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Items: 9

1.

Saethre-Chotzen syndrome

Classic Saethre-Chotzen syndrome (SCS) is characterized by coronal synostosis (unilateral or bilateral), facial asymmetry (particularly in individuals with unicoronal synostosis), strabismus, ptosis, and characteristic appearance of the ear (small pinna with a prominent superior and/or inferior crus). Syndactyly of digits two and three of the hand is variably present. Cognitive development is usually normal, although those with a large genomic deletion are at an increased risk for intellectual challenges. Less common manifestations of SCS include other skeletal findings (parietal foramina, vertebral segmentation defects, radioulnar synostosis, maxillary hypoplasia, ocular hypertelorism, hallux valgus, duplicated or curved distal hallux), hypertelorism, palatal anomalies, obstructive sleep apnea, increased intracranial pressure, short stature, and congenital heart malformations. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
64221
Concept ID:
C0175699
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Baller-Gerold syndrome

Baller-Gerold syndrome (BGS) can be suspected at birth in an infant with craniosynostosis and upper limb abnormality. The coronal suture is most commonly affected; the metopic, lambdoid, and sagittal sutures may also be involved alone or in combination. Upper limb abnormality can include a combination of thumb hypo- or aplasia and radial hypo- or aplasia and may be asymmetric. Malformation or absence of carpal or metacarpal bones has also been described. Skin lesions may appear anytime within the first few years after birth, typically beginning with erythema of the face and extremities and evolving into poikiloderma. Slow growth is apparent in infancy with eventual height and length typically at 4 SD below the mean. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
120532
Concept ID:
C0265308
Disease or Syndrome
3.

TWIST1-related craniosynostosis

Craniosynostosis is a primary abnormality of skull growth involving premature fusion of the cranial sutures such that the growth velocity of the skull often cannot match that of the developing brain. This produces skull deformity and, in some cases, raises intracranial pressure, which must be treated promptly to avoid permanent neurodevelopmental disability (summary by Fitzpatrick, 2013). Mutation in the TWIST1 has been found to cause coronal and sagittal forms of craniosynostosis. Genetic Heterogeneity of Craniosynostosis Craniosynostosis-2 (CRS2; 604757) is caused by mutation in the MSX2 gene (123101) on chromosome 5q35. Craniosynostosis-3 (CRS3; 615314) is caused by mutation in the TCF12 gene (600480) on chromosome 15q21. Craniosynostosis-4 (CRS4; 600775) is caused by mutation in the ERF gene (611888) on chromosome 19q13. Susceptibility to craniosynostosis-5 (CRS5; 615529) is conferred by variation in the ALX4 gene (605420) on chromosome 11p11. Craniosynostosis-6 (CRS6; 616602) is caused by mutation in the ZIC1 gene (600470) on chromosome 3q24. Susceptibility to craniosynostosis-7 (CRS7; 617439) is conferred by variation in the SMAD6 gene (602931) on chromosome 15q22. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1646646
Concept ID:
C4551902
Disease or Syndrome
4.

MEGF8-related Carpenter syndrome

Carpenter syndrome-2 (CRPT2) is an autosomal recessive multiple congenital malformation disorder characterized by multisuture craniosynostosis and polysyndactyly of the hands and feet, in association with abnormal left-right patterning and other features, most commonly obesity, umbilical hernia, cryptorchidism, and congenital heart disease (summary by Twigg et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Carpenter syndrome, see 201000. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
767161
Concept ID:
C3554247
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Craniosynostosis and dental anomalies

CRSDA is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by craniosynostosis, maxillary hypoplasia, and dental anomalies, including malocclusion, delayed and ectopic tooth eruption, and/or supernumerary teeth. Some patients also display minor digit anomalies, such as syndactyly and/or clinodactyly (summary by Nieminen et al., 2011). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
481703
Concept ID:
C3280073
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Acrocephalopolydactyly

Acrocephalopolydactylous dysplasia, or Elejalde syndrome, is a lethal multiple congenital disorder characterized by increased birth weight, globular body with thick skin, organomegaly, and fibrosis in multiple tissues (summary by Phadke et al., 2011). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
501209
Concept ID:
C3495588
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Summitt syndrome

Summitt syndrome is an extremely rare disorder originally described in two brothers and with characteristics of mild to severe craniosynostosis and syndactyly, obesity and normal intelligence. Acrocephaly, brachydactyly, clinodactyly, mild syndactyly of the hands and feet, genu valgum and marked obesity were later described in another patient. There have been no further descriptions in the literature since 1979. [from SNOMEDCT_US]

MedGen UID:
369198
Concept ID:
C1802405
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Tolchin-Le Caignec syndrome

Tolchin-Le Caignec syndrome (TOLCAS) is a developmental disorder characterized by mildly to moderately impaired intellectual development and behavioral problems, such as autism, ADHD, labile mood, and aggressive episodes. Many patients have bony abnormalities, including osteochondroma, craniosynostosis, dysmorphic facies, arachnodactyly, and large head circumference. Rarely, additional congenital anomalies may also be observed. These additional features and the bony defects are highly variable (summary by Tolchin et al., 2020). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1724999
Concept ID:
C5436509
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Oxycephaly

Oxycephaly (from Greek oxus, sharp, and kephalos, head) refers to a conical or pointed shape of the skull. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
1634950
Concept ID:
C4551646
Congenital Abnormality
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