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Palmoplantar hyperkeratosis

MedGen UID:
44017
Concept ID:
C0022596
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: Palmoplantar keratosis
 
HPO: HP:0000972
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0006590

Definition

Abnormal thickening of the skin localized to the palm of the hand and the sole of the foot. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome
MedGen UID:
45306
Concept ID:
C0030360
Disease or Syndrome
Papillion-Lefevre syndrome (PALS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by palmoplantar keratoderma, periodontitis, and premature loss of dentition (summary by Lefevre et al., 2001).
Epidermolysis bullosa simplex 1A, generalized severe
MedGen UID:
38194
Concept ID:
C0079295
Disease or Syndrome
Epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS) is characterized by fragility of the skin (and mucosal epithelia in some instances) that results in non-scarring blisters and erosions caused by minor mechanical trauma. EBS is distinguished from other types of epidermolysis bullosa (EB) or non-EB skin fragility syndromes by the location of the blistering in relation to the dermal-epidermal junction. In EBS, blistering occurs within basal keratinocytes. The severity of blistering ranges from limited to hands and feet to widespread involvement. Additional features can include hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles (keratoderma), nail dystrophy, milia, and hyper- and/or hypopigmentation. Rare EBS subtypes have been associated with additional clinical features including pyloric atresia, muscular dystrophy, cardiomyopathy, and/or nephropathy.
Hidrotic ectodermal dysplasia syndrome
MedGen UID:
56416
Concept ID:
C0162361
Disease or Syndrome
Hidrotic ectodermal dysplasia 2, or Clouston syndrome (referred to as HED2 throughout this GeneReview) is characterized by a triad of major clinical features including partial-to-complete alopecia, nail dystrophy, and palmoplantar hyperkeratosis. Sweating is preserved and there are usually no dental anomalies. Sparse scalp hair and dysplastic nails are seen early in life. In infancy, scalp hair is fine, sparse, and brittle. Progressive hair loss may lead to total alopecia by puberty. The nails may be milky white in early childhood; they gradually become dystrophic, thick, and distally separated from the nail bed. Palmoplantar keratoderma may develop during childhood and increases in severity with age. Associated features may include cutaneous hyperpigmentation (particularly over the joints) and finger clubbing. The clinical manifestations are highly variable even within the same family.
Glucocorticoid deficiency with achalasia
MedGen UID:
82889
Concept ID:
C0271742
Disease or Syndrome
Triple A syndrome is an inherited condition characterized by three specific features: achalasia, Addison disease, and alacrima. Achalasia is a disorder that affects the ability to move food through the esophagus, the tube that carries food from the throat to the stomach. It can lead to severe feeding difficulties and low blood glucose (hypoglycemia). Addison disease, also known as primary adrenal insufficiency, is caused by abnormal function of the small hormone-producing glands on top of each kidney (adrenal glands). The main features of Addison disease include fatigue, loss of appetite, weight loss, low blood pressure, and darkening of the skin. The third major feature of triple A syndrome is a reduced or absent ability to secrete tears (alacrima). Most people with triple A syndrome have all three of these features, although some have only two.\n\nMany of the features of triple A syndrome are caused by dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system. This part of the nervous system controls involuntary body processes such as digestion, blood pressure, and body temperature. People with triple A syndrome often experience abnormal sweating, difficulty regulating blood pressure, unequal pupil size (anisocoria), and other signs and symptoms of autonomic nervous system dysfunction (dysautonomia).\n\nPeople with this condition may have other neurological abnormalities, such as developmental delay, intellectual disability, speech problems (dysarthria), and a small head size (microcephaly). In addition, affected individuals commonly experience muscle weakness, movement problems, and nerve abnormalities in their extremities (peripheral neuropathy). Some develop optic atrophy, which is the degeneration (atrophy) of the nerves that carry information from the eyes to the brain. Many of the neurological symptoms of triple A syndrome worsen over time.\n\nPeople with triple A syndrome frequently develop a thickening of the outer layer of skin (hyperkeratosis) on the palms of their hands and the soles of their feet. Other skin abnormalities may also be present in people with this condition.\n\nAlacrima is usually the first noticeable sign of triple A syndrome, as it becomes apparent early in life that affected children produce little or no tears while crying. They develop Addison disease and achalasia during childhood or adolescence, and most of the neurologic features of triple A syndrome begin during adulthood. The signs and symptoms of this condition vary among affected individuals, even among members of the same family.
Kindler syndrome
MedGen UID:
96060
Concept ID:
C0406557
Disease or Syndrome
Kindler syndrome (KS), a rare subtype of inherited epidermolysis bullosa, is characterized by skin fragility and acral blister formation beginning at birth, diffuse cutaneous atrophy, photosensitivity (most prominent during childhood and usually decreasing after adolescence), poikiloderma, diffuse palmoplantar hyperkeratosis, and pseudosyndactyly. Mucosal manifestations are also common and include hemorrhagic mucositis and gingivitis, periodontal disease, premature loss of teeth, and labial leukokeratosis. Other mucosal findings can include ectropion, urethral stenosis, and severe phimosis. Severe long-term complications of KS include periodontitis, mucosal strictures, and aggressive squamous cell carcinomas. Manifestations can range from mild to severe.
Dermatopathia pigmentosa reticularis
MedGen UID:
98037
Concept ID:
C0406778
Congenital Abnormality
Dermatopathia pigmentosa reticularis (DPR) is a rare heritable disorder consisting of a triad of cutaneous findings including reticulate hyperpigmentation, noncicatricial alopecia, and onychodystrophy. Variable features include adermatoglyphia, hypohidrosis or hyperhidrosis, and palmoplantar hyperkeratosis (Heimer et al., 1992).
Odonto-onycho-dermal dysplasia
MedGen UID:
208666
Concept ID:
C0796093
Disease or Syndrome
Odontoonychodermal dysplasia (OODD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by dry hair, severe hypodontia, smooth tongue with marked reduction of fungiform and filiform papillae, onychodysplasia, hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles, hypo- and hyperhidrosis of the skin, and atrophic patches on the face (summary by Adaimy et al., 2007; Yu et al., 2019).
Pachyonychia congenita 1
MedGen UID:
353335
Concept ID:
C1706595
Disease or Syndrome
Pachyonychia congenita (PC) is characterized by hypertrophic nail dystrophy, painful palmoplantar keratoderma and blistering, oral leukokeratosis, pilosebaceous cysts (including steatocystoma and vellus hair cysts), palmoplantar hyperhydrosis, and follicular keratoses on the trunk and extremities.
Localized epidermolytic hyperkeratosis
MedGen UID:
354561
Concept ID:
C1721006
Disease or Syndrome
Epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma-1 (EPPK1) is an autosomal dominant skin disorder characterized clinically by diffuse, yellow thickening of the skin of the palms and soles. There is no extension of the keratoderma to dorsal surfaces of hands and feet, inner wrists, and Achilles tendon area (transgrediens). Knuckle pads may be present in some individuals (summary by Kuster et al., 2002, Chiu et al., 2007). Genetic Heterogeneity of Epidermolytic Palmoplantar Keratoderma Epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma-2 (EPPK2; 620411) is caused by mutation in the keratin-1 gene (KRT1; 139350) on chromosome 12q13. Classification of Palmoplantar Keratoderma PPK has been classified into diffuse, focal, and punctate forms according to the pattern of hyperkeratosis on the palms and soles (Lucker et al., 1994). Diffuse PPK develops at birth or shortly thereafter and involves the entire palm and sole with a sharp cutoff at an erythematous border; there are no lesions outside the volar skin, and, in particular, no follicular or oral lesions. In contrast, focal PPK is a late-onset form in which focal hyperkeratotic lesions develop in response to mechanical trauma; an important distinguishing feature is the presence of lesions at other body sites, e.g., oral and follicular hyperkeratosis (Stevens et al., 1996). Palmoplantar keratodermas can be further subdivided histologically into epidermolytic and nonepidermolytic PPK (Risk et al., 1994). Genetic Heterogeneity of Palmoplantar Keratoderma Nonepidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma (NEPPK; 600962) is caused by mutation in the KRT1 gene. A focal form of NEPPK (FNEPPK1; 613000) is caused by mutation in the KRT16 gene (148067). Another focal form, FNEPPK2 (616400), is caused by mutation in the TRPV3 gene (607066); mutation in TRPV3 can also cause Olmsted syndrome (OLMS; 614594), a severe mutilating form of PPK. The diffuse Bothnian form of NEPPK (PPKB; 600231) is caused by mutation in the AQP5 gene (600442). The Nagashima type of nonepidermolytic diffuse PPK (PPKN; 615598) is caused by mutation in the SERPINB7 gene (603357). A generalized form of epidermolytic hyperkeratosis (EHK; 113800), also designated bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (BCIE), is caused by mutation in the keratin genes KRT1 and KRT10 (148080). For a discussion of punctate PPK, see 148600; for a discussion of striate PPK, see 148700.
Pachyonychia congenita 2
MedGen UID:
314107
Concept ID:
C1721007
Disease or Syndrome
Pachyonychia congenita (PC) is characterized by hypertrophic nail dystrophy, painful palmoplantar keratoderma and blistering, oral leukokeratosis, pilosebaceous cysts (including steatocystoma and vellus hair cysts), palmoplantar hyperhydrosis, and follicular keratoses on the trunk and extremities.
Palmoplantar keratoderma-deafness syndrome
MedGen UID:
332030
Concept ID:
C1835672
Disease or Syndrome
Palmoplantar keratoderma with deafness is a disorder characterized by skin abnormalities and hearing loss. Affected individuals develop unusually thick skin on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet (palmoplantar keratoderma) beginning in childhood. Hearing loss ranges from mild to profound. It begins in early childhood and gets worse over time. Affected individuals have particular trouble hearing high-pitched sounds.\n\nThe signs and symptoms of this disorder may vary even within the same family, with some individuals developing only skin abnormalities and others developing only hearing loss.
Annular epidermolytic ichthyosis
MedGen UID:
334410
Concept ID:
C1843463
Disease or Syndrome
A rare clinical variant of epidermolytic ichthyosis, with manifestations of blistering phenotype at birth and the development from early infancy of annular polycyclic erythematous scales on the trunk and extremities. It has been reported in less than 10 families. The disease is caused by mutations in the KRT1 (12q11-q13) and KRT10 (17q21-q23) genes, encoding keratins 1 and 10 respectively. These mutations impair keratin filament formation and weaken the structural stability of the keratinocyte cytoskeleton. Transmission is autosomal dominant.
CHIME syndrome
MedGen UID:
341214
Concept ID:
C1848392
Disease or Syndrome
CHIME syndrome, also known as Zunich neuroectodermal syndrome, is an extremely rare autosomal recessive multisystem disorder clinically characterized by colobomas, congenital heart defects, migratory ichthyosiform dermatosis, mental retardation, and ear anomalies (CHIME). Other clinical features include distinctive facial features, abnormal growth, genitourinary abnormalities, seizures, and feeding difficulties (summary by Ng et al., 2012). The disorder is caused by a defect in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy with wooly hair and keratoderma
MedGen UID:
340124
Concept ID:
C1854063
Disease or Syndrome
Dilated cardiomyopathy with woolly hair and keratoderma (DCWHK) is characterized by the presence of woolly or sparse hair from birth. Some patients exhibit fragile skin with blisters/erosions after minor mechanical trauma, with hyperkeratosis and epidermolytic keratoderma developing in early childhood. Cardiomyopathy may become apparent in the first decade of life, and early death due to heart failure has been reported, but patients may remain asymptomatic into the fourth decade of life. Some patients exhibit an arrhythmogenic form of cardiomyopathy, with sudden death in early adulthood (Carvajal-Huerta, 1998; Whittock et al., 2002; Alcalai et al., 2003; Uzumcu et al., 2006). Another syndrome involving cardiomyopathy, woolly hair, and keratoderma (Naxos disease; 601214) is caused by mutation in the plakoglobin gene (JUP; 173325). Also see 610476 for a similar disorder caused by homozygous mutation in the DSC2 gene (125645). Dilated cardiomyopathy with woolly hair, keratoderma, and tooth agenesis (DCWHKTA; 615821) is caused by heterozygous mutation in DSP. An isolated form of striated PPK (PPKS2; 612908) is also caused by heterozygous mutation in DSP. Reviews In a review of cardiocutaneous syndromes and arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy, Sen-Chowdhry and McKenna (2014) stated that although the cardiac component of Carvajal syndrome was originally considered dilated cardiomyopathy, many of its features resemble those of arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (see 607450). In addition, they noted that different disease subtypes have been found to coexist within the same kindred, suggesting a role for modifier genes and/or environmental influences.
Dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal recessive 1
MedGen UID:
341705
Concept ID:
C1857144
Disease or Syndrome
Dyskeratosis congenita and related telomere biology disorders (DC/TBD) are caused by impaired telomere maintenance resulting in short or very short telomeres. The phenotypic spectrum of telomere biology disorders is broad and includes individuals with classic dyskeratosis congenita (DC) as well as those with very short telomeres and an isolated physical finding. Classic DC is characterized by a triad of dysplastic nails, lacy reticular pigmentation of the upper chest and/or neck, and oral leukoplakia, although this may not be present in all individuals. People with DC/TBD are at increased risk for progressive bone marrow failure (BMF), myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myelogenous leukemia, solid tumors (usually squamous cell carcinoma of the head/neck or anogenital cancer), and pulmonary fibrosis. Other findings can include eye abnormalities (epiphora, blepharitis, sparse eyelashes, ectropion, entropion, trichiasis), taurodontism, liver disease, gastrointestinal telangiectasias, and avascular necrosis of the hips or shoulders. Although most persons with DC/TBD have normal psychomotor development and normal neurologic function, significant developmental delay is present in both forms; additional findings include cerebellar hypoplasia (Hoyeraal Hreidarsson syndrome) and bilateral exudative retinopathy and intracranial calcifications (Revesz syndrome and Coats plus syndrome). Onset and progression of manifestations of DC/TBD vary: at the mild end of the spectrum are those who have only minimal physical findings with normal bone marrow function, and at the severe end are those who have the diagnostic triad and early-onset BMF.
Yunis-Varon syndrome
MedGen UID:
341818
Concept ID:
C1857663
Disease or Syndrome
Yunis-Varon syndrome (YVS) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by skeletal defects, including cleidocranial dysplasia and digital anomalies, and severe neurologic involvement with neuronal loss. Enlarged cytoplasmic vacuoles are found in neurons, muscle, and cartilage. The disorder is usually lethal in infancy (summary by Campeau et al., 2013).
Epidermolysis bullosa simplex due to plakophilin deficiency
MedGen UID:
388032
Concept ID:
C1858302
Disease or Syndrome
Ectodermal dysplasia/skin fragility syndrome (EDSFS) is an autosomal recessive genodermatosis characterized by widespread skin fragility, alopecia, nail dystrophy, and focal keratoderma with painful fissures. Hypohidrosis and cheilitis are sometimes present (summary by Ersoy-Evans et al., 2006).
Autosomal recessive palmoplantar keratoderma and congenital alopecia
MedGen UID:
347851
Concept ID:
C1859316
Disease or Syndrome
Palmoplantar keratoderma and congenital alopecia-2 (PPKCA2) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by congenital alopecia and progressive hyperkeratosis resulting in sclerodactyly, severe contractures and tapering of the digits, and pseudoainhum formation. Nail changes occur in some patients (Castori et al., 2010). Also see PPKCA1 (104100), a less severe, autosomal dominant disorder.
Autosomal dominant wooly hair
MedGen UID:
348571
Concept ID:
C1860238
Finding
Woolly hair (WH) refers to a group of hair shaft disorders that are characterized by fine and tightly curled hair. Compared to normal curly hair that is observed in some populations, WH grows slowly and stops growing after a few inches. Under light microscopy, WH shows some structural anomalies, including trichorrhexis nodosa and tapered ends. WH can appear as part of several syndromes, such as Naxos disease (601214) and cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (115150) (summary by Petukhova et al., 2009). See 278150 for a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive woolly hair.
Ichthyosis, hystrix-like, with hearing loss
MedGen UID:
355410
Concept ID:
C1865234
Disease or Syndrome
Hystrix-like ichthyosis with deafness (HID) is a disorder characterized by dry, scaly skin (ichthyosis) and hearing loss that is usually profound. Hystrix-like means resembling a porcupine; in this type of ichthyosis, the scales may be thick and spiky, giving the appearance of porcupine quills.\n\nNewborns with HID typically develop reddened skin. The skin abnormalities worsen over time, and the ichthyosis eventually covers most of the body, although the palms of the hands and soles of the feet are usually only mildly affected. Breaks in the skin may occur and in severe cases can lead to life-threatening infections. Affected individuals have an increased risk of developing a type of skin cancer called squamous cell carcinoma, which can also affect mucous membranes such as the inner lining of the mouth. People with HID may also have patchy hair loss caused by scarring on particular areas of skin.
Pure hair and nail ectodermal dysplasia
MedGen UID:
400883
Concept ID:
C1865951
Disease or Syndrome
Pure hair and nail ectodermal dysplasia is characterised by the association of onychodystrophy and severe hypotrichosis, which is mainly limited to the scalp but may also affect the eyelashes and eyebrows. Less than 20 cases have been reported so far. The mode of transmission is autosomal dominant.
Acroosteolysis-keloid-like lesions-premature aging syndrome
MedGen UID:
400936
Concept ID:
C1866182
Disease or Syndrome
Penttinen syndrome (PENTT) is characterized by a prematurely aged appearance involving lipoatrophy and epidermal and dermal atrophy, as well as hypertrophic lesions that resemble scars, thin hair, proptosis, underdeveloped cheekbones, and marked acroosteolysis (Johnston et al., 2015).
PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome with granular cell tumor
MedGen UID:
400984
Concept ID:
C1866376
Neoplastic Process
Paraplegia-intellectual disability-hyperkeratosis syndrome
MedGen UID:
411554
Concept ID:
C2745996
Disease or Syndrome
This syndrome has characteristics of intellectual deficit, spasticity in the lower limbs (spastic paraplegia), pes cavus deformity of both feet, an abnormal gait, and palmar and plantar hyperkeratosis. It has been reported in four brothers. The mother of the affected boys had normal intelligence, plantar hyperkeratosis and a strong facial resemblance to her retarded sons. Her three daughters were normal. This syndrome most likely an X-linked recessive condition.
Epidermolysis bullosa simplex 5B, with muscular dystrophy
MedGen UID:
418981
Concept ID:
C2931072
Disease or Syndrome
Epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS) is characterized by fragility of the skin (and mucosal epithelia in some instances) that results in non-scarring blisters and erosions caused by minor mechanical trauma. EBS is distinguished from other types of epidermolysis bullosa (EB) or non-EB skin fragility syndromes by the location of the blistering in relation to the dermal-epidermal junction. In EBS, blistering occurs within basal keratinocytes. The severity of blistering ranges from limited to hands and feet to widespread involvement. Additional features can include hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles (keratoderma), nail dystrophy, milia, and hyper- and/or hypopigmentation. Rare EBS subtypes have been associated with additional clinical features including pyloric atresia, muscular dystrophy, cardiomyopathy, and/or nephropathy.
Palmoplantar keratoderma i, striate, focal, or diffuse
MedGen UID:
419717
Concept ID:
C2931122
Disease or Syndrome
Striate palmoplantar keratoderma belongs to a group of skin diseases in which there is thickening of the skin on the palms and soles. The striate form is characterized by longitudinal hyperkeratotic lesions extending the length of each finger to the palm, and hyperkeratotic lesions are restricted to regions of the body where pressure and abrasion are greatest (summary by Hunt et al., 2001). Patients with diffuse or focal forms of keratoderma associated with mutation in the DSG1 gene have also been reported (Keren et al., 2005; Milingou et al., 2006). Genetic Heterogeneity of Keratosis Palmoplantaris Striata Type II PPKS (PPKS2; 612908) is caused by mutation in the DSP gene (125647) on chromosome 6. Type III PPKS (PPKS3; 607654) is caused by mutation in the keratin-1 gene (KRT1; 139350) on chromosome 12q. For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of palmoplantar keratoderma (PPK), see epidermolytic PPK (144200). Nitoiu et al. (2014) reviewed desmosome biology in cardiocutaneous syndromes and inherited skin disease, including discussion of the involvement of the DSG1 and DSP genes.
Cleft lip/palate-ectodermal dysplasia syndrome
MedGen UID:
444067
Concept ID:
C2931488
Disease or Syndrome
Zlotogora-Ogur syndrome is an ectodermal dysplasia syndrome with characteristics of hair, skin and teeth anomalies, facial dysmorphism with cleft lip and palate, cutaneous syndactyly and, in some cases, intellectual disability.The prevalence is unknown but to date, less than 50 cases have been described in the literature. Caused by mutations in the gene PVRL1 (11q23-q24) which encodes nectin-1, the principal receptor used by alpha-herpesviruses to mediate entry into human cells. Transmission is autosomal recessive.
Dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal dominant 2
MedGen UID:
462793
Concept ID:
C3151443
Disease or Syndrome
Dyskeratosis congenita and related telomere biology disorders (DC/TBD) are caused by impaired telomere maintenance resulting in short or very short telomeres. The phenotypic spectrum of telomere biology disorders is broad and includes individuals with classic dyskeratosis congenita (DC) as well as those with very short telomeres and an isolated physical finding. Classic DC is characterized by a triad of dysplastic nails, lacy reticular pigmentation of the upper chest and/or neck, and oral leukoplakia, although this may not be present in all individuals. People with DC/TBD are at increased risk for progressive bone marrow failure (BMF), myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myelogenous leukemia, solid tumors (usually squamous cell carcinoma of the head/neck or anogenital cancer), and pulmonary fibrosis. Other findings can include eye abnormalities (epiphora, blepharitis, sparse eyelashes, ectropion, entropion, trichiasis), taurodontism, liver disease, gastrointestinal telangiectasias, and avascular necrosis of the hips or shoulders. Although most persons with DC/TBD have normal psychomotor development and normal neurologic function, significant developmental delay is present in both forms; additional findings include cerebellar hypoplasia (Hoyeraal Hreidarsson syndrome) and bilateral exudative retinopathy and intracranial calcifications (Revesz syndrome and Coats plus syndrome). Onset and progression of manifestations of DC/TBD vary: at the mild end of the spectrum are those who have only minimal physical findings with normal bone marrow function, and at the severe end are those who have the diagnostic triad and early-onset BMF.
Cowden syndrome 5
MedGen UID:
767432
Concept ID:
C3554518
Disease or Syndrome
PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS) encompasses a range of clinical findings in which the core features are congenital or early-childhood onset of segmental/focal overgrowth with or without cellular dysplasia. Prior to the identification of PIK3CA as the causative gene, PROS was separated into distinct clinical syndromes based on the tissues and/or organs involved (e.g., MCAP [megalencephaly-capillary malformation] syndrome and CLOVES [congenital lipomatous asymmetric overgrowth of the trunk, lymphatic, capillary, venous, and combined-type vascular malformations, epidermal nevi, skeletal and spinal anomalies] syndrome). The predominant areas of overgrowth include the brain, limbs (including fingers and toes), trunk (including abdomen and chest), and face, all usually in an asymmetric distribution. Generalized brain overgrowth may be accompanied by secondary overgrowth of specific brain structures resulting in ventriculomegaly, a markedly thick corpus callosum, and cerebellar tonsillar ectopia with crowding of the posterior fossa. Vascular malformations may include capillary, venous, and less frequently, arterial or mixed (capillary-lymphatic-venous or arteriovenous) malformations. Lymphatic malformations may be in various locations (internal and/or external) and can cause various clinical issues, including swelling, pain, and occasionally localized bleeding secondary to trauma. Lipomatous overgrowth may occur ipsilateral or contralateral to a vascular malformation, if present. The degree of intellectual disability appears to be mostly related to the presence and severity of seizures, cortical dysplasia (e.g., polymicrogyria), and hydrocephalus. Many children have feeding difficulties that are often multifactorial in nature. Endocrine issues affect a small number of individuals and most commonly include hypoglycemia (largely hypoinsulinemic hypoketotic hypoglycemia), hypothyroidism, and growth hormone deficiency.
Cowden syndrome 6
MedGen UID:
767433
Concept ID:
C3554519
Disease or Syndrome
\n\nThe features of Cowden syndrome overlap with those of another disorder called Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome. People with Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome also develop hamartomas and other noncancerous tumors.  Some people with Cowden syndrome have relatives diagnosed with Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome, and other affected individuals have the characteristic features of both conditions. Based on these similarities, researchers have proposed that Cowden syndrome and Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome represent a spectrum of overlapping features known as PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome (named for the genetic cause of the conditions) instead of two distinct conditions.\n\nSome people do not meet the strict criteria for a clinical diagnosis of Cowden syndrome, but they have some of the characteristic features of the condition, particularly the cancers. These individuals are often described as having Cowden-like syndrome. Both Cowden syndrome and Cowden-like syndrome are caused by mutations in the same genes.\n\nCowden syndrome is associated with an increased risk of developing several types of cancer, particularly cancers of the breast, a gland in the lower neck called the thyroid, and the lining of the uterus (the endometrium). Other cancers that have been identified in people with Cowden syndrome include kidney cancer, colorectal cancer, and an agressive form of skin cancer called melanoma. Compared with the general population, people with Cowden syndrome develop these cancers at younger ages, often beginning in their thirties or forties. People with Cowden syndrome are also more likely to develop more than one cancer during their lifetimes compared to the general population. Other diseases of the breast, thyroid, and endometrium are also common in Cowden syndrome. Additional signs and symptoms can include an enlarged head (macrocephaly) and a rare, noncancerous brain tumor called Lhermitte-Duclos disease. A small percentage of affected individuals have delayed development, intellectual disability, or autism spectrum disorder, which can affect communication and social interaction.\n\nAlmost everyone with Cowden syndrome develops hamartomas. These growths are most commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes (such as the lining of the mouth and nose), but they can also occur in the intestine and other parts of the body. The growth of hamartomas on the skin and mucous membranes typically becomes apparent by a person's late twenties.\n\nCowden syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by multiple noncancerous, tumor-like growths called hamartomas and an increased risk of developing certain cancers.
Congenital reticular ichthyosiform erythroderma
MedGen UID:
777141
Concept ID:
C3665704
Disease or Syndrome
Ichthyosis with confetti (IWC), also known as congenital reticular ichthyosiform erythroderma (CRIE), is a rare skin condition characterized by slowly enlarging islands of normal skin surrounded by erythematous ichthyotic patches in a reticulated pattern. The condition starts in infancy as a lamellar ichthyosis, with small islands of normal skin resembling confetti appearing in late childhood and at puberty. Histopathologic findings include band-like parakeratosis, psoriasiform acanthosis, and vacuolization of keratinocytes with binucleated cells in the upper epidermis, sometimes associated with amyloid deposition in the dermis. Ultrastructural abnormalities include perinuclear shells formed from a network of fine filaments in the upper epidermis (summary by Krunic et al., 2003).
Olmsted syndrome, X-linked
MedGen UID:
813075
Concept ID:
C3806745
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked Olmsted syndrome (OLMSX) is a rare keratinization disorder characterized by the combination of periorificial keratotic plaques and bilateral palmoplantar transgredient keratoderma. Other clinical manifestations include diffuse alopecia, leukokeratosis of the oral mucosa, onychodystrophy, hyperkeratotic linear streaks, follicular keratosis, and constriction of the digits (summary by Yaghoobi et al., 2007). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Olmsted disease, see OLMS1 (614594).
Cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
815337
Concept ID:
C3809007
Disease or Syndrome
Cardiofaciocutaneous (CFC) syndrome is characterized by cardiac abnormalities (pulmonic stenosis and other valve dysplasias, septal defects, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, rhythm disturbances), distinctive craniofacial appearance, and cutaneous abnormalities (including xerosis, hyperkeratosis, ichthyosis, keratosis pilaris, ulerythema ophryogenes, eczema, pigmented moles, hemangiomas, and palmoplantar hyperkeratosis). The hair is typically sparse, curly, fine or thick, woolly or brittle; eyelashes and eyebrows may be absent or sparse. Nails may be dystrophic or fast growing. Some form of neurologic and/or cognitive delay (ranging from mild to severe) is seen in all affected individuals. Neoplasia, mostly acute lymphoblastic leukemia, has been reported in some individuals.
Hypohidrosis-enamel hypoplasia-palmoplantar keratoderma-intellectual disability syndrome
MedGen UID:
815490
Concept ID:
C3809160
Disease or Syndrome
Shaheen syndrome is an autosomal recessive form of syndromic mental retardation. Affected individuals show severe intellectual disability, hypohidrosis, dental enamel hypoplasia, and hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles. Some may develop mild microcephaly (summary by Shaheen et al., 2013).
Epidermolysis bullosa simplex 3, localized or generalized intermediate, with BP230 deficiency
MedGen UID:
815800
Concept ID:
C3809470
Disease or Syndrome
Epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS) is characterized by fragility of the skin (and mucosal epithelia in some instances) that results in non-scarring blisters and erosions caused by minor mechanical trauma. EBS is distinguished from other types of epidermolysis bullosa (EB) or non-EB skin fragility syndromes by the location of the blistering in relation to the dermal-epidermal junction. In EBS, blistering occurs within basal keratinocytes. The severity of blistering ranges from limited to hands and feet to widespread involvement. Additional features can include hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles (keratoderma), nail dystrophy, milia, and hyper- and/or hypopigmentation. Rare EBS subtypes have been associated with additional clinical features including pyloric atresia, muscular dystrophy, cardiomyopathy, and/or nephropathy.
Palmoplantar keratoderma, Nagashima type
MedGen UID:
816402
Concept ID:
C3810072
Disease or Syndrome
Nagashima-type palmoplantar keratoderma is an autosomal recessive nonsyndromic diffuse palmoplantar keratosis, first described by Nagashima (1977) in the Japanese literature. It is characterized by well-demarcated diffuse erythematous hyperkeratosis that extends onto the dorsal surfaces of the palms and feet and the Achilles tendon area. Involvement of the elbows and knees has also been reported, and there is a high frequency of hyperhidrosis on the palms and soles. In contrast to other types of transgressive diffuse hyperkeratosis such as mal de Meleda (248300) and the Gamborg Nielsen type of recessive PPK (PPK Norrbotten; 244850), PPKN shows only mild hyperkeratosis that is nonprogressive after the second decade and does not involve flexion contractures or constricting bands (summary by Kubo et al., 2013). For a discussion of phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity of palmoplantar keratoderma, see epidermolytic PPK (144200).
Epidermolysis bullosa simplex, Dowling-Meara type, with severe palmoplantar keratoderma
MedGen UID:
864672
Concept ID:
C4016235
Disease or Syndrome
Autoinflammation with arthritis and dyskeratosis
MedGen UID:
1380109
Concept ID:
C4479278
Disease or Syndrome
Autoinflammation with arthritis and dyskeratosis (AIADK) is characterized by recurrent fever, widespread skin dyskeratosis, arthritis, elevated biologic markers of inflammation, and mild autoimmunity with a high transitional B-cell level (summary by Grandemange et al., 2016).
Erythrokeratodermia variabilis et progressiva 4
MedGen UID:
1372799
Concept ID:
C4479620
Disease or Syndrome
Erythrokeratodermia variabilis et progressiva-4 is characterized by severe lesions of thick scaly skin on the face and genitals, as well as thickened, red, and scaly skin on the hands and feet (summary by Boyden et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of EKVP, see EKVP1 (133200).
Ichthyosis, congenital, autosomal recessive 13
MedGen UID:
1620886
Concept ID:
C4539772
Congenital Abnormality
Erythrokeratodermia variabilis et progressiva 5
MedGen UID:
1626376
Concept ID:
C4540331
Disease or Syndrome
Erythrokeratodermia variabilis et progressiva-5 (EKVP5) is an autosomal recessive skin disorder characterized by progressive development of symmetrically distributed hyperkeratotic plaques with palmoplantar hyperkeratosis and nail thickening (Shah et al., 2017).
Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis 1
MedGen UID:
1635401
Concept ID:
C4551630
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) encompasses several forms of nonsyndromic ichthyosis. Although most neonates with ARCI are collodion babies, the clinical presentation and severity of ARCI may vary significantly, ranging from harlequin ichthyosis, the most severe and often fatal form, to lamellar ichthyosis (LI) and (nonbullous) congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (CIE). These phenotypes are now recognized to fall on a continuum; however, the phenotypic descriptions are clinically useful for clarification of prognosis and management. Infants with harlequin ichthyosis are usually born prematurely and are encased in thick, hard, armor-like plates of cornified skin that severely restrict movement. Life-threatening complications in the immediate postnatal period include respiratory distress, feeding problems, and systemic infection. Collodion babies are born with a taut, shiny, translucent or opaque membrane that encases the entire body and lasts for days to weeks. LI and CIE are seemingly distinct phenotypes: classic, severe LI with dark brown, plate-like scale with no erythroderma and CIE with finer whiter scale and underlying generalized redness of the skin. Affected individuals with severe involvement can have ectropion, eclabium, scarring alopecia involving the scalp and eyebrows, and palmar and plantar keratoderma. Besides these major forms of nonsyndromic ichthyosis, a few rare subtypes have been recognized, such as bathing suit ichthyosis, self-improving collodion ichthyosis, or ichthyosis-prematurity syndrome.
Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy, primary, autosomal recessive, 1
MedGen UID:
1641972
Concept ID:
C4551679
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy-1 (PHOAR1) is a rare familial disorder characterized by digital clubbing, osteoarthropathy, and acroosteolysis, with variable features of pachydermia, delayed closure of the fontanels, and congenital heart disease (summary by Uppal et al., 2008; Radhakrishnan et al., 2020). Secondary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy, or pulmonary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy, is a different disorder characterized by digital clubbing secondary to acquired diseases, most commonly intrathoracic neoplasm (Uppal et al., 2008). Touraine et al. (1935) recognized pachydermoperiostosis as a familial disorder with 3 clinical presentations or forms: a complete form characterized by periostosis and pachydermia; an incomplete form with bone changes but without pachydermia; and a 'forme fruste' with pachydermia and minimal skeletal changes. Genetic Heterogeneity Autosomal recessive primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy-2-enteropathy syndrome (PHOAR2E; 614441) is caused by mutation in the SLCO2A1 gene (601460) on chromosome 3q22. Families with an autosomal dominant form of primary hypertrophic osteoarthropathy have also been reported (PHOAD; 167100).
Periodontitis, aggressive 1
MedGen UID:
1644602
Concept ID:
C4551681
Disease or Syndrome
Aggressive periodontitis, which may be generalized or localized, is characterized by severe and protracted gingival infections, leading to tooth loss. Amounts of microbial deposits are generally inconsistent with the severity of periodontal tissue destruction and the progression of attachment and bone loss may be self arresting (American Academy of Periodontology, 2000). The term 'aggressive periodontitis' replaced the terms 'early-onset,' 'prepubertal,' or 'juvenile periodontitis' at a 1999 International workshop for a classification of periodontal disease and conditions, where it was decided that the classification terminology should not be age dependent or require knowledge of rates of progression (Armitage, 1999). Genetic Heterogeneity of Aggressive Periodontitis Aggressive periodontitis-2 (608526) has been mapped to chromosome 1q25.
Mandibuloacral dysplasia progeroid syndrome
MedGen UID:
1741713
Concept ID:
C5436867
Disease or Syndrome
Mandibuloacral dysplasia progeroid syndrome (MDPS) is an autosomal recessive severe laminopathy-like disorder characterized by growth retardation, bone resorption, arterial calcification, renal glomerulosclerosis, and hypertension (Elouej et al., 2020).
Olmsted syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
1779902
Concept ID:
C5543096
Disease or Syndrome
Olmsted syndrome-2 (OLMS2) is characterized by mutilating hyperkeratotic skin lesions, primarily on the palms and soles, but also extending onto dorsal surfaces of the hands and feet and distal extremities. The lesions are progressive, becoming thicker with verrucous fissures on the palms and soles over time. In addition, affected individuals exhibit perioral hyperkeratosis, and may have lesions around other orifices as well, such as the nostrils, perineum, and anus. Most patients also have hyperkeratotic nails and light-colored woolly hair (Duchatelet et al., 2019). Some patients may experience flexion contractures of the digits due to the severity of the keratoderma, and intractable pruritus and alopecia universalis have been observed (Dai et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Olmsted disease, see OLMS1 (614594).
Erythrokeratodermia variabilis et progressiva 7
MedGen UID:
1780408
Concept ID:
C5543106
Disease or Syndrome
Erythrokeratodermia variabilis et progressiva-7 (EKVP7) is characterized by palmoplantar keratoderma that extends to the dorsal surface of the hands and feet (transgrediens), as well as erythematous annular skin lesions. Pruritis, woolly hair, and dystrophic nails may also be present (Duchatelet et al., 2019; Patel et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of EKVP, see EKVP1 (133200).
Epidermolysis bullosa simplex, Koebner type
MedGen UID:
1794134
Concept ID:
C5561924
Disease or Syndrome
Epidermolysis bullosa simplex (EBS) is characterized by fragility of the skin (and mucosal epithelia in some instances) that results in non-scarring blisters and erosions caused by minor mechanical trauma. EBS is distinguished from other types of epidermolysis bullosa (EB) or non-EB skin fragility syndromes by the location of the blistering in relation to the dermal-epidermal junction. In EBS, blistering occurs within basal keratinocytes. The severity of blistering ranges from limited to hands and feet to widespread involvement. Additional features can include hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles (keratoderma), nail dystrophy, milia, and hyper- and/or hypopigmentation. Rare EBS subtypes have been associated with additional clinical features including pyloric atresia, muscular dystrophy, cardiomyopathy, and/or nephropathy.
Ichthyosis, annular epidermolytic, 2
MedGen UID:
1824037
Concept ID:
C5774264
Disease or Syndrome
Annular epidermolytic ichthyosis-2 (AEI2) is characterized by erythema and blistering of skin at birth that improves without scarring, as well as palmoplantar keratoderma. Some patients experience intermittent severe flares of generalized annular and polycyclic erythematous scaling plaques (Sybert et al., 1999; Zaki et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of AEI, see AEI1 (607602).
Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis 1
MedGen UID:
1826137
Concept ID:
C5781874
Disease or Syndrome
Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis-1 (EHK1) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder of cornification. The disorder usually presents at birth with erythema and blistering and is characterized in adulthood by warty flexural hyperkeratosis with fewer erosions and blisters. Ultrastructural analysis reveals clumping of the intermediate filaments within keratinocytes of the spinous and granular layers (summary by Whittock et al., 2001). A form of epidermolytic hyperkeratosis that is limited to the palms and soles, designated palmoplantar keratoderma (EPPK; 144200), can also be caused by mutation in KRT1, as well KRT9 (607606). Genetic Heterogeneity of Epidermolytic Hyperkeratosis Mutation in the KRT10 gene (148080) results in both autosomal dominant (EHK2A; 620150) and autosomal recessive (EHK2B; 620707) forms of epidermolytic hyperkeratosis.
Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis 2
MedGen UID:
1831005
Concept ID:
C5781877
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant epidermolytic hyperkeratosis-2A (EHK2A) is a skin disorder characterized by blistering, keratoderma, and erythroderma. Severity and body involvement show clinical heterogeneity (summary by Syder et al., 1994). While the neonatal presentation is often blistering and redness, the primary features of the disorder are hyperkeratosis (thickening of the uppermost layer of the epidermis, the stratum corneum) and blistering (summary by Chipev et al., 1994). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of epidermolytic hyperkeratosis, see EHK1 (113800).
Palmoplantar keratoderma, epidermolytic, 2
MedGen UID:
1841204
Concept ID:
C5830568
Disease or Syndrome
Epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma-2 (EPPK2) is an autosomal dominant skin disorder in which affected individuals have hyperkeratosis restricted to palms and soles present from birth or childhood (Hatsell et al., 2001; Nakamizo et al., 2023). In some individuals with EPPK2, keratoderma involving the palms and soles extends to the dorsal surfaces of the hands and feet and involves the skin over the Achilles tendon (transgrediens), a phenotype known as Greither syndrome (Gach et al., 2005). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of epidermolytic palmoplantar keratoderma, and of palmoplantar keratoderma in general, see 144200.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Graf NP, Koelblinger P, Galliker N, Conrad S, Barysch M, Mangana J, Dummer R, Cheng PF, Goldinger SM
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2019 Apr;33(4):686-692. Epub 2018 Dec 13 doi: 10.1111/jdv.15363. PMID: 30468696
Dertlioğlu SB, Çalık M, Çiçek D
Int J Dermatol 2014 Apr;53(4):516-23. Epub 2013 Dec 10 doi: 10.1111/ijd.12254. PMID: 24320796
Blanchet-Bardon C, Nazzaro V, Rognin C, Geiger JM, Puissant A
J Am Acad Dermatol 1991 Jun;24(6 Pt 1):982-6. doi: 10.1016/0190-9622(91)70158-x. PMID: 1831211

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Yıldırım R, Unal E, Tekmenuray-Unal A, Taş FF, Özalkak Ş, Çayır A, Özbek MN
Endocrine 2023 Feb;79(2):376-383. Epub 2022 Oct 4 doi: 10.1007/s12020-022-03206-5. PMID: 36194344
Möbs M, Knott M, Fritzen B, Pullmann S, Sterry W, Assaf C
G Ital Dermatol Venereol 2010 Jun;145(3):385-91. PMID: 20461046
Braun-Falco M
J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 2009 Nov;7(11):971-84; quiz 984-5. doi: 10.1111/j.1610-0387.2009.07058.x. PMID: 19341430
Mahajan VK, Thakur NS, Sharma NL
Indian Pediatr 2003 Dec;40(12):1197-200. PMID: 14722373
Korge BP, Krieg T
J Mol Med (Berl) 1996 Feb;74(2):59-70. doi: 10.1007/BF00196781. PMID: 8820401

Diagnosis

Karrakchou B, Fliti A, Meziane M, Senouci K
BMJ Case Rep 2023 Jan 31;16(1) doi: 10.1136/bcr-2022-250782. PMID: 36720517Free PMC Article
Dalgıc B, Bukulmez A, Sarı S
Eur J Pediatr 2011 Jun;170(6):689-91. Epub 2010 Dec 17 doi: 10.1007/s00431-010-1367-4. PMID: 21165749
Möbs M, Knott M, Fritzen B, Pullmann S, Sterry W, Assaf C
G Ital Dermatol Venereol 2010 Jun;145(3):385-91. PMID: 20461046
Braun-Falco M
J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 2009 Nov;7(11):971-84; quiz 984-5. doi: 10.1111/j.1610-0387.2009.07058.x. PMID: 19341430
Cannavó SP, Guarneri C, Guarneri F
Am Fam Physician 2008 Jul 15;78(2):257-8. PMID: 18697511

Therapy

Graf NP, Koelblinger P, Galliker N, Conrad S, Barysch M, Mangana J, Dummer R, Cheng PF, Goldinger SM
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2019 Apr;33(4):686-692. Epub 2018 Dec 13 doi: 10.1111/jdv.15363. PMID: 30468696
Bessis D, Morice-Picard F, Bourrat E, Abadie C, Aouinti S, Baumann C, Best M, Bursztejn AC, Capri Y, Chiaverini C, Coubes C, Giuliano F, Hadj-Rabia S, Jacquemont ML, Lacombe D, Lyonnet S, Mallet S, Mazereeuw-Hautier J, Miquel J, Molinari N, Parfait B, Pernet C, Philip N, Pinson L, Pouvreau N, Vial Y, Sarda P, Sigaudy S, Verloes A, Cavé H, Geneviève D
Br J Dermatol 2019 Jan;180(1):172-180. Epub 2018 Sep 30 doi: 10.1111/bjd.17077. PMID: 30141192
Hsu LI, Chen GS, Lee CH, Yang TY, Chen YH, Wang YH, Hsueh YM, Chiou HY, Wu MM, Chen CJ
Am J Epidemiol 2013 Feb 1;177(3):202-12. Epub 2013 Jan 7 doi: 10.1093/aje/kws369. PMID: 23299695
Braun-Falco M
J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 2009 Nov;7(11):971-84; quiz 984-5. doi: 10.1111/j.1610-0387.2009.07058.x. PMID: 19341430
Lountzis NI, Maroon MS
J Drugs Dermatol 2008 Jun;7(6):588-9. PMID: 18561593

Prognosis

Thibault LP, Mitchell GA, Parisien B, Hamel P, Blanchard AC
Am J Case Rep 2022 Nov 30;23:e937967. doi: 10.12659/AJCR.937967. PMID: 36447403Free PMC Article
Hsu LI, Chen GS, Lee CH, Yang TY, Chen YH, Wang YH, Hsueh YM, Chiou HY, Wu MM, Chen CJ
Am J Epidemiol 2013 Feb 1;177(3):202-12. Epub 2013 Jan 7 doi: 10.1093/aje/kws369. PMID: 23299695
Dalgıc B, Bukulmez A, Sarı S
Eur J Pediatr 2011 Jun;170(6):689-91. Epub 2010 Dec 17 doi: 10.1007/s00431-010-1367-4. PMID: 21165749
Möbs M, Knott M, Fritzen B, Pullmann S, Sterry W, Assaf C
G Ital Dermatol Venereol 2010 Jun;145(3):385-91. PMID: 20461046
Mahajan VK, Thakur NS, Sharma NL
Indian Pediatr 2003 Dec;40(12):1197-200. PMID: 14722373

Clinical prediction guides

Putra PB, Radiono S, Danarti R
Dermatol Online J 2021 Feb 15;27(2) PMID: 33818988
Wu Y, Zhao L, Xu C, Wu Y
Oral Dis 2019 Jul;25(5):1394-1402. Epub 2019 Apr 24 doi: 10.1111/odi.13095. PMID: 30908832
Dertlioğlu SB, Çalık M, Çiçek D
Int J Dermatol 2014 Apr;53(4):516-23. Epub 2013 Dec 10 doi: 10.1111/ijd.12254. PMID: 24320796
Hsu LI, Chen GS, Lee CH, Yang TY, Chen YH, Wang YH, Hsueh YM, Chiou HY, Wu MM, Chen CJ
Am J Epidemiol 2013 Feb 1;177(3):202-12. Epub 2013 Jan 7 doi: 10.1093/aje/kws369. PMID: 23299695
Korge BP, Krieg T
J Mol Med (Berl) 1996 Feb;74(2):59-70. doi: 10.1007/BF00196781. PMID: 8820401

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