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1.

Becker muscular dystrophy

The dystrophinopathies cover a spectrum of X-linked muscle disease ranging from mild to severe that includes Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Becker muscular dystrophy, and DMD-associated dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The mild end of the spectrum includes the phenotypes of asymptomatic increase in serum concentration of creatine phosphokinase (CK) and muscle cramps with myoglobinuria. The severe end of the spectrum includes progressive muscle diseases that are classified as Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy when skeletal muscle is primarily affected and as DMD-associated DCM when the heart is primarily affected. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) usually presents in early childhood with delayed motor milestones including delays in walking independently and standing up from a supine position. Proximal weakness causes a waddling gait and difficulty climbing stairs, running, jumping, and standing up from a squatting position. DMD is rapidly progressive, with affected children being wheelchair dependent by age 12 years. Cardiomyopathy occurs in almost all individuals with DMD after age 18 years. Few survive beyond the third decade, with respiratory complications and progressive cardiomyopathy being common causes of death. Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) is characterized by later-onset skeletal muscle weakness. With improved diagnostic techniques, it has been recognized that the mild end of the spectrum includes men with onset of symptoms after age 30 years who remain ambulatory even into their 60s. Despite the milder skeletal muscle involvement, heart failure from DCM is a common cause of morbidity and the most common cause of death in BMD. Mean age of death is in the mid-40s. DMD-associated DCM is characterized by left ventricular dilation and congestive heart failure. Females heterozygous for a DMD pathogenic variant are at increased risk for DCM. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
182959
Concept ID:
C0917713
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Elevated circulating creatine kinase concentration

An elevation of the level of the enzyme creatine kinase (also known as creatine phosphokinase (CK; EC 2.7.3.2) in the blood. CK levels can be elevated in a number of clinical disorders such as myocardial infarction, rhabdomyolysis, and muscular dystrophy. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
69128
Concept ID:
C0241005
Finding
3.

Familial Mediterranean fever

Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is divided into two phenotypes: type 1 and type 2. FMF type 1 is characterized by recurrent short episodes of inflammation and serositis including fever, peritonitis, synovitis, pleuritis, and, rarely, pericarditis and meningitis. The symptoms and severity vary among affected individuals, sometimes even among members of the same family. Amyloidosis, which can lead to renal failure, is the most severe complication, if untreated. FMF type 2 is characterized by amyloidosis as the first clinical manifestation of FMF in an otherwise asymptomatic individual. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
45811
Concept ID:
C0031069
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome

FMR1 disorders include fragile X syndrome (FXS), fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS), and fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency (FXPOI). Fragile X syndrome occurs in individuals with an FMR1 full mutation or other loss-of-function variant and is nearly always characterized in affected males by developmental delay and intellectual disability along with a variety of behavioral issues. Autism spectrum disorder is present in 50%-70% of individuals with FXS. Affected males may have characteristic craniofacial features (which become more obvious with age) and medical problems including hypotonia, gastroesophageal reflux, strabismus, seizures, sleep disorders, joint laxity, pes planus, scoliosis, and recurrent otitis media. Adults may have mitral valve prolapse or aortic root dilatation. The physical and behavioral features seen in males with FXS have been reported in females heterozygous for the FMR1 full mutation, but with lower frequency and milder involvement. FXTAS occurs in individuals who have an FMR1 premutation and is characterized by late-onset, progressive cerebellar ataxia and intention tremor followed by cognitive impairment. Psychiatric disorders are common. Age of onset is typically between 60 and 65 years and is more common among males who are hemizygous for the premutation (40%) than among females who are heterozygous for the premutation (16%-20%). FXPOI, defined as hypergonadotropic hypogonadism before age 40 years, has been observed in 20% of women who carry a premutation allele compared to 1% in the general population. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
333403
Concept ID:
C1839780
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Carnitine palmitoyl transferase II deficiency, myopathic form

Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II (CPT II) deficiency is a disorder of long-chain fatty-acid oxidation. The three clinical presentations are lethal neonatal form, severe infantile hepatocardiomuscular form, and myopathic form (which is usually mild and can manifest from infancy to adulthood). While the former two are severe multisystemic diseases characterized by liver failure with hypoketotic hypoglycemia, cardiomyopathy, seizures, and early death, the latter is characterized by exercise-induced muscle pain and weakness, sometimes associated with myoglobinuria. The myopathic form of CPT II deficiency is the most common disorder of lipid metabolism affecting skeletal muscle and the most frequent cause of hereditary myoglobinuria. Males are more likely to be affected than females. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
371584
Concept ID:
C1833508
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Glycogen storage disease, type VII

Glycogen storage disease VII is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder characterized clinically by exercise intolerance, muscle cramping, exertional myopathy, and compensated hemolysis. Myoglobinuria may also occur. The deficiency of the muscle isoform of PFK results in a total and partial loss of muscle and red cell PFK activity, respectively. Raben and Sherman (1995) noted that not all patients with GSD VII seek medical care because in some cases it is a relatively mild disorder. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
5342
Concept ID:
C0017926
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Congenital myotonia, autosomal dominant form

Myotonia congenita is characterized by muscle stiffness present from childhood; all striated muscle groups including the extrinsic eye muscles, facial muscles, and tongue may be involved. Stiffness is relieved by repeated contractions of the muscle (the "warm-up" phenomenon). Muscles are usually hypertrophic. Whereas autosomal recessive (AR) myotonia congenita is often associated with more severe manifestations (such as progressive minor distal weakness and attacks of transient weakness brought on by movement after rest), autosomal dominant (AD) myotonia congenita is not. The age of onset varies: in AD myotonia congenita onset is usually in infancy or early childhood; in AR myotonia congenita the average age of onset is slightly older. In both AR and AD myotonia congenita onset may be as late as the third or fourth decade of life. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
422446
Concept ID:
C2936781
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Familial partial lipodystrophy, Dunnigan type

Familial partial lipodystrophy is a metabolic disorder characterized by abnormal subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution beginning in late childhood or early adult life. Affected individuals gradually lose fat from the upper and lower extremities and the gluteal and truncal regions, resulting in a muscular appearance with prominent superficial veins. In some patients, adipose tissue accumulates on the face and neck, causing a double chin, fat neck, or cushingoid appearance. Metabolic abnormalities include insulin-resistant diabetes mellitus with acanthosis nigricans and hypertriglyceridemia; hirsutism and menstrual abnormalities occur infrequently. Familial partial lipodystrophy may also be referred to as lipoatrophic diabetes mellitus, but the essential feature is loss of subcutaneous fat (review by Garg, 2004). The disorder may be misdiagnosed as Cushing disease (see 219080) (Kobberling and Dunnigan, 1986; Garg, 2004). Genetic Heterogeneity of Familial Partial Lipodystrophy Familial partial lipodystrophy is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder. Types 1 and 2 were originally described as clinical subtypes: type 1 (FPLD1; 608600), characterized by loss of subcutaneous fat confined to the limbs (Kobberling et al., 1975), and FPLD2, characterized by loss of subcutaneous fat from the limbs and trunk (Dunnigan et al., 1974; Kobberling and Dunnigan, 1986). No genetic basis for FPLD1 has yet been delineated. FPLD3 (604367) is caused by mutation in the PPARG gene (601487) on chromosome 3p25; FPLD4 (613877) is caused by mutation in the PLIN1 gene (170290) on chromosome 15q26; FPLD5 (615238) is caused by mutation in the CIDEC gene (612120) on chromosome 3p25; FPLD6 (615980) is caused by mutation in the LIPE gene (151750) on chromosome 19q13; FPLD7 (606721) is caused by mutation in the CAV1 gene (601047) on chromosome 7q31; FPLD8 (620679), caused by mutation in the ADRA2A gene (104210) on chromosome 10q25; and FPLD9 (620683), caused by mutation in the PLAAT3 gene (613867) on chromosome 11q12. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
354526
Concept ID:
C1720860
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Primary erythromelalgia

SCN9A neuropathic pain syndromes (SCN9A-NPS) comprise SCN9A erythromelalgia (EM), SCN9A paroxysmal extreme pain disorder (PEPD), and SCN9A small fiber neuropathy (SFN). SCN9A-EM is characterized by recurrent episodes of bilateral intense, burning pain, and redness, warmth, and occasionally swelling. While the feet are more commonly affected than the hands, in severely affected individuals the legs, arms, face, and/or ears may be involved. SCN9A-PEPD is characterized by neonatal or infantile onset of autonomic manifestations that can include skin flushing, harlequin (patchy or asymmetric) color change, tonic non-epileptic attacks (stiffening), and syncope with bradycardia. Later manifestations are episodes of excruciating deep burning rectal, ocular, or submandibular pain accompanied by flushing (erythematous skin changes). SCN9A-SFN is characterized by adult-onset neuropathic pain in a stocking and glove distribution, often with a burning quality; autonomic manifestations such as dry eyes, mouth, orthostatic dizziness, palpitations, bowel or bladder disturbances; and preservation of large nerve fiber functions (normal strength, tendon reflexes, and vibration sense). [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
8688
Concept ID:
C0014805
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Paramyotonia congenita of Von Eulenburg

Paramyotonia congenita (PMC) is an autosomal dominant myotonic disorder characterized by cold-induced prolonged localized muscle contraction and weakness. Patients may experience episodes of generalized weakness (periodic paralysis) unassociated with cold exposure (summary by Ptacek et al., 1992). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
113142
Concept ID:
C0221055
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Congenital myotonia, autosomal recessive form

Myotonia congenita is characterized by muscle stiffness present from childhood; all striated muscle groups including the extrinsic eye muscles, facial muscles, and tongue may be involved. Stiffness is relieved by repeated contractions of the muscle (the "warm-up" phenomenon). Muscles are usually hypertrophic. Whereas autosomal recessive (AR) myotonia congenita is often associated with more severe manifestations (such as progressive minor distal weakness and attacks of transient weakness brought on by movement after rest), autosomal dominant (AD) myotonia congenita is not. The age of onset varies: in AD myotonia congenita onset is usually in infancy or early childhood; in AR myotonia congenita the average age of onset is slightly older. In both AR and AD myotonia congenita onset may be as late as the third or fourth decade of life. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
155852
Concept ID:
C0751360
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Mitochondrial trifunctional protein deficiency

Long-chain hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) deficiency and trifunctional protein (TFP) deficiency are caused by impairment of mitochondrial TFP. TFP has three enzymatic activities – long-chain enoyl-CoA hydratase, long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and long-chain 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase. In individuals with LCHAD deficiency, there is isolated deficiency of long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, while deficiency of all three enzymes occurs in individuals with TFP deficiency. Individuals with TFP deficiency can present with a severe-to-mild phenotype, while individuals with LCHAD deficiency typically present with a severe-to-intermediate phenotype. Neonates with the severe phenotype present within a few days of birth with hypoglycemia, hepatomegaly, encephalopathy, and often cardiomyopathy. The intermediate phenotype is characterized by hypoketotic hypoglycemia precipitated by infection or fasting in infancy. The mild (late-onset) phenotype is characterized by myopathy and/or neuropathy. Long-term complications include peripheral neuropathy and retinopathy. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
370665
Concept ID:
C1969443
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Autosomal dominant limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 1D (DNAJB6)

Autosomal dominant limb-girdle muscular dystrophy is characterized by proximal and/or distal muscle weakness and atrophy. The age at onset is variable and can range from the first to the sixth decade, although later onset is less common. Most patients present with proximal muscle weakness that progresses to distal involvement, but some can present with distal impairment. The severity is variable: patients with a more severe phenotype can lose ambulation after several decades and have facial weakness with bulbar and respiratory involvement. Muscle biopsy shows dystrophic changes with protein aggregates, myofibrillar degeneration, and rimmed vacuoles (summary by Ruggieri et al., 2015). Genetic Heterogeneity of Autosomal Dominant Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy Other forms of autosomal dominant LGMD include LGMDD2 (608423), previously LGMD1F, caused by mutation in the TNPO3 gene (610032) on chromosome 7q32; LGMDD3 (609115), previously LGMD1G, caused by mutation in the HNRNPDL gene (607137) on chromosome 4q21; and LGMDD4 (618129), previously LGMD1I, caused by mutation in the CAPN3 gene (114240) on chromosome 15q15. For a discussion of autosomal recessive LGMD, see 253600. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1648441
Concept ID:
C4721885
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Hyperimmunoglobulin D with periodic fever

Mevalonate kinase deficiency is a condition characterized by recurrent episodes of fever, which typically begin during infancy. Each episode of fever lasts about 3 to 6 days, and the frequency of the episodes varies among affected individuals. In childhood the fevers seem to be more frequent, occurring as often as 25 times a year, but as the individual gets older the episodes occur less often.

Mevalonate kinase deficiency has additional signs and symptoms, and the severity depends on the type of the condition. There are two types of mevalonate kinase deficiency: a less severe type called hyperimmunoglobulinemia D syndrome (HIDS) and a more severe type called mevalonic aciduria (MVA).

During episodes of fever, people with HIDS typically have enlargement of the lymph nodes (lymphadenopathy), abdominal pain, joint pain, diarrhea, skin rashes, and headache. Occasionally they will have painful sores called aphthous ulcers around their mouth. In females, these may also occur around the vagina. Rarely, people with HIDS develop a buildup of protein deposits (amyloidosis) in the kidneys that can lead to kidney failure. Fever episodes in individuals with HIDS can be triggered by vaccinations, surgery, injury, or stress. Most people with HIDS have abnormally high levels of immune system proteins called immunoglobulin D (IgD) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) in the blood. It is unclear why some people with HIDS have high levels of IgD and IgA and some do not. Elevated levels of these immunoglobulins do not appear to cause any signs or symptoms. Individuals with HIDS do not have any signs and symptoms of the condition between fever episodes and typically have a normal life expectancy.

People with MVA have signs and symptoms of the condition at all times, not just during episodes of fever. Affected children have developmental delay, problems with movement and balance (ataxia), recurrent seizures (epilepsy), progressive problems with vision, and failure to gain weight and grow at the expected rate (failure to thrive). Individuals with MVA typically have an unusually small, elongated head. In childhood or adolescence, affected individuals may develop eye problems such as inflammation of the eye (uveitis), a blue tint in the white part of the eye (blue sclera), an eye disorder called retinitis pigmentosa that causes vision loss, or clouding of the lens of the eye (cataracts). Affected adults may have short stature and may develop muscle weakness (myopathy) later in life. During fever episodes, people with MVA may have an enlarged liver and spleen (hepatosplenomegaly), lymphadenopathy, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and skin rashes. Children with MVA who are severely affected with multiple problems may live only into early childhood; mildly affected individuals may have a normal life expectancy. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
140768
Concept ID:
C0398691
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Myofibrillar myopathy 3

Myofibrillar myopathy refers to a genetically heterogeneous group of muscular disorders characterized by a pathologic morphologic pattern of myofibrillar degradation and abnormal accumulation of proteins involved with the sarcomeric Z disc (summary by Foroud et al., 2005). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of myofibrillar myopathy, see MFM1 (601419). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
811509
Concept ID:
C3714934
Disease or Syndrome
16.

TNF receptor-associated periodic fever syndrome (TRAPS)

Familial periodic fever (FPF) is an autoinflammatory disorder characterized by recurrent fever with localized myalgia and painful erythema. Febrile attacks may last 1 or 2 days but often last longer than 1 week. Arthralgia of large joints, abdominal pain, conjunctivitis, and periorbital edema are common features. During attacks, painless cutaneous lesions may develop on the trunk or extremities and may migrate distally (review by Drenth and van der Meer, 2001). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
226899
Concept ID:
C1275126
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2L

The spectrum of ANO5 muscle disease is a continuum that ranges from asymptomatic hyperCKemia and exercise-induced myalgia to proximal and/or distal muscle weakness. The most typical presentation is limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2L (LGMD2L) with late-onset proximal lower-limb weakness in the fourth or fifth decade (range 15-70 years). Less common is Miyoshi-like disease (Miyoshi muscular dystrophy 3) with early-adult-onset calf distal myopathy (around age 20 years). Incidental hyperCKemia may be present even earlier. Initial symptoms are walking difficulties, reduced sports performance, and difficulties in standing on toes as well as nonspecific exercise myalgia and/or burning sensation in the calf muscles. Muscle weakness and atrophy are frequently asymmetric. Cardiac findings can include cardiomyopathy and arrhythmias and/or left ventricular dysfunction. Bulbar or respiratory symptoms have not been reported. Females have milder disease manifestations than males. Disease progression is slow in both the LGMD and distal forms; ambulation is preserved until very late in the disease course. Life span is normal. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
370102
Concept ID:
C1969785
Disease or Syndrome
18.

MYH7-related skeletal myopathy

Laing distal myopathy is characterized by early-onset weakness (usually before age 5 years) that initially involves the dorsiflexors of the ankles and great toes and then the finger extensors, especially those of the third and fourth fingers. Weakness of the neck flexors is seen in most affected individuals and mild facial weakness is often present. After distal weakness has been present for more than ten years, mild proximal weakness may be observed. Life expectancy is normal. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1647391
Concept ID:
C4552004
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Progressive external ophthalmoplegia with mitochondrial DNA deletions, autosomal dominant 3

Progressive external ophthalmoplegia is characterized by multiple mitochondrial DNA deletions in skeletal muscle. The most common clinical features include adult onset of weakness of the external eye muscles and exercise intolerance. Patients with C10ORF2-linked adPEO may have other clinical features including proximal muscle weakness, ataxia, peripheral neuropathy, cardiomyopathy, cataracts, depression, and endocrine abnormalities (summary by Fratter et al., 2010). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal dominant progressive external ophthalmoplegia, see PEOA1 (157640). PEO caused by mutations in the POLG gene (174763) are associated with more complicated phenotypes than those forms caused by mutations in the SLC25A4 (103220) or C10ORF2 genes (Lamantea et al., 2002). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
373087
Concept ID:
C1836439
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Potassium-aggravated myotonia

In a report on the 37th ENMC Workshop, Rudel and Lehmann-Horn (1997) stated that the sodium channelopathies can be divided into 3 different forms: paramyotonia, potassium-aggravated myotonia, and periodic paralysis. Potassium-aggravated myotonia includes mild myotonia fluctuans, severe myotonia permanens, and acetazolamide-responsive myotonia. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
444151
Concept ID:
C2931826
Disease or Syndrome
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