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1.

Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy (congenital with brain and eye anomalies), type A, 4

Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD) is characterized by hypotonia, symmetric generalized muscle weakness, and CNS migration disturbances that result in changes consistent with cobblestone lissencephaly with cerebral and cerebellar cortical dysplasia. Mild, typical, and severe phenotypes are recognized. Onset typically occurs in early infancy with poor suck, weak cry, and floppiness. Affected individuals have contractures of the hips, knees, and interphalangeal joints. Later features include myopathic facial appearance, pseudohypertrophy of the calves and forearms, motor and speech delays, intellectual disability, seizures, ophthalmologic abnormalities including visual impairment and retinal dysplasia, and progressive cardiac involvement after age ten years. Swallowing disturbance occurs in individuals with severe FCMD and in individuals older than age ten years, leading to recurrent aspiration pneumonia and death. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
140820
Concept ID:
C0410174
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Miller Dieker syndrome

PAFAH1B1-related lissencephaly/subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) comprises a spectrum of severity. Affected newborns typically have mild-to-moderate hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and poor head control. During the first years, neurologic examination typically demonstrates poor visual tracking and response to sounds, axial hypotonia, and mild distal spasticity that can transition over time to more severe spasticity. Seizures occur in more than 90% of individuals with lissencephaly and often include infantile spasms. Seizures are often drug resistant, but even with good seizure control, the best developmental level achieved (excluding the few individuals with partial lissencephaly) is the equivalent of about age three to five months. In individuals with PAFAH1B1-related lissencephaly/SBH, developmental delay ranges from mild to severe. Other findings in PAFAH1B1-related lissencephaly/SBH include feeding issues and aspiration (which may result in need for gastrostomy tube placement), progressive microcephaly, and occasional developmental regression. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
78538
Concept ID:
C0265219
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Baraitser-Winter syndrome 1

Baraitser-Winter cerebrofrontofacial (BWCFF) syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by typical craniofacial features and intellectual disability. Many (but not all) affected individuals have pachygyria that is predominantly frontal, wasting of the shoulder girdle muscles, and sensory impairment due to iris or retinal coloboma and/or sensorineural deafness. Intellectual disability, which is common but variable, is related to the severity of the brain malformations. Seizures, congenital heart defects, renal malformations, and gastrointestinal dysfunction are also common. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
340943
Concept ID:
C1855722
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Lissencephaly due to LIS1 mutation

PAFAH1B1-related lissencephaly/subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) comprises a spectrum of severity. Affected newborns typically have mild-to-moderate hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and poor head control. During the first years, neurologic examination typically demonstrates poor visual tracking and response to sounds, axial hypotonia, and mild distal spasticity that can transition over time to more severe spasticity. Seizures occur in more than 90% of individuals with lissencephaly and often include infantile spasms. Seizures are often drug resistant, but even with good seizure control, the best developmental level achieved (excluding the few individuals with partial lissencephaly) is the equivalent of about age three to five months. In individuals with PAFAH1B1-related lissencephaly/SBH, developmental delay ranges from mild to severe. Other findings in PAFAH1B1-related lissencephaly/SBH include feeding issues and aspiration (which may result in need for gastrostomy tube placement), progressive microcephaly, and occasional developmental regression. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1657090
Concept ID:
C4749301
Congenital Abnormality
5.

Lissencephaly type 1 due to doublecortin gene mutation

DCX-related disorders include the neuronal migration disorders: Classic thick lissencephaly (more severe anteriorly), usually in males. Subcortical band heterotopia (SBH), primarily in females. Males with classic DCX-related lissencephaly typically have early and profound cognitive and language impairment, cerebral palsy, and epileptic seizures. The clinical phenotype in females with SBH varies widely with cognitive abilities that range from average or mild cognitive impairment to severe intellectual disability and language impairment. Seizures, which frequently are refractory to anti-seizure medication, may be either focal or generalized and behavioral problems may also be observed. In DCX-related lissencephaly and SBH the severity of the clinical manifestation correlates roughly with the degree of the underlying brain malformation as observed in cerebral imaging. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1644310
Concept ID:
C4551968
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Lissencephaly due to TUBA1A mutation

A congenital cortical development anomaly due to abnormal neuronal migration involving neocortical and hippocampal lamination, corpus callosum, cerebellum and brainstem. A large clinical spectrum can be observed, from children with severe epilepsy and intellectual and motor deficit to cases with severe cerebral dysgenesis in the antenatal period leading to pregnancy termination due to the severity of the prognosis. [from SNOMEDCT_US]

MedGen UID:
930822
Concept ID:
C4305153
Congenital Abnormality
7.

Baraitser-winter syndrome 2

Baraitser-Winter cerebrofrontofacial (BWCFF) syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by typical craniofacial features and intellectual disability. Many (but not all) affected individuals have pachygyria that is predominantly frontal, wasting of the shoulder girdle muscles, and sensory impairment due to iris or retinal coloboma and/or sensorineural deafness. Intellectual disability, which is common but variable, is related to the severity of the brain malformations. Seizures, congenital heart defects, renal malformations, and gastrointestinal dysfunction are also common. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
482865
Concept ID:
C3281235
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Norman-Roberts syndrome

Lissencephaly ('smooth brain') is a severe disorder of brain development in which neuronal migration is impaired, leading to a thickened cerebral cortex in which the normally folded contour is simplified and smooth. Lissencephaly-2 (LIS2) is associated with severe abnormalities of the cerebellum and hippocampus (summary by Hong et al., 2000). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of lissencephaly, see LIS1 (607432). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
163213
Concept ID:
C0796089
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Microcephaly 2, primary, autosomal recessive, with or without cortical malformations

In WDR62 primary microcephaly (WDR62-MCPH), microcephaly (occipitofrontal circumference [OFC] = -2 SD) is usually present at birth, but in some instances becomes evident later in the first year of life. Growth is otherwise normal. Except for brain malformations in most affected individuals, no other congenital malformations are observed. Central nervous system involvement can include delayed motor development, mild-to-severe intellectual disability (ID), behavior problems, epilepsy, spasticity, and ataxia. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
346929
Concept ID:
C1858535
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Neu-Laxova syndrome 1

Any Neu-Laxova syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the PHGDH gene. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
1633287
Concept ID:
C4551478
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Fumarase deficiency

Fumarate hydratase (FH) deficiency results in severe neonatal and early infantile encephalopathy that is characterized by poor feeding, failure to thrive, hypotonia, lethargy, and seizures. Dysmorphic facial features include frontal bossing, depressed nasal bridge, and widely spaced eyes. Many affected individuals are microcephalic. A spectrum of brain abnormalities are seen on magnetic resonance imaging, including cerebral atrophy, enlarged ventricles and generous extra-axial cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) spaces, delayed myelination for age, thinning of the corpus callosum, and an abnormally small brain stem. Brain malformations including bilateral polymicrogyria and absence of the corpus callosum can also be observed. Development is severely affected: most affected individuals are nonverbal and nonambulatory, and many die during early childhood. Less severely affected individuals with moderate cognitive impairment and long-term survival have been reported. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
87458
Concept ID:
C0342770
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Complex cortical dysplasia with other brain malformations 7

Complex cortical dysplasia with other brain malformations-7 is an autosomal dominant, clinically heterogeneous disorder showing a wide spectrum of abnormalities of cortical brain development. The most severely affected patients are fetuses with microlissencephaly, absence of the cortical plate, agenesis of the corpus callosum, and severely hypoplastic brainstem and cerebellum. Other patients have lissencephaly, polymicrogyria, cortical dysplasia, or neuronal heterotopia. Those with less severe malformations can survive, but usually have some degree of neurologic impairment, such as mental retardation, seizures, and movement abnormalities (summary by Chang et al., 2006; Fallet-Bianco et al., 2014). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CDCBM, see CDCBM1 (614039). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
765150
Concept ID:
C3552236
Disease or Syndrome
13.

X-linked lissencephaly with abnormal genitalia

X-linked lissencephaly-2 (LISX2) is a developmental disorder characterized by structural brain anomalies, early-onset intractable seizures, severe psychomotor retardation, and ambiguous genitalia. Males are severely affected and often die within the first days or months of life, whereas females may be unaffected or have a milder phenotype (Bonneau et al., 2002). LISX2 is part of a phenotypic spectrum of disorders caused by mutation in the ARX gene comprising a nearly continuous series of developmental disorders ranging from hydranencephaly and lissencephaly to Proud syndrome (300004) to infantile spasms without brain malformations (DEE1; 308350) to syndromic (309510) and nonsyndromic (300419) mental retardation (Kato et al., 2004; Wallerstein et al., 2008). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of lissencephaly, see LIS1 (607432). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
375832
Concept ID:
C1846171
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy (congenital with brain and eye anomalies), type A5

Congenital muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy with brain and eye anomalies (type A), which includes both the more severe Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) and the slightly less severe muscle-eye-brain disease (MEB), is an autosomal recessive disorder with characteristic brain and eye malformations, profound mental retardation, congenital muscular dystrophy, and death usually in the first years of life. It represents the most severe end of a phenotypic spectrum of similar disorders resulting from defective glycosylation of DAG1 (128239), collectively known as 'dystroglycanopathies' (Beltran-Valero de Bernabe et al., 2004). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy type A, see MDDGA1 (236670). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
461763
Concept ID:
C3150413
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Arthrogryposis, renal dysfunction, and cholestasis 1

Any arthrogryposis-renal dysfunction-cholestasis syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the VPS33B gene. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
347219
Concept ID:
C1859722
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy (congenital with brain and eye anomalies), type A, 7

Congenital muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy with brain and eye anomalies (type A), which includes both the more severe Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) and the slightly less severe muscle-eye-brain disease (MEB), is an autosomal recessive disorder with characteristic brain and eye malformations, profound mental retardation, congenital muscular dystrophy, and death usually in the first years of life. It represents the most severe end of a phenotypic spectrum of similar disorders resulting from defective glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan (DAG1; 128239), collectively known as 'dystroglycanopathies' (summary by Roscioli et al., 2012). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy type A, see MDDGA1 (236670). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
766244
Concept ID:
C3553330
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 11A (Zellweger)

Zellweger syndrome (ZS) is an autosomal recessive multiple congenital anomaly syndrome resulting from disordered peroxisome biogenesis. Affected children present in the newborn period with profound hypotonia, seizures, and inability to feed. Characteristic craniofacial anomalies, eye abnormalities, neuronal migration defects, hepatomegaly, and chondrodysplasia punctata are present. Children with this condition do not show any significant development and usually die in the first year of life (summary by Steinberg et al., 2006). For a complete phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Zellweger syndrome, see 214100. Individuals with PBDs of complementation group 13 (CG13, equivalent to CGH) have mutations in the PEX13 gene. For information on the history of PBD complementation groups, see 214100. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
766914
Concept ID:
C3554000
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Complex cortical dysplasia with other brain malformations 1

Complex cortical dysplasia with other brain malformations (CDCBM) is a disorder of aberrant neuronal migration and disturbed axonal guidance. Affected individuals have mild to severe mental retardation, strabismus, axial hypotonia, and spasticity. Brain imaging shows variable malformations of cortical development, including polymicrogyria, gyral disorganization, and fusion of the basal ganglia, as well as thin corpus callosum, hypoplastic brainstem, and dysplastic cerebellar vermis. Extraocular muscles are not involved (summary by Poirier et al., 2010). Genetic Heterogeneity of Complex Cortical Dysplasia with Other Brain Malformations See also CDCBM2 (615282), caused by mutation in the KIF5C gene (604593) on chromosome 2q23; CDCBM3 (615411), caused by mutation in the KIF2A gene (602591) on chromosome 5q12; CDCBM4 (615412), caused by mutation in the TUBG1 gene (191135) on chromosome 17q21; CDCBM5 (615763), caused by mutation in the TUBB2A gene (615101) on chromosome 6p25; CDCBM6 (615771), caused by mutation in the TUBB gene (191130) on chromosome 6p21; CDCBM7 (610031), caused by mutation in the TUBB2B gene (612850) on chromosome 6p25; CDCBM9 (618174), caused by mutation in the CTNNA2 gene (114025) on chromosome 2p12; CDCBM10 (618677), caused by mutation in the APC2 gene (612034) on chromosome 19p13; CDCBM11 (620156), caused by mutation in the KIF26A gene (613231) on chromosome 14q32; CDCBM12 (620316), caused by mutation in the CAMSAP1 gene (613774) on chromosome 9q34; CDCBM13 (614563), caused by mutation in the DYNC1H1 gene (600112) on chromosome 14q32; CDCBM14A (606854) and CDCBM14B (615752), caused by mutation in the ADGRG1 gene (604110) on chromosome 16q21; and CDCBM15 (618737), caused by mutation in the TUBGCP2 gene (617817) on chromosome 10q26. The designation CDCBM8 was previously used to represent a phenotype caused by mutation in the TUBA8 gene (see 605742.0001) on chromosome 22q11; the patients with this phenotype were subsequently found to have a homozygous mutation in the SNAP29 gene (604202.0002), also on chromosome 22q11, that may have been responsible for the disorder. The same mutation in SNAP29 causes a similar disorder, CEDNIK syndrome (609528). See also lissencephaly (e.g., LIS1, 607432), which shows overlapping features and may result from mutation in tubulin genes. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
814727
Concept ID:
C3808397
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Lissencephaly 4

Lissencephaly-4 (LIS4) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by lissencephaly, severe brain atrophy, extreme microcephaly (head circumference of more than 10 standard deviations (SD) below the mean), and profound mental retardation. It has also been referred to as 'microlissencephaly' (summary by Bakircioglu et al., 2011 and Alkuraya et al., 2011). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of lissencephaly, see LIS1 (607432). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
462811
Concept ID:
C3151461
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy (congenital with brain and eye anomalies), type a, 12

Congenital muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy with brain and eye anomalies (type A) is an autosomal recessive disorder with congenital muscular dystrophy resulting in muscle weakness early in life and brain and eye anomalies. It is usually associated with delayed psychomotor development and shortened life expectancy. The phenotype includes the alternative clinical designations Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) and muscle-eye-brain disease (MEB). The disorder represents the most severe end of a phenotypic spectrum of similar disorders resulting from defective glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan (DAG1; 128239), collectively known as dystroglycanopathies (summary by Stevens et al., 2013). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy type A, see MDDGA1 (236670). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
815294
Concept ID:
C3808964
Disease or Syndrome
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