U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Format
Items per page

Send to:

Choose Destination

Search results

Items: 1 to 20 of 32

1.

Fabry disease

Fabry disease is the most common of the lysosomal storage disorders and results from deficient activity of the enzyme alpha-galactosidase A (a-Gal A), leading to progressive lysosomal deposition of globotriaosylceramide and its derivatives in cells throughout the body. The classic form, occurring in males with less than 1% a-Gal A enzyme activity, usually has its onset in childhood or adolescence with periodic crises of severe pain in the extremities (acroparesthesia), the appearance of vascular cutaneous lesions (angiokeratomas), sweating abnormalities (anhidrosis, hypohidrosis, and rarely hyperhidrosis), characteristic corneal and lenticular opacities, and proteinuria. Gradual deterioration of renal function to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) usually occurs in men in the third to fifth decade. In middle age, most males successfully treated for ESRD develop cardiac and/or cerebrovascular disease, a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Heterozygous females typically have milder symptoms at a later age of onset than males. Rarely, females may be relatively asymptomatic throughout a normal life span or may have symptoms as severe as those observed in males with the classic phenotype. In contrast, late-onset forms occur in males with greater than 1% a-Gal A activity. Clinical manifestations include cardiac disease, which usually presents in the sixth to eighth decade with left ventricular hypertrophy, cardiomyopathy, arrhythmia, and proteinuria; renal failure, associated with ESRD but without the skin lesions or pain; or cerebrovascular disease presenting as stroke or transient ischemic attack. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
8083
Concept ID:
C0002986
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Multiple sclerosis, susceptibility to

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) with various degrees of axonal damage. MS affects mainly young adults with predominance for females. The disorder often leads to substantial disability (summary by Bomprezzi et al., 2003). Genetic Heterogeneity of Susceptibility to Multiple Sclerosis Additional MS susceptibility loci include MS2 (612594) on chromosome 10p15, MS3 (612595) on chromosome 5p13, MS4 (612596) on chromosome 1p36, and MS5 (614810), conferred by variation in the TNFRSF1A gene (191190) on chromosome 12p13. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
358269
Concept ID:
C1868685
Finding
3.

Acute intermittent porphyria

Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), an autosomal dominant disorder, occurs in heterozygotes for an HMBS pathogenic variant that causes reduced activity of the enzyme porphobilinogen deaminase. AIP is considered "overt" in a heterozygote who was previously or is currently symptomatic; AIP is considered "latent" in a heterozygote who has never had symptoms, and typically has been identified during molecular genetic testing of at-risk family members. Note that GeneReviews does not use the term "carrier" for an individual who is heterozygous for an autosomal dominant pathogenic variant; GeneReviews reserves the term "carrier" for an individual who is heterozygous for an autosomal recessive disorder and thus is not expected to ever develop manifestations of the disorder. Overt AIP is characterized clinically by life-threatening acute neurovisceral attacks of severe abdominal pain without peritoneal signs, often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, tachycardia, and hypertension. Attacks may be complicated by neurologic findings (mental changes, convulsions, and peripheral neuropathy that may progress to respiratory paralysis), and hyponatremia. Acute attacks, which may be provoked by certain drugs, alcoholic beverages, endocrine factors, calorie restriction, stress, and infections, usually resolve within two weeks. Most individuals with AIP have one or a few attacks; about 3%-8% (mainly women) have recurrent attacks (defined as >3 attacks/year) that may persist for years. Other long-term complications are chronic renal failure, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and hypertension. Attacks, which are very rare before puberty, are more common in women than men. Latent AIP. While all individuals heterozygous for an HMBS pathogenic variant that predisposes to AIP are at risk of developing overt AIP, most have latent AIP and never have symptoms. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
56452
Concept ID:
C0162565
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia, dysarthria, and eventual deterioration of bulbar functions. Early in the disease, affected individuals may have gait disturbance, slurred speech, difficulty with balance, brisk deep tendon reflexes, hypermetric saccades, nystagmus, and mild dysphagia. Later signs include slowing of saccadic velocity, development of up-gaze palsy, dysmetria, dysdiadochokinesia, and hypotonia. In advanced stages, muscle atrophy, decreased deep tendon reflexes, loss of proprioception, cognitive impairment (e.g., frontal executive dysfunction, impaired verbal memory), chorea, dystonia, and bulbar dysfunction are seen. Onset is typically in the third or fourth decade, although childhood onset and late-adult onset have been reported. Those with onset after age 60 years may manifest a pure cerebellar phenotype. Interval from onset to death varies from ten to 30 years; individuals with juvenile onset show more rapid progression and more severe disease. Anticipation is observed. An axonal sensory neuropathy detected by electrophysiologic testing is common; brain imaging typically shows cerebellar and brain stem atrophy. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
155703
Concept ID:
C0752120
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Homocystinuria due to methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency is a common inborn error of folate metabolism. The phenotypic spectrum ranges from severe neurologic deterioration and early death to asymptomatic adults. In the classic form, both thermostable and thermolabile enzyme variants have been identified (Rosenblatt et al., 1992). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
343470
Concept ID:
C1856061
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Episodic ataxia type 2

Episodic ataxia is a genetically heterogeneous neurologic condition characterized by spells of incoordination and imbalance, often associated with progressive ataxia. Episodic ataxia type 2 is the most common form of EA (Jen et al., 2007). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of episodic ataxia, see EA1 (160120). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
314039
Concept ID:
C1720416
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Sarcotubular myopathy

A mild subtype of autosomal recessive limb girdle muscular dystrophy characterized by slowly progressive proximal muscle weakness and wasting of the pelvic and shoulder girdles with onset that usually occurs during the second or third decade of life. Clinical presentation is variable and can include calf psuedohypertrophy, joint contractures, scapular winging, muscle cramping and/or facial and respiratory muscle involvement. [from ORDO]

MedGen UID:
78750
Concept ID:
C0270968
Congenital Abnormality; Disease or Syndrome
8.

Channelopathy-associated congenital insensitivity to pain, autosomal recessive

Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type II (HSAN2) is characterized by progressively reduced sensation to pain, temperature, and touch. Onset can be at birth and is often before puberty. The sensory deficit is predominantly distal with the lower limbs more severely affected than the upper limbs. Over time sensory function becomes severely reduced. Unnoticed injuries and neuropathic skin promote ulcerations and infections that result in spontaneous amputation of digits or the need for surgical amputation. Osteomyelitis is common. Painless fractures can complicate the disease. Autonomic disturbances are variable and can include hyperhidrosis, tonic pupils, and urinary incontinence in those with more advanced disease. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
344563
Concept ID:
C1855739
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Dystonia 9

The phenotypic spectrum of glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome (Glut1 DS) is now known to be a continuum that includes the classic phenotype as well as paroxysmal exercise-induced dyskinesia and epilepsy (previously known as dystonia 18 [DYT18]) and paroxysmal choreoathetosis with spasticity (previously known as dystonia 9 [DYT9]), atypical childhood absence epilepsy, myoclonic astatic epilepsy, and paroxysmal non-epileptic findings including intermittent ataxia, choreoathetosis, dystonia, and alternating hemiplegia. The classic phenotype is characterized by infantile-onset seizures, delayed neurologic development, acquired microcephaly, and complex movement disorders. Seizures in classic early-onset Glut1 DS begin before age six months. Several seizure types occur: generalized tonic or clonic, focal, myoclonic, atypical absence, atonic, and unclassified. In some infants, apneic episodes and abnormal episodic eye-head movements similar to opsoclonus may precede the onset of seizures. The frequency, severity, and type of seizures vary among affected individuals and are not related to disease severity. Cognitive impairment, ranging from learning disabilities to severe intellectual disability, is typical. The complex movement disorder, characterized by ataxia, dystonia, and chorea, may occur in any combination and may be continuous, paroxysmal, or continual with fluctuations in severity influenced by environmental factors such as fasting or with infectious stress. Symptoms often improve substantially when a ketogenic diet is started. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
371427
Concept ID:
C1832855
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Bartter disease type 2

Bartter syndrome refers to a group of disorders that are unified by autosomal recessive transmission of impaired salt reabsorption in the thick ascending loop of Henle with pronounced salt wasting, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, and hypercalciuria. Clinical disease results from defective renal reabsorption of sodium chloride in the thick ascending limb (TAL) of the Henle loop, where 30% of filtered salt is normally reabsorbed (Simon et al., 1997). Patients with antenatal forms of Bartter syndrome typically present with premature birth associated with polyhydramnios and low birth weight and may develop life-threatening dehydration in the neonatal period. Patients with classic Bartter syndrome (see BARTS3, 607364) present later in life and may be sporadically asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic (summary by Simon et al., 1996 and Fremont and Chan, 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bartter syndrome, see 607364. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
343428
Concept ID:
C1855849
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Autosomal dominant hypocalcemia 1

Autosomal dominant hypocalcemia-1 is associated with low or normal serum parathyroid hormone concentrations (PTH). Approximately 50% of patients have mild or asymptomatic hypocalcemia; about 50% have paresthesias, carpopedal spasm, and seizures; about 10% have hypercalciuria with nephrocalcinosis or kidney stones; and more than 35% have ectopic and basal ganglia calcifications (summary by Nesbit et al., 2013). Thakker (2001) noted that patients with gain-of-function mutations in the CASR gene, resulting in generally asymptomatic hypocalcemia with hypercalciuria, have low-normal serum PTH concentrations and have often been diagnosed with hypoparathyroidism because of the insensitivity of earlier PTH assays. Because treatment with vitamin D to correct the hypocalcemia in these patients causes hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, and renal impairment, these patients need to be distinguished from those with other forms of hypoparathyroidism (see 146200). Thakker (2001) suggested the designation 'autosomal dominant hypocalcemic hypercalciuria' for this CASR-related disorder. Genetic Heterogeneity of Autosomal Dominant Hypocalcemia Autosomal dominant hypocalcemia-2 (HYPOC2; 615361) is caused by mutation in the GNA11 gene (139313) on chromosome 19p13. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
87438
Concept ID:
C0342345
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Bartter disease type 1

Bartter syndrome refers to a group of disorders that are unified by autosomal recessive transmission of impaired salt reabsorption in the thick ascending loop of Henle with pronounced salt wasting, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, and hypercalciuria. Clinical disease results from defective renal reabsorption of sodium chloride in the thick ascending limb (TAL) of the Henle loop, where 30% of filtered salt is normally reabsorbed (Simon et al., 1997). Patients with antenatal forms of Bartter syndrome typically present with premature birth associated with polyhydramnios and low birth weight and may develop life-threatening dehydration in the neonatal period. Patients with classic Bartter syndrome (see BARTS3, 607364) present later in life and may be sporadically asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic (summary by Simon et al., 1996 and Fremont and Chan, 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bartter syndrome, see 607364. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
355727
Concept ID:
C1866495
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Adult polyglucosan body disease

Most individuals with classic GBE1 adult polyglucosan body disease (GBE1-APBD) present after age 40 years with unexplained progressive neurogenic bladder, gait difficulties (i.e., spasticity and weakness) from mixed upper and lower motor neuron involvement, sensory loss predominantly in the distal lower extremities, autonomic dysfunction (associated with orthostatic hypotension and constipation), and mild cognitive difficulties (often executive dysfunction). Some affected individuals without classic GBE1-APBD have atypical phenotypes including Alzheimer disease-like dementia and axonal neuropathy, stroke-like episodes, and diaphragmatic failure; others may have a history of infantile liver disease. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
342338
Concept ID:
C1849722
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy, APP-related

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy, or cerebroarterial amyloidosis, refers to a pathologic process in which amyloid protein progressively deposits in cerebral blood vessel walls with subsequent degenerative vascular changes that usually result in spontaneous cerebral hemorrhage, ischemic lesions, and progressive dementia. APP-related CAA is the most common form of CAA (Revesz et al., 2003, 2009). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
414044
Concept ID:
C2751536
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Familial hypokalemia-hypomagnesemia

Gitelman syndrome (GTLMNS) is an autosomal recessive renal tubular salt-wasting disorder characterized by hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis with hypomagnesemia and hypocalciuria. It is the most common renal tubular disorder among Caucasians (prevalence of 1 in 40,000). Most patients have onset of symptoms as adults, but some present in childhood. Clinical features include transient periods of muscle weakness and tetany, abdominal pains, and chondrocalcinosis (summary by Glaudemans et al., 2012). Gitelman syndrome is sometimes referred to as a mild variant of classic Bartter syndrome (607364). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bartter syndrome, see 607364. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
75681
Concept ID:
C0268450
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Restless legs syndrome, susceptibility to, 1

Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a neurologic sleep/wake disorder characterized by uncomfortable and unpleasant sensations in the legs that appear at rest, usually at night, inducing an irresistible desire to move the legs. The disorder results in nocturnal insomnia and chronic sleep deprivation (Bonati et al., 2003). Genetic Heterogeneity of Restless Legs Syndrome RLS1 has been mapped to chromosome 12q. Other susceptibility loci for RLS include RLS2 (608831) on chromosome 14q13-q31; RLS3 (610438) on chromosome 9p24-p22; RLS4 (610439) on chromosome 2q33; RLS5 (611242) on chromosome 20p13; RLS6 (611185) on chromosome 6p21; RLS7 (612853) on chromosome 2p14; and RLS8 (615197) on chromosome 5q31. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
360293
Concept ID:
C1876177
Finding
17.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1C

For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal dominant Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1, see CMT1B (118200). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
75728
Concept ID:
C0270913
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Imerslund-Grasbeck syndrome type 1

3-Methylglutaconic aciduria type I (MGCA1) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of leucine catabolism. The metabolic landmark is urinary excretion of 3-methylglutaconic acid (3-MGA) and its derivatives 3-methylglutaric acid (3-MG) and 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid (3-HIVA). Two main presentations have been described: one with onset in childhood associated with the nonspecific finding of psychomotor retardation, and the other with onset in adulthood of a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by ataxia, spasticity, and sometimes dementia; these patients develop white matter lesions in the brain. However, some asymptomatic pediatric patients have been identified by newborn screening and show no developmental abnormalities when reexamined later in childhood (summary by Wortmann et al., 2010). Genetic Heterogeneity and Classification of Methylglutaconic Aciduria Methylglutaconic aciduria is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder. Type II MGCA (MGCA2), also known as Barth syndrome (BTHS; 302060), is caused by mutation in the tafazzin gene (TAZ; 300394) on chromosome Xq28. It is characterized by mitochondrial cardiomyopathy, short stature, skeletal myopathy, and recurrent infections; cognitive development is normal. Type III MGCA (MGCA3; 258501), caused by mutation in the OPA3 gene (606580) on chromosome 19q13, involves optic atrophy, movement disorder, and spastic paraplegia. In types II and III, the elevations of 3-methylglutaconate and 3-methylglutarate in urine are modest. Type IV MGCA (MGCA4; 250951) represents an unclassified group of patients who have severe psychomotor retardation and cerebellar dysgenesis. Type V MGCA (MGCA5; 610198), caused by mutation in the DNAJC19 gene (608977) on chromosome 3q26, is characterized by early-onset dilated cardiomyopathy with conduction defects, nonprogressive cerebellar ataxia, testicular dysgenesis, and growth failure in addition to 3-methylglutaconic aciduria (Chitayat et al., 1992; Davey et al., 2006). Type VI MGCA (MGCA6; 614739), caused by mutation in the SERAC1 gene (614725) on chromosome 6q25, includes deafness, encephalopathy, and a Leigh-like syndrome. Type VII MGCA (MGCA7B, 616271 and MGCA7A, 619835), caused by mutation in the CLPB gene (616254) on chromosome 11q13, includes cataracts, neurologic involvement, and neutropenia. Type VIII MGCA (MGCA8; 617248) is caused by mutation in the HTRA2 gene (606441) on chromosome 2p13. Type IX MGCA (MGCA9; 617698) is caused by mutation in the TIMM50 gene (607381) on chromosome 19q13. Eriguchi et al. (2006) noted that type I MGCA is very rare, with only 13 patients reported in the literature as of 2003. Wortmann et al. (2013) proposed a pathomechanism-based classification for 'inborn errors of metabolism with 3-methylglutaconic aciduria as discriminative feature.' [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
865256
Concept ID:
C4016819
Finding
19.

Porphobilinogen synthase deficiency

ALAD porphyria is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that has been reported and confirmed by genetic analysis in only 5 patients (Jaffe and Stith, 2007). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
78659
Concept ID:
C0268328
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Neuropathy, hereditary sensory, type 1D

Spastic paraplegia 3A (SPG3A; also known as ATL1-HSP) is characterized by progressive bilateral and mostly symmetric spasticity and weakness of the legs. Compared to other forms of autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), in which diminished vibration sense (caused by degeneration of the corticospinal tracts and dorsal columns) and urinary bladder hyperactivity are present in all affected individuals, these findings occur in a minority of individuals with SPG3A. The average age of onset is four years. More than 80% of reported individuals manifest spastic gait before the end of the first decade of life. Most persons with early-onset ATL1-HSP have a "pure" ("uncomplicated") HSP; however, complicated HSP with axonal motor neuropathy and/or distal amyotrophy with lower motor neuron involvement (Silver syndrome phenotype) has been observed. The rate of progression in ATL1-HSP is slow, and wheelchair dependency or need for a walking aid (cane, walker, or wheelchair) is relatively rare. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
462322
Concept ID:
C3150972
Disease or Syndrome
Format
Items per page

Send to:

Choose Destination

Supplemental Content

Find related data

Search details

See more...

Recent activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...