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1.

Pallister-Hall syndrome

GLI3-related Pallister-Hall syndrome (GLI3-PHS) is characterized by a spectrum of anomalies ranging from polydactyly, asymptomatic bifid epiglottis, and hypothalamic hamartoma at the mild end to laryngotracheal cleft with neonatal lethality at the severe end. Individuals with mild GLI3-PHS may be incorrectly diagnosed as having isolated postaxial polydactyly type A. Individuals with GLI3-PHS can have pituitary insufficiency and may die as neonates from undiagnosed and untreated adrenal insufficiency. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
120514
Concept ID:
C0265220
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis

The phenotypic spectrum of SHOX deficiency disorders, caused by haploinsufficiency of the short stature homeobox-containing gene (SHOX), ranges from Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) at the severe end of the spectrum to nonspecific short stature at the mild end of the spectrum. In adults with SHOX deficiency, the proportion of LWD versus short stature without features of LWD is not well defined. In LWD the classic clinical triad is short stature, mesomelia, and Madelung deformity. Mesomelia, in which the middle portion of a limb is shortened in relation to the proximal portion, can be evident first in school-aged children and increases with age in frequency and severity. Madelung deformity (abnormal alignment of the radius, ulna, and carpal bones at the wrist) typically develops in mid-to-late childhood and is more common and severe in females. The phenotype of short stature caused by SHOX deficiency in the absence of mesomelia and Madelung deformity (called SHOX-deficient short stature in this GeneReview) is highly variable, even within the same family. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
75562
Concept ID:
C0265309
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Autosomal recessive Robinow syndrome

ROR2-related Robinow syndrome is characterized by distinctive craniofacial features, skeletal abnormalities, and other anomalies. Craniofacial features include macrocephaly, broad prominent forehead, low-set ears, ocular hypertelorism, prominent eyes, midface hypoplasia, short upturned nose with depressed nasal bridge and flared nostrils, large and triangular mouth with exposed incisors and upper gums, gum hypertrophy, misaligned teeth, ankyloglossia, and micrognathia. Skeletal abnormalities include short stature, mesomelic or acromesomelic limb shortening, hemivertebrae with fusion of thoracic vertebrae, and brachydactyly. Other common features include micropenis with or without cryptorchidism in males and reduced clitoral size and hypoplasia of the labia majora in females, renal tract abnormalities, and nail hypoplasia or dystrophy. The disorder is recognizable at birth or in early childhood. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1770070
Concept ID:
C5399974
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Cranioectodermal dysplasia 2

Cranioectodermal dysplasia (CED) is a ciliopathy with skeletal involvement (narrow thorax, shortened proximal limbs, syndactyly, polydactyly, brachydactyly), ectodermal features (widely spaced hypoplastic teeth, hypodontia, sparse hair, skin laxity, abnormal nails), joint laxity, growth deficiency, and characteristic facial features (frontal bossing, low-set simple ears, high forehead, telecanthus, epicanthal folds, full cheeks, everted lower lip). Most affected children develop nephronophthisis that often leads to end-stage kidney disease in infancy or childhood, a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Hepatic fibrosis and retinal dystrophy are also observed. Dolichocephaly, often secondary to sagittal craniosynostosis, is a primary manifestation that distinguishes CED from most other ciliopathies. Brain malformations and developmental delay may also occur. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
462224
Concept ID:
C3150874
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Short-rib thoracic dysplasia 6 with or without polydactyly

Short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD) with or without polydactyly refers to a group of autosomal recessive skeletal ciliopathies that are characterized by a constricted thoracic cage, short ribs, shortened tubular bones, and a 'trident' appearance of the acetabular roof. SRTD encompasses Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) and the disorders previously designated as Jeune syndrome or asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD), short rib-polydactyly syndrome (SRPS), and Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (MZSDS). Polydactyly is variably present, and there is phenotypic overlap in the various forms of SRTDs, which differ by visceral malformation and metaphyseal appearance. Nonskeletal involvement can include cleft lip/palate as well as anomalies of major organs such as the brain, eye, heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, intestines, and genitalia. Some forms of SRTD are lethal in the neonatal period due to respiratory insufficiency secondary to a severely restricted thoracic cage, whereas others are compatible with life (summary by Huber and Cormier-Daire, 2012 and Schmidts et al., 2013). There is phenotypic overlap with the cranioectodermal dysplasias (Sensenbrenner syndrome; see CED1, 218330). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of short-rib thoracic dysplasia, see SRTD1 (208500). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
44252
Concept ID:
C0024507
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Autosomal dominant Robinow syndrome 1

Autosomal dominant Robinow syndrome (ADRS) is characterized by skeletal findings (short stature, mesomelic limb shortening predominantly of the upper limbs, and brachydactyly), genital abnormalities (in males: micropenis / webbed penis, hypoplastic scrotum, cryptorchidism; in females: hypoplastic clitoris and labia majora), dysmorphic facial features (widely spaced and prominent eyes, frontal bossing, anteverted nares, midface retrusion), dental abnormalities (including malocclusion, crowding, hypodontia, late eruption of permanent teeth), bilobed tongue, and occasional prenatal macrocephaly that persists postnatally. Less common findings include renal anomalies, radial head dislocation, vertebral abnormalities such as hemivertebrae and scoliosis, nail dysplasia, cardiac defects, cleft lip/palate, and (rarely) cognitive delay. When present, cardiac defects are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. A variant of Robinow syndrome, associated with osteosclerosis and caused by a heterozygous pathogenic variant in DVL1, is characterized by normal stature, persistent macrocephaly, increased bone mineral density with skull osteosclerosis, and hearing loss, in addition to the typical features described above. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1641736
Concept ID:
C4551475
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy 2

Short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD) with or without polydactyly refers to a group of autosomal recessive skeletal ciliopathies that are characterized by a constricted thoracic cage, short ribs, shortened tubular bones, and a 'trident' appearance of the acetabular roof. SRTD encompasses Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) and the disorders previously designated as Jeune syndrome or asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD), short rib-polydactyly syndrome (SRPS), and Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (MZSDS). Polydactyly is variably present, and there is phenotypic overlap in the various forms of SRTDs, which differ by visceral malformation and metaphyseal appearance. Nonskeletal involvement can include cleft lip/palate as well as anomalies of major organs such as the brain, eye, heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, intestines, and genitalia. Some forms of SRTD are lethal in the neonatal period due to respiratory insufficiency secondary to a severely restricted thoracic cage, whereas others are compatible with life (summary by Huber and Cormier-Daire, 2012 and Schmidts et al., 2013). There is phenotypic overlap with the cranioectodermal dysplasias (Sensenbrenner syndrome; see CED1, 218330). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of short-rib thoracic dysplasia, see SRTD1 (208500). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
370804
Concept ID:
C1970005
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Short-rib thoracic dysplasia 7 with or without polydactyly

Short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD) with or without polydactyly refers to a group of autosomal recessive skeletal ciliopathies that are characterized by a constricted thoracic cage, short ribs, shortened tubular bones, and a 'trident' appearance of the acetabular roof. SRTD encompasses Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) and the disorders previously designated as Jeune syndrome or asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD), short rib-polydactyly syndrome (SRPS), and Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (MZSDS). Polydactyly is variably present, and there is phenotypic overlap in the various forms of SRTDs, which differ by visceral malformation and metaphyseal appearance. Nonskeletal involvement can include cleft lip/palate as well as anomalies of major organs such as the brain, eye, heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, intestines, and genitalia. Some forms of SRTD are lethal in the neonatal period due to respiratory insufficiency secondary to a severely restricted thoracic cage, whereas others are compatible with life (summary by Huber and Cormier-Daire, 2012 and Schmidts et al., 2013). There is phenotypic overlap with the cranioectodermal dysplasias (Sensenbrenner syndrome; see CED1, 218330). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of short-rib thoracic dysplasia, see SRTD1 (208500). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
481422
Concept ID:
C3279792
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Langer mesomelic dysplasia syndrome

Langer mesomelic dysplasia (LMD) is characterized by severe limb aplasia or severe hypoplasia of the ulna and fibula, and a thickened and curved radius and tibia. These changes can result in displacement deformities of the hands and feet. Hypoplasia of the mandible is also observed (Langer, 1967). See also Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (127300), a less severe phenotype that results from heterozygous defect in the SHOX or SHOXY genes. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
96585
Concept ID:
C0432230
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Greenberg dysplasia

Greenberg dysplasia (GRBGD), also known as hydrops-ectopic calcification-moth-eaten (HEM) skeletal dysplasia, is a rare autosomal recessive osteochondrodysplasia characterized by gross fetal hydrops, severe shortening of all long bones with a moth-eaten radiographic appearance, platyspondyly, disorganization of chondroosseous calcification, and ectopic ossification centers. It is lethal in utero. Patient fibroblasts show increased levels of cholesta-8,14-dien-3-beta-ol, suggesting a defect of sterol metabolism (summary by Konstantinidou et al., 2008). Herman (2003) reviewed the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway and 6 disorders involving enzyme defects in postsqualene cholesterol biosynthesis: Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS; 270400), desmosterolosis (602398), X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia punctata (CDPX2; 302960), CHILD syndrome (308050), lathosterolosis (607330), and HEM skeletal dysplasia. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
418969
Concept ID:
C2931048
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Osteogenesis imperfecta type 16

Osteogenesis imperfecta type XVI (OI16) is characterized by prenatal onset of multiple fractures of ribs and long bones, blue sclerae, decreased ossification of the skull, and severe demineralization. Heterozygous family members may exhibit recurrent fractures with minimal trauma, osteopenia, and blue sclerae (Keller et al., 2018; Lindahl et al., 2018). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
864047
Concept ID:
C4015610
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Severe achondroplasia-developmental delay-acanthosis nigricans syndrome

SADDAN dysplasia (severe achondroplasia with developmental delay and acanthosis nigricans) is a very rare skeletal dysplasia characterized by the constellation of these features. Radiology reveals 'ram's horn' shaped clavicles and reverse bowing of lower limbs. Approximately half of patients die before the fourth week of life secondary to respiratory failure (summary by Zankl et al., 2008). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
393098
Concept ID:
C2674173
Congenital Abnormality
13.

Autosomal dominant Robinow syndrome 2

Autosomal dominant Robinow syndrome (ADRS) is characterized by skeletal findings (short stature, mesomelic limb shortening predominantly of the upper limbs, and brachydactyly), genital abnormalities (in males: micropenis / webbed penis, hypoplastic scrotum, cryptorchidism; in females: hypoplastic clitoris and labia majora), dysmorphic facial features (widely spaced and prominent eyes, frontal bossing, anteverted nares, midface retrusion), dental abnormalities (including malocclusion, crowding, hypodontia, late eruption of permanent teeth), bilobed tongue, and occasional prenatal macrocephaly that persists postnatally. Less common findings include renal anomalies, radial head dislocation, vertebral abnormalities such as hemivertebrae and scoliosis, nail dysplasia, cardiac defects, cleft lip/palate, and (rarely) cognitive delay. When present, cardiac defects are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. A variant of Robinow syndrome, associated with osteosclerosis and caused by a heterozygous pathogenic variant in DVL1, is characterized by normal stature, persistent macrocephaly, increased bone mineral density with skull osteosclerosis, and hearing loss, in addition to the typical features described above. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
897039
Concept ID:
C4225363
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Autosomal dominant Robinow syndrome 3

Autosomal dominant Robinow syndrome (ADRS) is characterized by skeletal findings (short stature, mesomelic limb shortening predominantly of the upper limbs, and brachydactyly), genital abnormalities (in males: micropenis / webbed penis, hypoplastic scrotum, cryptorchidism; in females: hypoplastic clitoris and labia majora), dysmorphic facial features (widely spaced and prominent eyes, frontal bossing, anteverted nares, midface retrusion), dental abnormalities (including malocclusion, crowding, hypodontia, late eruption of permanent teeth), bilobed tongue, and occasional prenatal macrocephaly that persists postnatally. Less common findings include renal anomalies, radial head dislocation, vertebral abnormalities such as hemivertebrae and scoliosis, nail dysplasia, cardiac defects, cleft lip/palate, and (rarely) cognitive delay. When present, cardiac defects are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. A variant of Robinow syndrome, associated with osteosclerosis and caused by a heterozygous pathogenic variant in DVL1, is characterized by normal stature, persistent macrocephaly, increased bone mineral density with skull osteosclerosis, and hearing loss, in addition to the typical features described above. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
907878
Concept ID:
C4225164
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Pelviscapular dysplasia

Syndrome with characteristics of pelviscapular dysplasia with epiphyseal abnormalities, congenital dwarfism and facial dysmorphism. The facial dysmorphism has manifestations of frontal bossing, hypertelorism, narrow palpebral fissures, deep-set eyes, strabismus, low-set posteriorly rotated and malformed ears, dysplasia of conchae, a small chin, a short neck with redundant skin folds, and a low hairline. Intelligence may vary from normal to moderately impaired. Radiographic features comprise aplasia of the body of the scapula, hypoplasia of the iliac bone, humeroradial synostosis, dislocation of the femoral heads, and moderate brachydactyly. Mutations in the TBX15 gene have been identified as potentially causative. Pelviscapular dysplasia is phenotypically similar to pelvis-shoulder dysplasia. [from SNOMEDCT_US]

MedGen UID:
342400
Concept ID:
C1850040
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Chromosome 14q11-q22 deletion syndrome

14q11.2 microdeletion syndrome is a recently described syndrome characterized by developmental delay, hypotonia and facial dysmorphism. [from ORDO]

MedGen UID:
462057
Concept ID:
C3150707
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Odontochondrodysplasia 1

Odontochondrodysplasia-1 (ODCD1) is characterized by mesomelic shortening of tubular bones, ligamentous laxity, and scoliosis, in association with dentinogenesis imperfecta involving both primary and secondary dentition. Affected individuals show variable severity. Radiologic features include trident pelvis, posteriorly flattened vertebrae, and brachydactyly with cone-shaped epiphyses (Maroteaux et al., 1996). Clinical variability and extraskeletal manifestations have been observed (Wehrle et al., 2019). Genetic Heterogeneity of Odontochondrodysplasia Odontochondrodysplasia-2 with hearing loss and diabetes (ODCD2; 619269) is caused by mutation in the TANGO1 gene (MIA3; 613455) on chromosome 1q41. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1784281
Concept ID:
C5542277
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, aggrecan type

A new form of skeletal dysplasia with manifestations of severe short stature, facial dysmorphism and characteristic radiographic findings. To date, three cases have been described, all originating from the same family. The disease results from a missense mutation affecting the C-type lectin domain of aggrecan (AGC1 gene; chromosome 15) which regulates endochondral ossification. Transmission is autosomal recessive. [from SNOMEDCT_US]

MedGen UID:
411237
Concept ID:
C2748544
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Sponastrime dysplasia

Sponastrime dysplasia is an autosomal recessive spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia (SEMD) named for characteristic clinical and radiographic findings, including spine (spondylar) abnormalities, midface hypoplasia with a depressed nasal bridge, and striation of the metaphyses. Additional features include disproportionate short stature with exaggerated lumbar lordosis, scoliosis, coxa vara, limited elbow extension, small dysplastic epiphyses, childhood cataracts, short dental roots, and hypogammaglobulinemia. Radiographically, the abnormalities of the lumbar vertebral bodies are suggested to be the most specific finding because the characteristic metaphyseal striations may not be apparent at young ages. Striking clinical variability in presentation, severity, and associated features has been observed (summary by Burrage et al., 2019). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
266247
Concept ID:
C1300260
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Mesomelic dysplasia, Kantaputra type

Kantaputra mesomelic dysplasia (MMDK) is a rare autosomal dominant skeletal disease characterized by symmetric marked shortening of the upper and lower limbs. The ulnae are very short and the radii are bowed. The distal humerus has a dumbbell shape, whereas the hands are relatively normal but show progressive flexion contractures of the proximal interphalangeal joints. Carpal and tarsal synostoses are observed in some individuals. In the lower limbs, the feet are fixed in plantar flexion with the sole facing backward, causing 'ballerina-like standing.' The prominent distal fibula (ventral aspect) is considered to be the signature finding of the syndrome. The calcaneus is small or missing, and a small fibula and talus as well as fibulocalcaneal synostosis are characteristic features. The tibial bony knot articulates with the proximal end of the fibula (summary by Kantaputra et al., 2010). Mesomelia and synostosis are also cardinal features of the mesomelia-synostoses syndrome (600383). See 613681 for discussion of the chromosome 2q31.1 duplication syndrome, which shows cytogenetic and phenotypic overlap with MMDK. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
331880
Concept ID:
C1835009
Disease or Syndrome
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