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1.

Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 1A

Pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH) refers to a group of severe neurodegenerative disorders affecting growth and function of the brainstem and cerebellum, resulting in little or no development. Different types were classified based on the clinical picture and the spectrum of pathologic changes. PCH type 1 is characterized by central and peripheral motor dysfunction associated with anterior horn cell degeneration resembling infantile spinal muscular atrophy (SMA; see SMA1, 253300); death usually occurs early. Genetic Heterogeneity of Pontocerebellar Hypoplasia Also see PCH1B (614678), caused by mutation in the EXOSC3 gene (606489); PCH1C (616081), caused by mutation in the EXOSC8 gene (606019); PCH1D (618065), caused by mutation in the EXOSC9 gene (606180); PCH1E (619303), caused by mutation in the SLC25A46 gene (610826); PCH1F (619304), caused by mutation in the EXOSC1 gene (606493); PCH2A (277470), caused by mutation in the TSEN54 gene (608755); PCH2B (612389), caused by mutation in the TSEN2 gene (608753); PCH2C (612390), caused by mutation in the TSEN34 gene (608754); PCH2D (613811), caused by mutation in the SEPSECS gene (613009); PCH3 (608027), caused by mutation in the PCLO gene (604918); PCH4 (225753), caused by mutation in the TSEN54 gene; PCH5 (610204), caused by mutation in the TSEN54 gene; PCH6 (611523), caused by mutation in the RARS2 gene (611524); PCH7 (614969), caused by mutation in the TOE1 gene (613931); PCH8 (614961), caused by mutation in the CHMP1A gene (164010); PCH9 (615809), caused by mutation in the AMPD2 gene (102771); PCH10 (615803), caused by mutation in the CLP1 gene (608757); PCH11 (617695), caused by mutation in the TBC1D23 gene (617687); PCH12 (618266), caused by mutation in the COASY gene (609855); PCH13 (618606), caused by mutation in the VPS51 gene (615738); PCH14 (619301), caused by mutation in the PPIL1 gene (601301); PCH15 (619302), caused by mutation in the CDC40 gene (605585); PCH16 (619527), caused by mutation in the MINPP1 gene (605391); and PCH17 (619909), caused by mutation in the PRDM13 gene (616741) on chromosome 6q16. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
335969
Concept ID:
C1843504
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Supranuclear palsy, progressive, 1

The spectrum of clinical manifestations of MAPT-related frontotemporal dementia (MAPT-FTD) has expanded from its original description of frontotemporal dementia and parkinsonian manifestations to include changes in behavior, motor function, memory, and/or language. A recent retrospective study suggested that the majority of affected individuals have either behavioral changes consistent with a diagnosis of behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD) or, less commonly, a parkinsonian syndrome (i.e., progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal syndrome, or Parkinson disease). Fewer than 5% of people with MAPT-FTD have primary progressive aphasia or Alzheimer disease. Clinical presentation may differ between and within families with the same MAPT variant. MAPT-FTD is a progressive disorder that commonly ends with a relatively global dementia in which some affected individuals become mute. Progression of motor impairment in affected individuals results in some becoming chairbound and others bedbound. Mean disease duration is 9.3 (SD: 6.4) years but is individually variable and can be more than 30 years in some instances. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1640811
Concept ID:
C4551863
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Cardioencephalomyopathy, fatal infantile, due to cytochrome c oxidase deficiency 1

Mitochondrial complex IV deficiency nuclear type 2 (MC4DN2) is an autosomal recessive multisystem metabolic disorder characterized by the onset of symptoms at birth or in the first weeks or months of life. Affected individuals have severe hypotonia, often associated with feeding difficulties and respiratory insufficiency necessitating tube feeding and mechanical ventilation. The vast majority of patients develop hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in the first days or weeks of life, which usually leads to death in infancy or early childhood. Patients also show neurologic abnormalities, including developmental delay, nystagmus, fasciculations, dystonia, EEG changes, and brain imaging abnormalities compatible with a diagnosis of Leigh syndrome (see 256000). There may also be evidence of systemic involvement with hepatomegaly and myopathy, although neurogenic muscle atrophy is more common and may resemble spinal muscular atrophy type I (SMA1; 253300). Serum lactate is increased, and laboratory studies show decreased mitochondrial complex IV protein and activity levels in various tissues, including heart and skeletal muscle. Most patients die in infancy of cardiorespiratory failure (summary by Papadopoulou et al., 1999). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) deficiency, see 220110. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1748867
Concept ID:
C5399977
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Supranuclear palsy, progressive, 2

MedGen UID:
324446
Concept ID:
C1836148
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Neuronal loss in basal ganglia

A reduction in the number of nerve cells in the basal ganglia. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
413431
Concept ID:
C2750913
Finding
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