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Interstitial lung disease 2

Interstitial lung disease (ILD) comprises a heterogeneous group of rare diseases affecting the distal part of the lung and characterized by a progressive remodeling of the alveolar interstitium. The manifestations form a spectrum ranging from idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) or pneumonitis to the more severe idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). IPF is associated with an increased risk of developing lung cancer, which occurs in a subset of patients with ILD. Clinical features of ILD include dyspnea, clubbing of the fingers, and restrictive lung capacity. Imaging typically shows ground glass opacities and inter- and intraseptal thickening, while histologic studies usually show a pattern consistent with 'usual interstitial pneumonia' (UIP) (review by Gross and Hunninghake, 2001; summary by Legendre et al., 2020). Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is one of a family of idiopathic pneumonias sharing clinical features of shortness of breath, radiographically evident diffuse pulmonary infiltrates, and varying degrees in inflammation, fibrosis, or both on lung biopsy. In some cases, the disorder can be rapidly progressive and characterized by sequential acute lung injury with subsequent scarring and end-stage lung disease. Although older studies included several forms of interstitial pneumonia under the term 'idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis,' the clinical label of 'idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis' should be reserved for patients with a specific form of fibrosing interstitial pneumonia referred to as usual interstitial pneumonia (Gross and Hunninghake, 2001). It is estimated that 0.5 to 2.2% of cases of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis are familial (Marshall et al., 2000). Gross and Hunninghake (2001) reviewed idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, emphasizing definition, pathogenesis, diagnosis, natural history, and therapy. Antoniou et al. (2004) provided a 'top ten list' of references pertaining to etiopathogenesis, prognosis, diagnosis, therapy, and other aspects of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of ILD, see ILD1 (619611). Pulmonary fibrosis can also be a feature in patients with mutations in the TERT (187270) or the TERC (602322) gene; see PFBMFT1 (614742) and PFBMFT2 (614743). Some patients with surfactant protein C deficiency (610913) who survive to adulthood manifest features of pulmonary fibrosis. [from OMIM]

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Disease or Syndrome

Minimally invasive lung adenocarcinoma

Adenocarcinoma of the Bronchus. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Neoplastic Process

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