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1.

Paragangliomas 1

Hereditary paraganglioma-pheochromocytoma (PGL/PCC) syndromes are characterized by paragangliomas (tumors that arise from neuroendocrine tissues distributed along the paravertebral axis from the base of the skull to the pelvis) and pheochromocytomas (paragangliomas that are confined to the adrenal medulla). Sympathetic paragangliomas cause catecholamine excess; parasympathetic paragangliomas are most often nonsecretory. Extra-adrenal parasympathetic paragangliomas are located predominantly in the skull base and neck (referred to as head and neck PGL [HNPGL]) and sometimes in the upper mediastinum; approximately 95% of such tumors are nonsecretory. In contrast, sympathetic extra-adrenal paragangliomas are generally confined to the lower mediastinum, abdomen, and pelvis, and are typically secretory. Pheochromocytomas, which arise from the adrenal medulla, typically lead to catecholamine excess. Symptoms of PGL/PCC result from either mass effects or catecholamine hypersecretion (e.g., sustained or paroxysmal elevations in blood pressure, headache, episodic profuse sweating, forceful palpitations, pallor, and apprehension or anxiety). The risk for developing metastatic disease is greater for extra-adrenal sympathetic paragangliomas than for pheochromocytomas. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
488134
Concept ID:
C3494181
Neoplastic Process
2.

Multiple endocrine neoplasia, type 2a

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) includes the following phenotypes: MEN2A, FMTC (familial medullary thyroid carcinoma, which may be a variant of MEN2A), and MEN2B. All three phenotypes involve high risk for development of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid (MTC); MEN2A and MEN2B involve an increased risk for pheochromocytoma; MEN2A involves an increased risk for parathyroid adenoma or hyperplasia. Additional features in MEN2B include mucosal neuromas of the lips and tongue, distinctive facies with enlarged lips, ganglioneuromatosis of the gastrointestinal tract, and a marfanoid habitus. MTC typically occurs in early childhood in MEN2B, early adulthood in MEN2A, and middle age in FMTC. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
9958
Concept ID:
C0025268
Neoplastic Process
3.

Paragangliomas 4

Hereditary paraganglioma-pheochromocytoma (PGL/PCC) syndromes are characterized by paragangliomas (tumors that arise from neuroendocrine tissues distributed along the paravertebral axis from the base of the skull to the pelvis) and pheochromocytomas (paragangliomas that are confined to the adrenal medulla). Sympathetic paragangliomas cause catecholamine excess; parasympathetic paragangliomas are most often nonsecretory. Extra-adrenal parasympathetic paragangliomas are located predominantly in the skull base and neck (referred to as head and neck PGL [HNPGL]) and sometimes in the upper mediastinum; approximately 95% of such tumors are nonsecretory. In contrast, sympathetic extra-adrenal paragangliomas are generally confined to the lower mediastinum, abdomen, and pelvis, and are typically secretory. Pheochromocytomas, which arise from the adrenal medulla, typically lead to catecholamine excess. Symptoms of PGL/PCC result from either mass effects or catecholamine hypersecretion (e.g., sustained or paroxysmal elevations in blood pressure, headache, episodic profuse sweating, forceful palpitations, pallor, and apprehension or anxiety). The risk for developing metastatic disease is greater for extra-adrenal sympathetic paragangliomas than for pheochromocytomas. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
349380
Concept ID:
C1861848
Neoplastic Process
4.

Paragangliomas 3

Hereditary paraganglioma-pheochromocytoma (PGL/PCC) syndromes are characterized by paragangliomas (tumors that arise from neuroendocrine tissues distributed along the paravertebral axis from the base of the skull to the pelvis) and pheochromocytomas (paragangliomas that are confined to the adrenal medulla). Sympathetic paragangliomas cause catecholamine excess; parasympathetic paragangliomas are most often nonsecretory. Extra-adrenal parasympathetic paragangliomas are located predominantly in the skull base and neck (referred to as head and neck PGL [HNPGL]) and sometimes in the upper mediastinum; approximately 95% of such tumors are nonsecretory. In contrast, sympathetic extra-adrenal paragangliomas are generally confined to the lower mediastinum, abdomen, and pelvis, and are typically secretory. Pheochromocytomas, which arise from the adrenal medulla, typically lead to catecholamine excess. Symptoms of PGL/PCC result from either mass effects or catecholamine hypersecretion (e.g., sustained or paroxysmal elevations in blood pressure, headache, episodic profuse sweating, forceful palpitations, pallor, and apprehension or anxiety). The risk for developing metastatic disease is greater for extra-adrenal sympathetic paragangliomas than for pheochromocytomas. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
340200
Concept ID:
C1854336
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Andersen Tawil syndrome

Andersen-Tawil syndrome (ATS) is characterized by a triad of: episodic flaccid muscle weakness (i.e., periodic paralysis); ventricular arrhythmias and prolonged QT interval; and anomalies including low-set ears, widely spaced eyes, small mandible, fifth-digit clinodactyly, syndactyly, short stature, and scoliosis. Affected individuals present in the first or second decade with either cardiac symptoms (palpitations and/or syncope) or weakness that occurs spontaneously following prolonged rest or following rest after exertion. Mild permanent weakness is common. Mild learning difficulties and a distinct neurocognitive phenotype (i.e., deficits in executive function and abstract reasoning) have been described. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
327586
Concept ID:
C1563715
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Primary erythromelalgia

SCN9A neuropathic pain syndromes (SCN9A-NPS) comprise SCN9A erythromelalgia (EM), SCN9A paroxysmal extreme pain disorder (PEPD), and SCN9A small fiber neuropathy (SFN). SCN9A-EM is characterized by recurrent episodes of bilateral intense, burning pain, and redness, warmth, and occasionally swelling. While the feet are more commonly affected than the hands, in severely affected individuals the legs, arms, face, and/or ears may be involved. SCN9A-PEPD is characterized by neonatal or infantile onset of autonomic manifestations that can include skin flushing, harlequin (patchy or asymmetric) color change, tonic non-epileptic attacks (stiffening), and syncope with bradycardia. Later manifestations are episodes of excruciating deep burning rectal, ocular, or submandibular pain accompanied by flushing (erythematous skin changes). SCN9A-SFN is characterized by adult-onset neuropathic pain in a stocking and glove distribution, often with a burning quality; autonomic manifestations such as dry eyes, mouth, orthostatic dizziness, palpitations, bowel or bladder disturbances; and preservation of large nerve fiber functions (normal strength, tendon reflexes, and vibration sense). [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
8688
Concept ID:
C0014805
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Dilated cardiomyopathy 1E

Any familial isolated dilated cardiomyopathy in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the SCN5A gene. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
331341
Concept ID:
C1832680
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 6

Mutations in the PRKAG2 gene (602743) give rise to a moderate, essentially heart-specific, nonlysosomal glycogenosis with clinical onset typically in late adolescence or in the third decade of life, ventricular pre-excitation predisposing to supraventricular arrhythmias, mild to severe cardiac hypertrophy, enhanced risk of sudden cardiac death in midlife, and autosomal dominant inheritance with full penetrance (summary by Burwinkel et al., 2005). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
331466
Concept ID:
C1833236
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis, susceptibility to, 1

Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is a sporadic muscle disorder characterized by episodic attacks of weakness associated with hypokalemia in individuals with hyperthyroidism. The paralysis resolves upon treatment of hyperthyroidism. The disorder is most common among males of Asian descent, including Chinese, Japanese, Vietnamese, Filipino, and Koreans, although it occurs less commonly in individuals of Caucasian background. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is clinically similar to hereditary hypokalemic periodic paralysis (HOKPP; 170400), but the paralysis in TTPP occurs only in the presence of hyperthyroidism. TTPP can also be precipitated by factors that result in hypokalemia, such as carbohydrate ingestion and rest after exercise (review by Kung, 2006). Genetic Heterogeneity of Thyrotoxic Periodic Paralysis See also TTPP2 (613239), conferred by variation in the KCNJ18 gene (613236) on chromosome 17p11, and TTPP3 (614834), mapped to chromosome 17q24. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
413199
Concept ID:
C2749982
Finding
10.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 11

An autosomal dominant subtype of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy caused by mutation(s) in the ACTC1 gene, encoding actin, alpha cardiac muscle 1. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
436962
Concept ID:
C2677506
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 8

Any hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the MYL3 gene. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
324806
Concept ID:
C1837471
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia 11

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) – previously referred to as arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) – is characterized by progressive fibrofatty replacement of the myocardium that predisposes to ventricular tachycardia and sudden death in young individuals and athletes. It primarily affects the right ventricle, and it may also involve the left ventricle. The presentation of disease is highly variable even within families, and some affected individuals may not meet established clinical criteria. The mean age at diagnosis is 31 years (±13; range: 4-64 years). [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
351237
Concept ID:
C1864850
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia 9

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) – previously referred to as arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) – is characterized by progressive fibrofatty replacement of the myocardium that predisposes to ventricular tachycardia and sudden death in young individuals and athletes. It primarily affects the right ventricle, and it may also involve the left ventricle. The presentation of disease is highly variable even within families, and some affected individuals may not meet established clinical criteria. The mean age at diagnosis is 31 years (±13; range: 4-64 years). [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
373205
Concept ID:
C1836906
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia 5

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) – previously referred to as arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) – is characterized by progressive fibrofatty replacement of the myocardium that predisposes to ventricular tachycardia and sudden death in young individuals and athletes. It primarily affects the right ventricle, and it may also involve the left ventricle. The presentation of disease is highly variable even within families, and some affected individuals may not meet established clinical criteria. The mean age at diagnosis is 31 years (±13; range: 4-64 years). [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
346805
Concept ID:
C1858379
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Long QT syndrome 13

Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a cardiac electrophysiologic disorder, characterized by QT prolongation and T-wave abnormalities on the EKG that are associated with tachyarrhythmias, typically the ventricular tachycardia torsade de pointes (TdP). TdP is usually self-terminating, thus causing a syncopal event, the most common symptom in individuals with LQTS. Such cardiac events typically occur during exercise and emotional stress, less frequently during sleep, and usually without warning. In some instances, TdP degenerates to ventricular fibrillation and causes aborted cardiac arrest (if the individual is defibrillated) or sudden death. Approximately 50% of untreated individuals with a pathogenic variant in one of the genes associated with LQTS have symptoms, usually one to a few syncopal events. While cardiac events may occur from infancy through middle age, they are most common from the preteen years through the 20s. Some types of LQTS are associated with a phenotype extending beyond cardiac arrhythmia. In addition to the prolonged QT interval, associations include muscle weakness and facial dysmorphism in Andersen-Tawil syndrome (LQTS type 7); hand/foot, facial, and neurodevelopmental features in Timothy syndrome (LQTS type 8); and profound sensorineural hearing loss in Jervell and Lange-Nielson syndrome. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
462083
Concept ID:
C3150733
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 10

Any hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the MYL2 gene. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
331754
Concept ID:
C1834460
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy 1, X-linked

Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy inherited in an X-linked recessive pattern and caused by mutations in the EMD gene, encoding emerin. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
1720295
Concept ID:
C5243475
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Atrial fibrillation, familial, 9

Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained cardiac rhythm disturbance, affecting more than 2 million Americans, with an overall prevalence of 0.89%. The prevalence increases rapidly with age, to 2.3% between the ages of 40 and 60 years, and to 5.9% over the age of 65. The most dreaded complication is thromboembolic stroke (Brugada et al., 1997). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of atrial fibrillation, see 608583. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
462781
Concept ID:
C3151431
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Atrial fibrillation, familial, 4

Atrial fibrillation is the most common sustained cardiac rhythm disturbance, affecting more than 2 million Americans, with an overall prevalence of 0.89%. The prevalence increases rapidly with age, to 2.3% between the ages of 40 and 60 years, and to 5.9% over the age of 65. The most dreaded complication is thromboembolic stroke (Brugada et al., 1997). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of atrial fibrillation, see 608583. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
400041
Concept ID:
C1862394
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia 10

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) – previously referred to as arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) – is characterized by progressive fibrofatty replacement of the myocardium that predisposes to ventricular tachycardia and sudden death in young individuals and athletes. It primarily affects the right ventricle, and it may also involve the left ventricle. The presentation of disease is highly variable even within families, and some affected individuals may not meet established clinical criteria. The mean age at diagnosis is 31 years (±13; range: 4-64 years). [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
347543
Concept ID:
C1857777
Disease or Syndrome
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