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Hypoplasia of the odontoid process

MedGen UID:
339524
Concept ID:
C1846439
Finding
Synonym: Odontoid hypoplasia
 
HPO: HP:0003311
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0013333
OMIM®: 613628

Definition

The odontoid process, or dens, is a bony projection from the axis (C2) upward into the ring of the atlas (C1) at the top of the spine. During embryogenesis, the body of the odontoid derives from the centrum of the atlas and separates from the atlas, fusing with the superior portion of the axis. If the odontoid is hypoplastic or absent, the attachments for the apical and alar ligaments are missing, allowing for excessive rotation of the atlas, craniocervical instability, and possibly cord compression (summary by Stevens et al., 2009). [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Atlantoaxial instability
MedGen UID:
98381
Concept ID:
C0410653
Disease or Syndrome
Abnormally increased movement at the junction between the first cervical (atlas) and the second cervical (axis) vertebrae as a result of either a bony or ligamentous anomaly.
Hypoplasia of the odontoid process
MedGen UID:
339524
Concept ID:
C1846439
Finding
The odontoid process, or dens, is a bony projection from the axis (C2) upward into the ring of the atlas (C1) at the top of the spine. During embryogenesis, the body of the odontoid derives from the centrum of the atlas and separates from the atlas, fusing with the superior portion of the axis. If the odontoid is hypoplastic or absent, the attachments for the apical and alar ligaments are missing, allowing for excessive rotation of the atlas, craniocervical instability, and possibly cord compression (summary by Stevens et al., 2009).
Cervical instability
MedGen UID:
350138
Concept ID:
C1863314
Finding
Dystopic os odontoideum
MedGen UID:
765757
Concept ID:
C3552843
Finding
Os odontoideum is classified into two anatomic types (orthotopic and dystopic). Os odontoideum is defined as an ossicle that consists of smooth and separate caudal portions of the odontoid process. With orthotopic os odontoideum, the ossicle moves with the anterior arch of the atlas, while the dystopic type consists of an ossicle near the basion, or one that is fused with the clivus

Conditions with this feature

Mucopolysaccharidosis type 6
MedGen UID:
44514
Concept ID:
C0026709
Disease or Syndrome
Mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS6) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder resulting from a deficiency of arylsulfatase B. Clinical features and severity are variable, but usually include short stature, hepatosplenomegaly, dysostosis multiplex, stiff joints, corneal clouding, cardiac abnormalities, and facial dysmorphism. Intelligence is usually normal (Azevedo et al., 2004).
Mucopolysaccharidosis type 7
MedGen UID:
43108
Concept ID:
C0085132
Disease or Syndrome
Mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS7) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease characterized by the inability to degrade glucuronic acid-containing glycosaminoglycans. The phenotype is highly variable, ranging from severe lethal hydrops fetalis to mild forms with survival into adulthood. Most patients with the intermediate phenotype show hepatomegaly, skeletal anomalies, coarse facies, and variable degrees of mental impairment (Shipley et al., 1993). MPS VII was the first autosomal mucopolysaccharidosis for which chromosomal assignment was achieved.
Mucopolysaccharidosis, MPS-IV-A
MedGen UID:
43375
Concept ID:
C0086651
Disease or Syndrome
The phenotypic spectrum of mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA) is a continuum that ranges from a severe and rapidly progressive early-onset form to a slowly progressive later-onset form. Children with MPS IVA typically have no distinctive clinical findings at birth. The severe form is usually apparent between ages one and three years, often first manifesting as kyphoscoliosis, genu valgum (knock-knee), and pectus carinatum; the slowly progressive form may not become evident until late childhood or adolescence, often first manifesting as hip problems (pain, stiffness, and Legg Perthes disease). Progressive bone and joint involvement leads to short stature, and eventually to disabling pain and arthritis. Involvement of other organ systems can lead to significant morbidity, including respiratory compromise, obstructive sleep apnea, valvular heart disease, hearing impairment, visual impairment from corneal clouding, dental abnormalities, and hepatomegaly. Compression of the spinal cord is a common complication that results in neurologic impairment. Children with MPS IVA have normal intellectual abilities at the outset of the disease.
Mucopolysaccharidosis, MPS-IV-B
MedGen UID:
43376
Concept ID:
C0086652
Disease or Syndrome
GLB1-related disorders comprise two phenotypically distinct lysosomal storage disorders: GM1 gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis type IVB (MPS IVB). The phenotype of GM1 gangliosidosis constitutes a spectrum ranging from severe (infantile) to intermediate (late-infantile and juvenile) to mild (chronic/adult). Type I (infantile) GM1 gangliosidosis begins before age 12 months. Prenatal manifestations may include nonimmune hydrops fetalis, intrauterine growth restriction, and placental vacuolization; congenital dermal melanocytosis (Mongolian spots) may be observed. Macular cherry-red spot is detected on eye exam. Progressive central nervous system dysfunction leads to spasticity and rapid regression; blindness, deafness, decerebrate rigidity, seizures, feeding difficulties, and oral secretions are observed. Life expectancy is two to three years. Type II can be subdivided into the late-infantile (onset age 1-3 years) and juvenile (onset age 3-10 years) phenotypes. Central nervous system dysfunction manifests as progressive cognitive, motor, and speech decline as measured by psychometric testing. There may be mild corneal clouding, hepatosplenomegaly, and/or cardiomyopathy; the typical course is characterized by progressive neurologic decline, progressive skeletal disease in some individuals (including kyphosis and avascular necrosis of the femoral heads), and progressive feeding difficulties leading to aspiration risk. Type III begins in late childhood to the third decade with generalized dystonia leading to unsteady gait and speech disturbance followed by extrapyramidal signs including akinetic-rigid parkinsonism. Cardiomyopathy develops in some and skeletal involvement occurs in most. Intellectual impairment is common late in the disease with prognosis directly related to the degree of neurologic impairment. MPS IVB is characterized by skeletal dysplasia with specific findings of axial and appendicular dysostosis multiplex, short stature (below 15th centile in adults), kyphoscoliosis, coxa/genu valga, joint laxity, platyspondyly, and odontoid hypoplasia. First signs and symptoms may be apparent at birth. Bony involvement is progressive, with more than 84% of adults requiring ambulation aids; life span does not appear to be limited. Corneal clouding is detected in some individuals and cardiac valvular disease may develop.
Hurler syndrome
MedGen UID:
39698
Concept ID:
C0086795
Disease or Syndrome
Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is a progressive multisystem disorder with features ranging over a continuum of severity. While affected individuals have traditionally been classified as having one of three MPS I syndromes (Hurler syndrome, Hurler-Scheie syndrome, or Scheie syndrome), no easily measurable biochemical differences have been identified and the clinical findings overlap. Affected individuals are best described as having either a phenotype consistent with either severe (Hurler syndrome) or attenuated MPS I, a distinction that influences therapeutic options. Severe MPS I. Infants appear normal at birth. Typical early manifestations are nonspecific (e.g., umbilical or inguinal hernia, frequent upper respiratory tract infections before age 1 year). Coarsening of the facial features may not become apparent until after age one year. Gibbus deformity of the lower spine is common and often noted within the first year. Progressive skeletal dysplasia (dysostosis multiplex) involving all bones is universal, as is progressive arthropathy involving most joints. By age three years, linear growth decreases. Intellectual disability is progressive and profound but may not be readily apparent in the first year of life. Progressive cardiorespiratory involvement, hearing loss, and corneal clouding are common. Without treatment, death (typically from cardiorespiratory failure) usually occurs within the first ten years of life. Attenuated MPS I. Clinical onset is usually between ages three and ten years. The severity and rate of disease progression range from serious life-threatening complications leading to death in the second to third decade, to a normal life span complicated by significant disability from progressive joint manifestations and cardiorespiratory disease. While some individuals have no neurologic involvement and psychomotor development may be normal in early childhood, learning disabilities and psychiatric manifestations can be present later in life. Hearing loss, cardiac valvular disease, respiratory involvement, and corneal clouding are common.
Aarskog syndrome
MedGen UID:
61234
Concept ID:
C0175701
Disease or Syndrome
Aarskog-Scott syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects the development of many parts of the body, most commonly the head and face, the hands and feet, and the genitals and urinary system (genitourinary tract). This condition mainly affects males, although females may have mild features of the syndrome.\n\nPeople with Aarskog-Scott syndrome often have distinctive facial features, such as widely spaced eyes (hypertelorism), a small nose, a long area between the nose and mouth (philtrum), and a widow's peak hairline. They frequently have mild to moderate short stature during childhood, but their growth usually catches up with that of their peers during puberty. Hand abnormalities are common in this syndrome and include short fingers (brachydactyly), curved pinky fingers (fifth finger clinodactyly), webbing of the skin between some fingers (cutaneous syndactyly), and a single crease across the palm. Affected individuals can also have wide, flat feet with broad, rounded toes. Other abnormalities in people with Aarskog-Scott syndrome include heart defects and a split in the upper lip (cleft lip) with or without an opening in the roof of the mouth (cleft palate).\n\nMost males with Aarskog-Scott syndrome have a shawl scrotum, in which the scrotum surrounds the penis instead of hanging below. Less often, they have undescended testes (cryptorchidism) or a soft out-pouching around the belly-button (umbilical hernia) or in the lower abdomen (inguinal hernia).\n\nThe intellectual development of people with Aarskog-Scott syndrome varies widely. Most individuals with Aarskog-Scott syndrome have normal intelligence; however, some may have mild learning and behavior problems, and in rare cases, severe intellectual disability has been reported.
Metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, McKusick type
MedGen UID:
67398
Concept ID:
C0220748
Congenital Abnormality
The cartilage-hair hypoplasia – anauxetic dysplasia (CHH-AD) spectrum disorders are a continuum that includes the following phenotypes: Metaphyseal dysplasia without hypotrichosis (MDWH). Cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH). Anauxetic dysplasia (AD). CHH-AD spectrum disorders are characterized by severe disproportionate (short-limb) short stature that is usually recognized in the newborn, and occasionally prenatally because of the short extremities. Other findings include joint hypermobility, fine silky hair, immunodeficiency, anemia, increased risk for malignancy, gastrointestinal dysfunction, and impaired spermatogenesis. The most severe phenotype, AD, has the most pronounced skeletal phenotype, may be associated with atlantoaxial subluxation in the newborn, and may include cognitive deficiency. The clinical manifestations of the CHH-AD spectrum disorders are variable, even within the same family.
Marshall-Smith syndrome
MedGen UID:
75551
Concept ID:
C0265211
Disease or Syndrome
The Marshall-Smith syndrome (MRSHSS) is a malformation syndrome characterized by accelerated skeletal maturation, relative failure to thrive, respiratory difficulties, mental retardation, and unusual facies, including prominent forehead, shallow orbits, blue sclerae, depressed nasal bridge, and micrognathia (Adam et al., 2005).
Spondylometaphyseal dysplasia, Kozlowski type
MedGen UID:
82698
Concept ID:
C0265280
Congenital Abnormality
The autosomal dominant TRPV4 disorders (previously considered to be clinically distinct phenotypes before their molecular basis was discovered) are now grouped into neuromuscular disorders and skeletal dysplasias; however, the overlap within each group is considerable. Affected individuals typically have either neuromuscular or skeletal manifestations alone, and in only rare instances an overlap syndrome has been reported. The three autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorders (mildest to most severe) are: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2C. Scapuloperoneal spinal muscular atrophy. Congenital distal spinal muscular atrophy. The autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorders are characterized by a congenital-onset, static, or later-onset progressive peripheral neuropathy with variable combinations of laryngeal dysfunction (i.e., vocal fold paresis), respiratory dysfunction, and joint contractures. The six autosomal dominant skeletal dysplasias (mildest to most severe) are: Familial digital arthropathy-brachydactyly. Autosomal dominant brachyolmia. Spondylometaphyseal dysplasia, Kozlowski type. Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, Maroteaux type. Parastremmatic dysplasia. Metatropic dysplasia. The skeletal dysplasia is characterized by brachydactyly (in all 6); the five that are more severe have short stature that varies from mild to severe with progressive spinal deformity and involvement of the long bones and pelvis. In the mildest of the autosomal dominant TRPV4 disorders life span is normal; in the most severe it is shortened. Bilateral progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) can occur with both autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorders and skeletal dysplasias.
Metatropic dysplasia
MedGen UID:
82699
Concept ID:
C0265281
Congenital Abnormality
The autosomal dominant TRPV4 disorders (previously considered to be clinically distinct phenotypes before their molecular basis was discovered) are now grouped into neuromuscular disorders and skeletal dysplasias; however, the overlap within each group is considerable. Affected individuals typically have either neuromuscular or skeletal manifestations alone, and in only rare instances an overlap syndrome has been reported. The three autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorders (mildest to most severe) are: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2C. Scapuloperoneal spinal muscular atrophy. Congenital distal spinal muscular atrophy. The autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorders are characterized by a congenital-onset, static, or later-onset progressive peripheral neuropathy with variable combinations of laryngeal dysfunction (i.e., vocal fold paresis), respiratory dysfunction, and joint contractures. The six autosomal dominant skeletal dysplasias (mildest to most severe) are: Familial digital arthropathy-brachydactyly. Autosomal dominant brachyolmia. Spondylometaphyseal dysplasia, Kozlowski type. Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, Maroteaux type. Parastremmatic dysplasia. Metatropic dysplasia. The skeletal dysplasia is characterized by brachydactyly (in all 6); the five that are more severe have short stature that varies from mild to severe with progressive spinal deformity and involvement of the long bones and pelvis. In the mildest of the autosomal dominant TRPV4 disorders life span is normal; in the most severe it is shortened. Bilateral progressive sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) can occur with both autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorders and skeletal dysplasias.
Dyggve-Melchior-Clausen syndrome
MedGen UID:
120527
Concept ID:
C0265286
Disease or Syndrome
Dyggve-Melchior-Clausen disease (DMC) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by progressive spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia and impaired intellectual development. Short-trunk dwarfism and microcephaly are present, and specific radiologic appearances most likely reflect abnormalities of the growth plates, including platyspondyly with notched end plates, metaphyseal irregularities, laterally displaced capital femoral epiphyses, and small iliac wings with lacy iliac crests (summary by El Ghouzzi et al., 2003).
Pseudoachondroplastic spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia syndrome
MedGen UID:
98378
Concept ID:
C0410538
Congenital Abnormality
Pseudoachondroplasia is characterized by normal length at birth and normal facies. Often the presenting feature is a waddling gait, recognized at the onset of walking. Typically, the growth rate falls below the standard growth curve by approximately age two years, leading to a moderately severe form of disproportionate short-limb short stature. Joint pain during childhood, particularly in the large joints of the lower extremities, is common. Degenerative joint disease is progressive; approximately 50% of individuals with pseudoachondroplasia eventually require hip replacement surgery.
Pseudodiastrophic dysplasia
MedGen UID:
140924
Concept ID:
C0432206
Disease or Syndrome
Pseudodiastrophic dysplasia (PDD) is an extremely rare and severe skeletal dysplasia associated with prenatal manifestation and early lethality. Phenotypic features include short-limbed short stature at birth, facial dysmorphism, and distinctive skeletal abnormalities including short ribs, mild to moderate platyspondyly, shortened long bones with metaphyseal flaring, elongation of the proximal and middle phalanges with subluxation of the proximal interphalangeal joints, subluxation of the elbow, and talipes equinovarus (summary by Byrne et al., 2020). Based on genetic analysis of patients with a clinical diagnosis of PDD, Byrne et al. (2020) proposed that PDD is likely not a separate genetic disorder, but rather the most severe phenotypic manifestation of skeletal dysplasia arising from defects in proteoglycan (PG) biosynthesis (see MOLECULAR GENETICS).
Wolcott-Rallison dysplasia
MedGen UID:
140926
Concept ID:
C0432217
Disease or Syndrome
Wolcott-Rallison syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by permanent neonatal or early infancy insulin-dependent diabetes. Epiphyseal dysplasia, osteoporosis, and growth retardation develop at a later age. Other frequent multisystem manifestations include hepatic and renal dysfunction, mental retardation, and cardiovascular abnormalities (summary by Delepine et al., 2000).
Opsismodysplasia
MedGen UID:
140927
Concept ID:
C0432219
Disease or Syndrome
Opsismodysplasia (OPSMD) is a rare skeletal dysplasia involving delayed bone maturation. Clinical signs observed at birth include short limbs, small hands and feet, relative macrocephaly with a large anterior fontanel, and characteristic craniofacial abnormalities including a prominent brow, depressed nasal bridge, a small anteverted nose, and a relatively long philtrum. Death in utero or secondary to respiratory failure during the first few years of life has been reported, but there can be long-term survival. Typical radiographic findings include shortened long bones with delayed epiphyseal ossification, severe platyspondyly, metaphyseal cupping, and characteristic abnormalities of the metacarpals and phalanges (summary by Below et al., 2013 and Fradet and Fitzgerald, 2017).
Spondylometaphyseal dysplasia - Sutcliffe type
MedGen UID:
98146
Concept ID:
C0432221
Disease or Syndrome
Spondylometaphyseal dysplasia, corner fracture type (SMDCF) is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by short stature and a waddling gait in early childhood. Short stature may be present at birth or develop in early infancy. Individuals may present with short limbs and/or short trunk. Radiographic features include enlargement and corner fracture-like lesions of the metaphyses, developmental coxa vara, shortened long bones, scoliosis, and vertebral anomalies. Limited joint mobility and chronic pain are common. Vision impairment and glaucoma have been reported.
Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, Strudwick type
MedGen UID:
147134
Concept ID:
C0700635
Finding
The Strudwick type of spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia (SEMD) is characterized by disproportionate short stature, pectus carinatum, and scoliosis, as well as dappled metaphyses (summary by Tiller et al., 1995).
Microcephalic osteodysplastic dysplasia, Saul-Wilson type
MedGen UID:
722057
Concept ID:
C1300285
Disease or Syndrome
Saul-Wilson syndrome (SWS) is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by profound short stature, distinctive craniofacial features, short distal phalanges of fingers and toes, and often clubfoot. Early development (primarily speech and motor) is delayed; cognition is normal. Other findings can include hearing loss (conductive, sensorineural, and mixed), lamellar cataracts, and/or rod-cone retinal dystrophy. To date, 16 affected individuals have been reported.
CODAS syndrome
MedGen UID:
333031
Concept ID:
C1838180
Disease or Syndrome
CODAS is an acronym for cerebral, ocular, dental, auricular, and skeletal anomalies. CODAS syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by a distinctive constellation of features that includes developmental delay, craniofacial anomalies, cataracts, ptosis, median nasal groove, delayed tooth eruption, hearing loss, short stature, delayed epiphyseal ossification, metaphyseal hip dysplasia, and vertebral coronal clefts (summary by Strauss et al., 2015).
Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, Bieganski type
MedGen UID:
335350
Concept ID:
C1846148
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with hypomyelinating leukodystrophy (SEMDHL) is an X-linked recessive developmental disorder characterized by slowly progressive skeletal and neurologic abnormalities, including short stature, large and deformed joints, significant motor impairment, visual defects, and sometimes cognitive deficits. Affected individuals typically have normal early development in the first year or so of life, followed by development regression and the development of symptoms. Brain imaging shows white matter abnormalities consistent with hypomyelinating leukodystrophy (summary by Miyake et al., 2017).
Hypoplasia of the odontoid process
MedGen UID:
339524
Concept ID:
C1846439
Finding
The odontoid process, or dens, is a bony projection from the axis (C2) upward into the ring of the atlas (C1) at the top of the spine. During embryogenesis, the body of the odontoid derives from the centrum of the atlas and separates from the atlas, fusing with the superior portion of the axis. If the odontoid is hypoplastic or absent, the attachments for the apical and alar ligaments are missing, allowing for excessive rotation of the atlas, craniocervical instability, and possibly cord compression (summary by Stevens et al., 2009).
X-linked spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia
MedGen UID:
376281
Concept ID:
C1848097
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic primary bone dysplasia disorder with characteristics of disproportionate short stature with mesomelic short limbs, leg bowing, lumbar lordosis, brachydactyly, joint laxity and a waddling gait. Radiographs show platyspondyly with central protrusion of anterior vertebral bodies, kyphotic angulation and very short long bones with dysplastic epiphyses and flared, irregular, cupped metaphyses.
Spondylocarpotarsal synostosis syndrome
MedGen UID:
341339
Concept ID:
C1848934
Disease or Syndrome
The FLNB disorders include a spectrum of phenotypes ranging from mild to severe. At the mild end are spondylocarpotarsal synostosis (SCT) syndrome and Larsen syndrome; at the severe end are the phenotypic continuum of atelosteogenesis types I (AOI) and III (AOIII) and Piepkorn osteochondrodysplasia (POCD). SCT syndrome is characterized by postnatal disproportionate short stature, scoliosis and lordosis, clubfeet, hearing loss, dental enamel hypoplasia, carpal and tarsal synostosis, and vertebral fusions. Larsen syndrome is characterized by congenital dislocations of the hip, knee, and elbow; clubfeet (equinovarus or equinovalgus foot deformities); scoliosis and cervical kyphosis, which can be associated with a cervical myelopathy; short, broad, spatulate distal phalanges; distinctive craniofacies (prominent forehead, depressed nasal bridge, malar flattening, and widely spaced eyes); vertebral anomalies; and supernumerary carpal and tarsal bone ossification centers. Individuals with SCT syndrome and Larsen syndrome can have midline cleft palate and hearing loss. AOI and AOIII are characterized by severe short-limbed dwarfism; dislocated hips, knees, and elbows; and clubfeet. AOI is lethal in the perinatal period. In individuals with AOIII, survival beyond the neonatal period is possible with intensive and invasive respiratory support. Piepkorn osteochondrodysplasia (POCD) is a perinatal-lethal micromelic dwarfism characterized by flipper-like limbs (polysyndactyly with complete syndactyly of all fingers and toes, hypoplastic or absent first digits, and duplicated intermediate and distal phalanges), macrobrachycephaly, prominant forehead, hypertelorism, and exophthalmos. Occasional features include cleft palate, omphalocele, and cardiac and genitourinary anomalies. The radiographic features at mid-gestation are characteristic.
Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia-short limb-abnormal calcification syndrome
MedGen UID:
338595
Concept ID:
C1849011
Disease or Syndrome
Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia-short limb-abnormal calcification syndrome is a rare, genetic primary bone dysplasia disorder characterized by disproportionate short stature with shortening of upper and lower limbs, short and broad fingers with short hands, narrowed chest with rib abnormalities and pectus excavatum, abnormal chondral calcifications (incl. larynx, trachea and costal cartilages) and facial dysmorphism (frontal bossing, hypertelorism, prominent eyes, short flat nose, wide nostrils, high-arched palate, long philtrum). Platyspondyly (esp. of cervical spine) and abnormal epiphyses and metaphyses are observed on radiography. Atlantoaxial instability causing spinal compression and recurrent respiratory disease are potential complications that may result lethal.
Spondylocostal dysostosis 3, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
377871
Concept ID:
C1853296
Disease or Syndrome
Spondylocostal dysostosis (SCDO), defined radiographically as multiple segmentation defects of the vertebrae (M-SDV) in combination with abnormalities of the ribs, is characterized clinically by: a short trunk in proportion to height; short neck; non-progressive mild scoliosis in most affected individuals, and occasionally, more significant scoliosis. Respiratory function in neonates may be compromised by reduced size of the thorax. By age two years lung growth may improve sufficiently to support relatively normal growth and development; however, even then life-threatening complications can occur, especially pulmonary hypertension in children with severely restricted lung capacity from birth. Males with SCDO appear to be at increased risk for inguinal hernia.
Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia tarda, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
355785
Concept ID:
C1866717
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal domiant spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia tarda (autosomal dominant SEDT) is an inherited condition that affects bone growth. Signs and symptoms are generally physically apparent by puberty; however, abnormalities may be seen on X-ray at an earlier age. Affected people may have skeletal abnormalities, short stature (with a short neck and trunk, specifically), scoliosis, kyphosis, lumbar hyperlordosis (exaggerated curvature of the lower back), and early-onset progressive osteoarthritis of the hips and knees. Some cases of autosomal dominant SEDT may be caused by changes (mutations) in the COL2A1 gene. As the name suggests, the condition is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. Treatment is based on the signs and symptoms present in each person and may include surgery and pain management strategies.
Mucolipidosis type II
MedGen UID:
435914
Concept ID:
C2673377
Disease or Syndrome
GNPTAB-related disorders comprise the phenotypes mucolipidosis II (ML II) and mucolipidosis IIIa/ß (ML IIIa/ß), and phenotypes intermediate between ML II and ML IIIa/ß. ML II is evident at birth and slowly progressive; death most often occurs in early childhood. Orthopedic abnormalities present at birth may include thoracic deformity, kyphosis, clubfeet, deformed long bones, and/or dislocation of the hip(s). Growth often ceases in the second year of life; contractures develop in all large joints. The skin is thickened, facial features are coarse, and gingiva are hypertrophic. All children have cardiac involvement, most commonly thickening and insufficiency of the mitral valve and, less frequently, the aortic valve. Progressive mucosal thickening narrows the airways, and gradual stiffening of the thoracic cage contributes to respiratory insufficiency, the most common cause of death. ML IIIa/ß becomes evident at about age three years with slow growth rate and short stature; joint stiffness and pain initially in the shoulders, hips, and fingers; gradual mild coarsening of facial features; and normal to mildly impaired cognitive development. Pain from osteoporosis becomes more severe during adolescence. Cardiorespiratory complications (restrictive lung disease, thickening and insufficiency of the mitral and aortic valves, left and/or right ventricular hypertrophy) are common causes of death, typically in early to middle adulthood. Phenotypes intermediate between ML II and ML IIIa/ß are characterized by physical growth in infancy that resembles that of ML II and neuromotor and speech development that resemble that of ML IIIa/ß.
Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita
MedGen UID:
412530
Concept ID:
C2745959
Congenital Abnormality
Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita (SEDC) is an autosomal dominant chondrodysplasia characterized by disproportionate short stature (short trunk), abnormal epiphyses, and flattened vertebral bodies. Skeletal features are manifested at birth and evolve with time. Other features include myopia and/or retinal degeneration with retinal detachment and cleft palate (summary by Anderson et al., 1990).
Orofaciodigital syndrome XI
MedGen UID:
416694
Concept ID:
C2752048
Disease or Syndrome
An extremely rare, sporadic form of Orofaciodigital syndrome with only a few reported cases and characteristics of facial (blepharophimosis, bulbous nasal tip, broad nasal bridge, downslanting palpebral fissures and low set ears) and skeletal (post-axial polydactyly and fusion of vertebrae) malformations along with severe intellectual disability, deafness and congenital heart defects.
Smith-McCort dysplasia 2
MedGen UID:
811489
Concept ID:
C3714896
Disease or Syndrome
Smith-McCort dysplasia is a rare autosomal recessive osteochondrodysplasia characterized by short trunk dwarfism with a barrel-shaped chest, rhizomelic limb shortening, and specific radiologic features including marked platyspondyly with double-humped end-plates, kyphoscoliosis, metaphyseal irregularities, laterally displaced capital femoral epiphyses, and small pelvis with a lace-like appearance of iliac crests. These clinical and radiologic features are also common to Dyggve-Melchior-Clausen syndrome (DMC; 223800), which is distinguished from SMC by the additional feature of mental retardation (summary by Dupuis et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Smith-McCort dysplasia, see SMC1 (607326).
Smith-McCort dysplasia 1
MedGen UID:
854757
Concept ID:
C3888088
Disease or Syndrome
Any Smith-McCort dysplasia in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the DYM gene.
Cataract-growth hormone deficiency-sensory neuropathy-sensorineural hearing loss-skeletal dysplasia syndrome
MedGen UID:
863379
Concept ID:
C4014942
Disease or Syndrome
CAGSSS, which comprises cataracts, growth hormone deficiency, sensory neuropathy, sensorineural hearing loss, and skeletal dysplasia, is an autosomal recessive multisystemic disorder with a highly variable phenotypic spectrum. Not all of these features are always present, and almost all the features may present at different times and/or become more apparent with age. The skeletal features are consistent with spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia (SEMD) (summary by Vona et al., 2018). One family had a distinctive presentation with infantile-onset intractable seizures and cortical abnormalities reminiscent of Leigh syndrome (see 256000). The correlation between genotype and phenotype remains unclear, but since the IARS2 gene is involved in mitochondrial function, heterogeneous manifestations can be expected (Takezawa et al., 2018).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Tomatsu S, Montaño AM, Oikawa H, Smith M, Barrera L, Chinen Y, Thacker MM, Mackenzie WG, Suzuki Y, Orii T
Curr Pharm Biotechnol 2011 Jun;12(6):931-45. doi: 10.2174/138920111795542615. PMID: 21506915

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Huang PJ, Lin JH, Chiang YH
World Neurosurg 2020 Jun;138:e634-e641. Epub 2020 Mar 13 doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2020.03.023. PMID: 32173550
Öğüt E, Şekerci R, Şen H, Çakın H, Gediz T, Keles-Celik N
Surg Radiol Anat 2020 Jun;42(6):701-710. Epub 2020 Jan 27 doi: 10.1007/s00276-020-02421-x. PMID: 31989216
Shen W, Cui J, Chen J, Ji Y, Zou J, Chen H, Xiongzheng M
J Craniofac Surg 2013 May;24(3):934-6. doi: 10.1097/SCS.0b013e31828606a1. PMID: 23714914
Stevens CA, Pearce RG, Burton EM
Am J Med Genet A 2009 Jun;149A(6):1290-2. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.32860. PMID: 19449423
Ahmed R, Traynelis VC, Menezes AH
Childs Nerv Syst 2008 Oct;24(10):1209-24. Epub 2008 Apr 4 doi: 10.1007/s00381-008-0607-7. PMID: 18389260

Diagnosis

Wang Y, Song C, Ji Y, Xia J, Chen C, Haque M, Zhuang J, Zhou C, Zu J, Li X, Yan J
World Neurosurg 2023 Mar;171:e1-e7. Epub 2022 Aug 29 doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2022.08.108. PMID: 36049725
González-Ruiz A, Santos AL
Anthropol Anz 2022 Feb 2;79(1):95-100. doi: 10.1127/anthranz/2021/1454. PMID: 34487134
Prasad A, Shah A, Sasane S, Goel A
World Neurosurg 2020 Sep;141:215-218. Epub 2020 Jun 18 doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2020.06.102. PMID: 32565378
Öğüt E, Şekerci R, Şen H, Çakın H, Gediz T, Keles-Celik N
Surg Radiol Anat 2020 Jun;42(6):701-710. Epub 2020 Jan 27 doi: 10.1007/s00276-020-02421-x. PMID: 31989216
Shen W, Cui J, Chen J, Ji Y, Zou J, Chen H, Xiongzheng M
J Craniofac Surg 2013 May;24(3):934-6. doi: 10.1097/SCS.0b013e31828606a1. PMID: 23714914

Therapy

Kameda-Smith M, Biswas A, D'Arco F, Thompson D
Eur Spine J 2024 Mar;33(3):1164-1170. Epub 2023 Nov 23 doi: 10.1007/s00586-023-08044-1. PMID: 37994987
Wang W, Wang X, Ren X, Li Z, Su B, Xu Y, Xu X, Lv D, Liu W, Zhang S, Chen L, Li X
Folia Morphol (Warsz) 2020;79(4):845-850. Epub 2019 Dec 5 doi: 10.5603/FM.a2019.0130. PMID: 31802474
Perrini P, Benedetto N, Cacciola F, Gallina P, Di Lorenzo N
Acta Neurochir Suppl 2019;125:235-240. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-62515-7_33. PMID: 30610327
Ahmed R, Traynelis VC, Menezes AH
Childs Nerv Syst 2008 Oct;24(10):1209-24. Epub 2008 Apr 4 doi: 10.1007/s00381-008-0607-7. PMID: 18389260
Elliott S, Morton RE, Whitelaw RA
Arch Dis Child 1988 Dec;63(12):1484-9. doi: 10.1136/adc.63.12.1484. PMID: 2976586Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Huang PJ, Lin JH, Chiang YH
World Neurosurg 2020 Jun;138:e634-e641. Epub 2020 Mar 13 doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2020.03.023. PMID: 32173550
Öğüt E, Şekerci R, Şen H, Çakın H, Gediz T, Keles-Celik N
Surg Radiol Anat 2020 Jun;42(6):701-710. Epub 2020 Jan 27 doi: 10.1007/s00276-020-02421-x. PMID: 31989216
Shen W, Cui J, Chen J, Ji Y, Zou J, Chen H, Xiongzheng M
J Craniofac Surg 2013 May;24(3):934-6. doi: 10.1097/SCS.0b013e31828606a1. PMID: 23714914
Arponen H, Evälahti M, Waltimo-Sirén J
Childs Nerv Syst 2010 Jun;26(6):763-9. Epub 2009 Dec 10 doi: 10.1007/s00381-009-1058-5. PMID: 20012058
Di Silvestre M, Guizzardi S, Gargiulo G, Savini R
Chir Organi Mov 1991 Apr-Jun;76(2):179-91. PMID: 1756679

Clinical prediction guides

Wang Y, Song C, Ji Y, Xia J, Chen C, Haque M, Zhuang J, Zhou C, Zu J, Li X, Yan J
World Neurosurg 2023 Mar;171:e1-e7. Epub 2022 Aug 29 doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2022.08.108. PMID: 36049725
Song YS, Lee IS, Nam KH, Kim DH, Han IH, Lee H, Jeong YJ, Yeom JA
Medicina (Kaunas) 2022 Sep 19;58(9) doi: 10.3390/medicina58091307. PMID: 36143984Free PMC Article
González-Ruiz A, Santos AL
Anthropol Anz 2022 Feb 2;79(1):95-100. doi: 10.1127/anthranz/2021/1454. PMID: 34487134
Menezes AH
J Neurosurg Pediatr 2012 Jun;9(6):573-85. doi: 10.3171/2012.2.PEDS11371. PMID: 22656246
Stevens CA, Pearce RG, Burton EM
Am J Med Genet A 2009 Jun;149A(6):1290-2. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.32860. PMID: 19449423

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