U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Format
Items per page

Send to:

Choose Destination

Search results

Items: 1 to 20 of 97

1.

Duchenne muscular dystrophy

The dystrophinopathies cover a spectrum of X-linked muscle disease ranging from mild to severe that includes Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Becker muscular dystrophy, and DMD-associated dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The mild end of the spectrum includes the phenotypes of asymptomatic increase in serum concentration of creatine phosphokinase (CK) and muscle cramps with myoglobinuria. The severe end of the spectrum includes progressive muscle diseases that are classified as Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy when skeletal muscle is primarily affected and as DMD-associated DCM when the heart is primarily affected. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) usually presents in early childhood with delayed motor milestones including delays in walking independently and standing up from a supine position. Proximal weakness causes a waddling gait and difficulty climbing stairs, running, jumping, and standing up from a squatting position. DMD is rapidly progressive, with affected children being wheelchair dependent by age 12 years. Cardiomyopathy occurs in almost all individuals with DMD after age 18 years. Few survive beyond the third decade, with respiratory complications and progressive cardiomyopathy being common causes of death. Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) is characterized by later-onset skeletal muscle weakness. With improved diagnostic techniques, it has been recognized that the mild end of the spectrum includes men with onset of symptoms after age 30 years who remain ambulatory even into their 60s. Despite the milder skeletal muscle involvement, heart failure from DCM is a common cause of morbidity and the most common cause of death in BMD. Mean age of death is in the mid-40s. DMD-associated DCM is characterized by left ventricular dilation and congestive heart failure. Females heterozygous for a DMD pathogenic variant are at increased risk for DCM. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
3925
Concept ID:
C0013264
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Kugelberg-Welander disease

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is characterized by muscle weakness and atrophy resulting from progressive degeneration and irreversible loss of the anterior horn cells in the spinal cord (i.e., lower motor neurons) and the brain stem nuclei. The onset of weakness ranges from before birth to adulthood. The weakness is symmetric, proximal > distal, and progressive. Before the genetic basis of SMA was understood, it was classified into clinical subtypes based on maximum motor function achieved; however, it is now apparent that the phenotype of SMN1-associated SMA spans a continuum without clear delineation of subtypes. With supportive care only, poor weight gain with growth failure, restrictive lung disease, scoliosis, and joint contractures are common complications; however, newly available targeted treatment options are changing the natural history of this disease. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
101816
Concept ID:
C0152109
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Pigmentary pallidal degeneration

Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) is a type of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA). The phenotypic spectrum of PKAN includes classic PKAN and atypical PKAN. Classic PKAN is characterized by early-childhood onset of progressive dystonia, dysarthria, rigidity, and choreoathetosis. Pigmentary retinal degeneration is common. Atypical PKAN is characterized by later onset (age >10 years), prominent speech defects, psychiatric disturbances, and more gradual progression of disease. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
6708
Concept ID:
C0018523
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 6

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6) is characterized by adult-onset, slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia, dysarthria, and nystagmus. The age of onset ranges from 19 to 73 years; mean age of onset is between 43 and 52 years. Initial symptoms are gait unsteadiness, stumbling, and imbalance (in ~90%) and dysarthria (in ~10%). Eventually all persons have gait ataxia, upper-limb incoordination, intention tremor, and dysarthria. Dysphagia and choking are common. Visual disturbances may result from diplopia, difficulty fixating on moving objects, horizontal gaze-evoked nystagmus, and vertical nystagmus. Hyperreflexia and extensor plantar responses occur in up to 40%-50%. Basal ganglia signs, including dystonia and blepharospasm, occur in up to 25%. Mentation is generally preserved. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
148458
Concept ID:
C0752124
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 3

The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL; CLN) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the intracellular accumulation of autofluorescent lipopigment storage material in different patterns ultrastructurally. The clinical course includes progressive dementia, seizures, and progressive visual failure (Mole et al., 2005). The hallmark of CLN3 is the ultrastructural pattern of lipopigment with a 'fingerprint' profile, which can have 3 different appearances: pure within a lysosomal residual body; in conjunction with curvilinear or rectilinear profiles; and as a small component within large membrane-bound lysosomal vacuoles. The combination of fingerprint profiles within lysosomal vacuoles is a regular feature of blood lymphocytes from patients with CLN3 (Mole et al., 2005). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CLN, see CLN1 (256730). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
155549
Concept ID:
C0751383
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 1A (Zellweger)

Zellweger spectrum disorder (ZSD) is a phenotypic continuum ranging from severe to mild. While individual phenotypes (e.g., Zellweger syndrome [ZS], neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy [NALD], and infantile Refsum disease [IRD]) were described in the past before the biochemical and molecular bases of this spectrum were fully determined, the term "ZSD" is now used to refer to all individuals with a defect in one of the ZSD-PEX genes regardless of phenotype. Individuals with ZSD usually come to clinical attention in the newborn period or later in childhood. Affected newborns are hypotonic and feed poorly. They have distinctive facies, congenital malformations (neuronal migration defects associated with neonatal-onset seizures, renal cysts, and bony stippling [chondrodysplasia punctata] of the patella[e] and the long bones), and liver disease that can be severe. Infants with severe ZSD are significantly impaired and typically die during the first year of life, usually having made no developmental progress. Individuals with intermediate/milder ZSD do not have congenital malformations, but rather progressive peroxisome dysfunction variably manifest as sensory loss (secondary to retinal dystrophy and sensorineural hearing loss), neurologic involvement (ataxia, polyneuropathy, and leukodystrophy), liver dysfunction, adrenal insufficiency, and renal oxalate stones. While hypotonia and developmental delays are typical, intellect can be normal. Some have osteopenia; almost all have ameleogenesis imperfecta in the secondary teeth. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1648474
Concept ID:
C4721541
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Autosomal recessive juvenile Parkinson disease 2

Parkin type of early-onset Parkinson disease (PARK-Parkin) is characterized by the cardinal signs of Parkinson disease (PD): bradykinesia, resting tremor, and rigidity. The median age at onset is 31 years (range: 3-81 years). The disease is slowly progressive: disease duration of more than 50 years has been reported. Clinical findings vary; hyperreflexia is common. Lower-limb dystonia may be a presenting sign and cognitive decline appears to be no more frequent than in the general population. Dyskinesia as a result of treatment with levodopa frequently occurs. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
401500
Concept ID:
C1868675
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2C

A subtype of autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy characterized by a childhood onset of progressive shoulder and pelvic girdle muscle weakness and atrophy frequently associated with calf hypertrophy, diaphragmatic weakness, and/or variable cardiac abnormalities. Mild to moderate elevated serum creatine kinase levels and positive Gowers sign are reported. [from ORDO]

MedGen UID:
98045
Concept ID:
C0410173
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 6 (hepatocerebral type)

MPV17-related mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) maintenance defect presents in the vast majority of affected individuals as an early-onset encephalohepatopathic (hepatocerebral) disease that is typically associated with mtDNA depletion, particularly in the liver. A later-onset neuromyopathic disease characterized by myopathy and neuropathy, and associated with multiple mtDNA deletions in muscle, has also rarely been described. MPV17-related mtDNA maintenance defect, encephalohepatopathic form is characterized by: Hepatic manifestations (liver dysfunction that typically progresses to liver failure, cholestasis, hepatomegaly, and steatosis); Neurologic involvement (developmental delay, hypotonia, microcephaly, and motor and sensory peripheral neuropathy); Gastrointestinal manifestations (gastrointestinal dysmotility, feeding difficulties, and failure to thrive); and Metabolic derangements (lactic acidosis and hypoglycemia). Less frequent manifestations include renal tubulopathy, nephrocalcinosis, and hypoparathyroidism. Progressive liver disease often leads to death in infancy or early childhood. Hepatocellular carcinoma has been reported. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
338045
Concept ID:
C1850406
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B

Dysferlinopathy includes a spectrum of muscle disease characterized by two major phenotypes: Miyoshi muscular dystrophy (MMD) and limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2B (LGMD2B); and two minor phenotypes: asymptomatic hyperCKemia and distal myopathy with anterior tibial onset (DMAT). MMD (median age of onset 19 years) is characterized by muscle weakness and atrophy, most marked in the distal parts of the legs, especially the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. Over a period of years, the weakness and atrophy spread to the thighs and gluteal muscles. The forearms may become mildly atrophic with decrease in grip strength; the small muscles of the hands are spared. LGMD2B is characterized by early weakness and atrophy of the pelvic and shoulder girdle muscles in adolescence or young adulthood, with slow progression. Other phenotypes in this spectrum are scapuloperoneal syndrome and congenital muscular dystrophy. Asymptomatic hyperCKemia is characterized by marked elevation of serum CK concentration only. DMAT is characterized by early and predominant distal muscle weakness, particularly of the muscles of the anterior compartment of the legs. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
338149
Concept ID:
C1850889
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Ataxia, early-onset, with oculomotor apraxia and hypoalbuminemia

Ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 1 (AOA1) is characterized by childhood onset of slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia, followed by oculomotor apraxia and a severe primary motor peripheral axonal motor neuropathy. The first manifestation is progressive gait imbalance (mean age of onset: 4.3 years; range: 2-10 years), followed by dysarthria, then upper-limb dysmetria with mild intention tremor. Oculomotor apraxia, usually noticed a few years after the onset of ataxia, progresses to external ophthalmoplegia. All affected individuals have generalized areflexia followed by a peripheral neuropathy and quadriplegia with loss of ambulation about seven to ten years after onset. Hands and feet are short and atrophic. Chorea and upper-limb dystonia are common. Intellect remains normal in some individuals; in others, different degrees of cognitive impairment have been observed. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
395301
Concept ID:
C1859598
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Sarcotubular myopathy

A mild subtype of autosomal recessive limb girdle muscular dystrophy characterized by slowly progressive proximal muscle weakness and wasting of the pelvic and shoulder girdles with onset that usually occurs during the second or third decade of life. Clinical presentation is variable and can include calf psuedohypertrophy, joint contractures, scapular winging, muscle cramping and/or facial and respiratory muscle involvement. [from ORDO]

MedGen UID:
78750
Concept ID:
C0270968
Congenital Abnormality; Disease or Syndrome
13.

Autosomal dominant Parkinson disease 1

Parkinson disease is the second most common neurogenic disorder after Alzheimer disease (AD; 104300), affecting approximately 1% of the population over age 50. Clinical manifestations include resting tremor, muscular rigidity, bradykinesia, and postural instability. Additional features are characteristic postural abnormalities, dysautonomia, dystonic cramps, and dementia (Polymeropoulos et al., 1996). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Parkinson disease, see 168600. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
357008
Concept ID:
C1868595
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Hereditary spastic paraplegia 2

PLP1 disorders of central nervous system myelin formation include a range of phenotypes from Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) to spastic paraplegia 2 (SPG2). PMD typically manifests in infancy or early childhood with nystagmus, hypotonia, and cognitive impairment; the findings progress to severe spasticity and ataxia. Life span is shortened. SPG2 manifests as spastic paraparesis with or without CNS involvement and usually normal life span. Intrafamilial variation of phenotypes can be observed, but the signs are usually fairly consistent within families. Heterozygous females may manifest mild-to-moderate signs of the disease. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
374177
Concept ID:
C1839264
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy 1, X-linked

Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy inherited in an X-linked recessive pattern and caused by mutations in the EMD gene, encoding emerin. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
1720295
Concept ID:
C5243475
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Autosomal dominant limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 1D (DNAJB6)

Autosomal dominant limb-girdle muscular dystrophy is characterized by proximal and/or distal muscle weakness and atrophy. The age at onset is variable and can range from the first to the sixth decade, although later onset is less common. Most patients present with proximal muscle weakness that progresses to distal involvement, but some can present with distal impairment. The severity is variable: patients with a more severe phenotype can lose ambulation after several decades and have facial weakness with bulbar and respiratory involvement. Muscle biopsy shows dystrophic changes with protein aggregates, myofibrillar degeneration, and rimmed vacuoles (summary by Ruggieri et al., 2015). Genetic Heterogeneity of Autosomal Dominant Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy Other forms of autosomal dominant LGMD include LGMDD2 (608423), previously LGMD1F, caused by mutation in the TNPO3 gene (610032) on chromosome 7q32; LGMDD3 (609115), previously LGMD1G, caused by mutation in the HNRNPDL gene (607137) on chromosome 4q21; and LGMDD4 (618129), previously LGMD1I, caused by mutation in the CAPN3 gene (114240) on chromosome 15q15. For a discussion of autosomal recessive LGMD, see 253600. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1648441
Concept ID:
C4721885
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Infantile onset spinocerebellar ataxia

Infantile-onset spinocerebellar ataxia (IOSCA) is a severe, progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by normal development until age one year, followed by onset of ataxia, muscle hypotonia, loss of deep-tendon reflexes, and athetosis. Ophthalmoplegia and sensorineural deafness develop by age seven years. By adolescence, affected individuals are profoundly deaf and no longer ambulatory; sensory axonal neuropathy, optic atrophy, autonomic nervous system dysfunction, and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism in females become evident. Epilepsy can develop into a serious and often fatal encephalopathy: myoclonic jerks or focal clonic seizures that progress to epilepsia partialis continua followed by status epilepticus with loss of consciousness. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
338613
Concept ID:
C1849096
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Eichsfeld type congenital muscular dystrophy

Rigid spine muscular dystrophy (RSMD) is a form of congenital muscular dystrophy. Disorders in this group cause muscle weakness and wasting (atrophy) beginning very early in life. In particular, RSMD involves weakness of the muscles of the torso and neck (axial muscles). Other characteristic features include spine stiffness and serious breathing problems.

In RSMD, muscle weakness is often apparent at birth or within the first few months of life. Affected infants can have poor head control and weak muscle tone (hypotonia), which may delay the development of motor skills such as crawling or walking. Over time, muscles surrounding the spine atrophy, and the joints of the spine develop deformities called contractures that restrict movement. The neck and back become stiff and rigid, and affected children have limited ability to move their heads up and down or side to side. Affected children eventually develop an abnormal curvature of the spine (scoliosis). In some people with RSMD, muscles in the inner thighs also atrophy, although it does not impair the ability to walk.

A characteristic feature of RSMD is breathing difficulty (respiratory insufficiency) due to restricted movement of the torso and weakness of the diaphragm, which is the muscle that separates the abdomen from the chest cavity. The breathing problems, which tend to occur only at night, can be life-threatening. Many affected individuals require a machine to help them breathe (mechanical ventilation) during sleep.

The combination of features characteristic of RSMD, particularly axial muscle weakness, spine rigidity, and respiratory insufficiency, is sometimes referred to as rigid spine syndrome. While these features occur on their own in RSMD, they can also occur along with additional signs and symptoms in other muscle disorders. The features of rigid spine syndrome typically appear at a younger age in people with RSMD than in those with other muscle disorders. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
98047
Concept ID:
C0410180
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 5

The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL; CLN) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the intracellular accumulation of autofluorescent lipopigment storage material in different patterns ultrastructurally. The lipopigment patterns observed most often in CLN5 comprise mixed combinations of 'granular,' 'curvilinear,' and 'fingerprint' profiles. The clinical course includes progressive dementia, seizures, and progressive visual failure (Mole et al., 2005). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CLN, see CLN1 (256730). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
376792
Concept ID:
C1850442
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Coenzyme Q10 deficiency, primary, 1

Primary coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency is usually associated with multisystem involvement, including neurologic manifestations such as fatal neonatal encephalopathy with hypotonia; a late-onset slowly progressive multiple-system atrophy-like phenotype (neurodegeneration with autonomic failure and various combinations of parkinsonism and cerebellar ataxia, and pyramidal dysfunction); and dystonia, spasticity, seizures, and intellectual disability. Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS), the hallmark renal manifestation, is often the initial manifestation either as isolated renal involvement that progresses to end-stage renal disease (ESRD), or associated with encephalopathy (seizures, stroke-like episodes, severe neurologic impairment) resulting in early death. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), retinopathy or optic atrophy, and sensorineural hearing loss can also be seen. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
764868
Concept ID:
C3551954
Disease or Syndrome
Format
Items per page

Send to:

Choose Destination

Supplemental Content

Find related data

Search details

See more...

Recent activity