hereditaria

Norrie disease is an X-linked recessive disorder characterized by very early childhood blindness due to degenerative and proliferative changes of the neuroretina. Approximately 50% of patients show some form of progressive mental disorder, often with psychotic features, and about one-third of patients develop sensorineural deafness in the second decade. In addition, some patients have more complex phenotypes, including growth failure and seizures (Berger et al., 1992). Warburg (1966) noted confusion of the terms 'pseudoglioma' and microphthalmia with Norrie disease in the literature. 'Pseudoglioma' is a nonspecific term for any condition resembling retinoblastoma and can have diverse causes, including inflammation, hemorrhage, trauma, neoplasia, or congenital malformation, and often shows unilateral involvement. Thus, 'pseudoglioma' is not an acceptable clinical or pathologic diagnosis (Duke-Elder, 1958). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
75615
Concept ID:
C0266526
Congenital Abnormality
3.

Revesz syndrome

Dyskeratosis congenita and related telomere biology disorders (DC/TBD) are caused by impaired telomere maintenance resulting in short or very short telomeres. The phenotypic spectrum of telomere biology disorders is broad and includes individuals with classic dyskeratosis congenita (DC) as well as those with very short telomeres and an isolated physical finding. Classic DC is characterized by a triad of dysplastic nails, lacy reticular pigmentation of the upper chest and/or neck, and oral leukoplakia, although this may not be present in all individuals. People with DC/TBD are at increased risk for progressive bone marrow failure (BMF), myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myelogenous leukemia, solid tumors (usually squamous cell carcinoma of the head/neck or anogenital cancer), and pulmonary fibrosis. Other findings can include eye abnormalities (epiphora, blepharitis, sparse eyelashes, ectropion, entropion, trichiasis), taurodontism, liver disease, gastrointestinal telangiectasias, and avascular necrosis of the hips or shoulders. Although most persons with DC/TBD have normal psychomotor development and normal neurologic function, significant developmental delay is present in both forms; additional findings include cerebellar hypoplasia (Hoyeraal Hreidarsson syndrome) and bilateral exudative retinopathy and intracranial calcifications (Revesz syndrome and Coats plus syndrome). Onset and progression of manifestations of DC/TBD vary: at the mild end of the spectrum are those who have only minimal physical findings with normal bone marrow function, and at the severe end are those who have the diagnostic triad and early-onset BMF. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
231230
Concept ID:
C1327916
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous, autosomal recessive

Persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous (PHPV), also termed 'persistent fetal vasculature,' is a developmental malformation of the eye in which the primary vitreous fails to regress in utero, resulting in the presence of a retrolental fibrovascular membrane with persistence of the posterior portion of the tunica vasculosa lentis and hyaloid artery. This abnormality is usually unilateral and associated with microphthalmia, cataract, glaucoma, and congenital retinal nonattachment (see Haddad et al., 1978; Khaliq et al., 2001; Prasov et al., 2012). PHPV shares phenotypic overlap with Norrie disease (310600). Genetic Heterogeneity of Persistent Hyperplastic Primary Vitreous A dominant form of PHPV has been described (PHPVAD; 611308). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
370100
Concept ID:
C1969783
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Congenital livedo reticularis

Isolated and classic cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita (CMTC) are characterized by congenital skin changes including erythematous-to-violaceous, reticulated, net-like or marbled-appearing patches of skin that do not mostly or completely resolve with warming or any other acute intervention. Individuals with isolated CMTC have no other syndromic features, and skin lesions tend to fade or resolve. Those with classic CMTC may have accompanying hemihypoplasia with body asymmetry, skin atrophy or ulceration, other vascular malformations, and occasional ocular issues (early-onset glaucoma and/or peripheral retinal vascular attenuation) but do not have other malformations, dysmorphic features, or cognitive impairment. The most common location for the CMTC lesions is on the legs. An affected limb may also display weakness or be unusually susceptible to cold compared to an unaffected limb. In more than half of affected individuals, skin lesions will generally fade across a wide range in age (6 weeks to 26 years), most commonly in the first year of life, but may not resolve completely. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
83381
Concept ID:
C0345419
Congenital Abnormality
6.

Exudative retinopathy

Coats disease (CD) is an idiopathic disorder characterized by retinal telangiectasia with deposition of intraretinal or subretinal exudates, potentially leading to retinal detachment and unilateral blindness. CD is classically an isolated and unilateral condition affecting otherwise healthy young children. [from ORDO]

MedGen UID:
102319
Concept ID:
C0154832
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Oculo-palato-cerebral syndrome

Oculopalatocerebral syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by low birth weight, microcephaly, persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous, microphthalmia, large ears, small hands and feet, cleft palate, joint hypermobility, developmental delay, and cerebral atrophy (summary by Pellegrino et al., 2001). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
338025
Concept ID:
C1850338
Congenital Abnormality; Disease or Syndrome
8.

Leukocoria

An abnormal white reflection from the pupil rather than the usual black reflection. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
57540
Concept ID:
C0152458
Disease or Syndrome
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