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Items: 11

1.

Pseudo-Hurler polydystrophy

GNPTAB-related disorders comprise the phenotypes mucolipidosis II (ML II) and mucolipidosis IIIa/ß (ML IIIa/ß), and phenotypes intermediate between ML II and ML IIIa/ß. ML II is evident at birth and slowly progressive; death most often occurs in early childhood. Orthopedic abnormalities present at birth may include thoracic deformity, kyphosis, clubfeet, deformed long bones, and/or dislocation of the hip(s). Growth often ceases in the second year of life; contractures develop in all large joints. The skin is thickened, facial features are coarse, and gingiva are hypertrophic. All children have cardiac involvement, most commonly thickening and insufficiency of the mitral valve and, less frequently, the aortic valve. Progressive mucosal thickening narrows the airways, and gradual stiffening of the thoracic cage contributes to respiratory insufficiency, the most common cause of death. ML IIIa/ß becomes evident at about age three years with slow growth rate and short stature; joint stiffness and pain initially in the shoulders, hips, and fingers; gradual mild coarsening of facial features; and normal to mildly impaired cognitive development. Pain from osteoporosis becomes more severe during adolescence. Cardiorespiratory complications (restrictive lung disease, thickening and insufficiency of the mitral and aortic valves, left and/or right ventricular hypertrophy) are common causes of death, typically in early to middle adulthood. Phenotypes intermediate between ML II and ML IIIa/ß are characterized by physical growth in infancy that resembles that of ML II and neuromotor and speech development that resemble that of ML IIIa/ß. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
10988
Concept ID:
C0033788
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Hereditary spastic paraplegia 11

Spastic paraplegia 11 (SPG11) is characterized by progressive spasticity and weakness of the lower limbs frequently associated with the following: mild intellectual disability with learning difficulties in childhood and/or progressive cognitive decline; peripheral neuropathy; pseudobulbar involvement; and increased reflexes in the upper limbs. Less frequent findings include: cerebellar signs (ataxia, nystagmus, saccadic pursuit); retinal degeneration; pes cavus; scoliosis; and parkinsonism with characteristic brain MRI features that include thinning of the corpus callosum. Onset occurs mainly during infancy or adolescence (range: age 1-31 years) and in rare cases as late as age 60 years. Most affected individuals become wheelchair bound one or two decades after disease onset. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
388073
Concept ID:
C1858479
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Agenesis of the corpus callosum with peripheral neuropathy

Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with agenesis of the corpus callosum (HMSN/ACC), a neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorder, is characterized by severe progressive sensorimotor neuropathy with resulting hypotonia, areflexia, and amyotrophy, and by variable degrees of dysgenesis of the corpus callosum. Mild-to-severe intellectual disability and "psychotic episodes" during adolescence are observed. Sensory modalities are moderately to severely affected beginning in infancy. The average age of onset of walking is 3.8 years; the average age of loss of walking is 13.8 years; the average age of death is 33 years. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
162893
Concept ID:
C0795950
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Scapuloperoneal spinal muscular atrophy

The autosomal dominant TRPV4 disorders (previously considered to be clinically distinct phenotypes before their molecular basis was discovered) are now grouped into neuromuscular disorders and skeletal dysplasias; however, the overlap within each group is considerable. Affected individuals typically have either neuromuscular or skeletal manifestations alone, and in only rare instances an overlap syndrome has been reported. The three autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorders (mildest to most severe) are: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2C. Scapuloperoneal spinal muscular atrophy. Congenital distal spinal muscular atrophy. The autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorders are characterized by a congenital-onset, static, or later-onset progressive peripheral neuropathy with variable combinations of laryngeal dysfunction (i.e., vocal fold paresis), respiratory dysfunction, and joint contractures. The six autosomal dominant skeletal dysplasias (mildest to most severe) are: Familial digital arthropathy-brachydactyly. Autosomal dominant brachyolmia. Spondylometaphyseal dysplasia, Kozlowski type. Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, Maroteaux type. Parastremmatic dysplasia. Metatropic dysplasia. The skeletal dysplasia is characterized by brachydactyly (in all 6); the five that are more severe have short stature that varies from mild to severe with progressive spinal deformity and involvement of the long bones and pelvis. In the mildest of the autosomal dominant TRPV4 disorders life span is normal; in the most severe it is shortened. Bilateral progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) can occur with both autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorders and skeletal dysplasias. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
148283
Concept ID:
C0751335
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Congenital cataracts-facial dysmorphism-neuropathy syndrome

CTDP1-related congenital cataracts, facial dysmorphism, and neuropathy (CTDP1-CCFDN) is characterized by abnormalities of the eye (bilateral congenital cataracts, microcornea, microphthalmia, micropupils), mildly dysmorphic facial features apparent in late childhood, and a hypo-/demyelinating, symmetric, distal peripheral neuropathy. The neuropathy is predominantly motor at the onset and results in delays in early motor development, progressing to severe disability by the third decade of life. Secondary foot deformities and scoliosis are common. Sensory neuropathy develops after age ten years. Most affected individuals have a mild nonprogressive intellectual deficit and cerebellar involvement including ataxia, nystagmus, intention tremor, and dysmetria. All have short stature and most have subnormal weight. Adults have hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Parainfectious rhabdomyolysis (profound muscle weakness, myoglobinuria, and excessively elevated serum concentration of creatine kinase usually following a viral infection) is a potentially life-threatening complication. To date all affected individuals and carriers identified have been from the Romani population. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
346973
Concept ID:
C1858726
Congenital Abnormality; Disease or Syndrome
6.

Severe X-linked mitochondrial encephalomyopathy

Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-6 (COXPD6) is an X-linked recessive severe encephalomyopathic disorder with onset in utero or in infancy. Affected patients have hypotonia and severely impaired psychomotor development associated with variably decreased enzymatic activity of mitochondrial respiratory complexes in skeletal muscle or fibroblasts. More variable features may include sensorimotor neuropathy, seizures, severe muscle weakness, abnormal signals in the basal ganglia, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, deafness, swallowing difficulties, and respiratory insufficiency. Death in childhood may occur (summary by Berger et al., 2011). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
463103
Concept ID:
C3151753
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Hereditary spastic paraplegia 9A

Autosomal dominant spastic paraplegia-9A is a neurologic disorder characterized by onset of slowly progressive spasticity mainly affecting the lower limbs. The age at onset usually ranges from adolescence to adulthood, and patients have gait difficulties, motor neuropathy, and dysarthria. Additional variable features include cerebellar signs, cataract, pes cavus, and urinary urgency (summary by Coutelier et al., 2015). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal dominant spastic paraplegia, see SPG3A (182600). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1800401
Concept ID:
C5568978
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Hereditary spastic paraplegia 61

Autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia-61 (SPG61) is a complicated, early-onset spastic paraplegia (summary by Chukhrova et al., 2019). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
816624
Concept ID:
C3810294
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Cervical hypertrichosis-peripheral neuropathy syndrome

A rare genetic syndrome characterized by the association of congenital hypertrichosis in the anterior cervical region with peripheral sensory and motor neuropathy. Associated features may include retinal anomalies, spina bifida, kyphoscoliosis and hallux valgus, and developmental delay (one case). There have been no further descriptions in the literature since 1993. [from ORDO]

MedGen UID:
341004
Concept ID:
C1855902
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, hypotonia, nystagmus, and seizures

Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, hypotonia, nystagmus, and seizures (NEDMHS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay and impaired intellectual development apparent from infancy. Affected individuals have hypotonia with poor or absent motor skills, feeding difficulties with poor overall growth, microcephaly, mild dysmorphic features, and early-onset seizures. Additional variable features, such as nystagmus, cortical blindness, and spasticity, may also occur. Patients with this disorder tend to have recurrent respiratory infections, likely due to aspiration, that may lead to death in childhood (Arnadottir et al., 2022). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1810140
Concept ID:
C5676986
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Motor polyneuropathy

Inflammation or degeneration of the peripheral motor nerves. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
82885
Concept ID:
C0271683
Disease or Syndrome
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