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Items: 10

1.

Encephalopathy due to GLUT1 deficiency

The phenotypic spectrum of glucose transporter type 1 deficiency syndrome (Glut1 DS) is now known to be a continuum that includes the classic phenotype as well as paroxysmal exercise-induced dyskinesia and epilepsy (previously known as dystonia 18 [DYT18]) and paroxysmal choreoathetosis with spasticity (previously known as dystonia 9 [DYT9]), atypical childhood absence epilepsy, myoclonic astatic epilepsy, and paroxysmal non-epileptic findings including intermittent ataxia, choreoathetosis, dystonia, and alternating hemiplegia. The classic phenotype is characterized by infantile-onset seizures, delayed neurologic development, acquired microcephaly, and complex movement disorders. Seizures in classic early-onset Glut1 DS begin before age six months. Several seizure types occur: generalized tonic or clonic, focal, myoclonic, atypical absence, atonic, and unclassified. In some infants, apneic episodes and abnormal episodic eye-head movements similar to opsoclonus may precede the onset of seizures. The frequency, severity, and type of seizures vary among affected individuals and are not related to disease severity. Cognitive impairment, ranging from learning disabilities to severe intellectual disability, is typical. The complex movement disorder, characterized by ataxia, dystonia, and chorea, may occur in any combination and may be continuous, paroxysmal, or continual with fluctuations in severity influenced by environmental factors such as fasting or with infectious stress. Symptoms often improve substantially when a ketogenic diet is started. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1645412
Concept ID:
C4551966
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Episodic kinesigenic dyskinesia 1

PRRT2-associated paroxysmal movement disorders (PRRT2-PxMD) include paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD), benign familial infantile epilepsy (BFIE), paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia with infantile convulsions (PKD/IC), and hemiplegic migraine (HM). In addition, PRRT2 pathogenic variants have been identified in other childhood-onset movement disorders and different types of seizures, suggesting that the understanding of the spectrum of PRRT2-PxMD is still evolving. The paroxysmal attacks in PKD are characterized by dystonia, choreoathetosis, and less commonly ballismus. The seizures of BFIE are usually focal with or without generalization. Thirty percent of PRRT2-associated PKD is associated with BFIE and is referred to as PKD/IC. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1636366
Concept ID:
C4552000
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Paroxysmal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia 1

Familial paroxysmal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia (PNKD) is characterized by unilateral or bilateral involuntary movements. Attacks are typically precipitated by coffee, tea, or alcohol; they can also be triggered by excitement, stress, or fatigue, or can be spontaneous. Attacks involve dystonic posturing with choreic and ballistic movements, may be accompanied by a preceding aura, occur while the individual is awake, and are not associated with seizures. Attacks last minutes to hours and rarely occur more than once per day. Attack frequency, duration, severity, and combinations of symptoms vary within and among families. Age of onset is typically in childhood or early teens but can be as late as age 50 years. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1631383
Concept ID:
C4551506
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Pyruvate dehydrogenase E2 deficiency

Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency is characterized by the buildup of a chemical called lactic acid in the body and a variety of neurological problems. Signs and symptoms of this condition usually first appear shortly after birth, and they can vary widely among affected individuals. The most common feature is a potentially life-threatening buildup of lactic acid (lactic acidosis), which can cause nausea, vomiting, severe breathing problems, and an abnormal heartbeat. People with pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency usually have neurological problems as well. Most have delayed development of mental abilities and motor skills such as sitting and walking. Other neurological problems can include intellectual disability, seizures, weak muscle tone (hypotonia), poor coordination, and difficulty walking. Some affected individuals have abnormal brain structures, such as underdevelopment of the tissue connecting the left and right halves of the brain (corpus callosum), wasting away (atrophy) of the exterior part of the brain known as the cerebral cortex, or patches of damaged tissue (lesions) on some parts of the brain. Because of the severe health effects, many individuals with pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency do not survive past childhood, although some may live into adolescence or adulthood. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
343386
Concept ID:
C1855565
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Infantile convulsions and choreoathetosis

PRRT2-associated paroxysmal movement disorders (PRRT2-PxMD) include paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD), benign familial infantile epilepsy (BFIE), paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia with infantile convulsions (PKD/IC), and hemiplegic migraine (HM). In addition, PRRT2 pathogenic variants have been identified in other childhood-onset movement disorders and different types of seizures, suggesting that the understanding of the spectrum of PRRT2-PxMD is still evolving. The paroxysmal attacks in PKD are characterized by dystonia, choreoathetosis, and less commonly ballismus. The seizures of BFIE are usually focal with or without generalization. Thirty percent of PRRT2-associated PKD is associated with BFIE and is referred to as PKD/IC. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
356123
Concept ID:
C1865926
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Rolandic epilepsy-paroxysmal exercise-induced dystonia-writer cramp syndrome

Rolandic epilepsy with paroxysmal exercise-induced dystonia and writer's cramp (EPRPDC) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset of focal seizures in infancy and exercise-induced dystonia in childhood. Features usually include involuntary movements, including facial movements, and difficulties with fine motor skills of the hand. Seizures often respond to medication and remit with age; the dystonia tends to persist (summary by Luthy et al., 2019). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
334104
Concept ID:
C1842531
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 64

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-64 (DEE64) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by onset of seizures usually in the first year of life and associated with intellectual disability, poor motor development, and poor or absent speech. Additional features include hypotonia, abnormal movements, and nonspecific dysmorphic features. The severity is variable: some patients are unable to speak, walk, or interact with others as late as the teenage years, whereas others may have some comprehension (summary by Straub et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1633501
Concept ID:
C4693899
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Paroxysmal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia 2

Individuals with familial paroxysmal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia usually begin to show signs and symptoms of the disorder during childhood or their early teens. Episodes typically last 1 to 4 hours, and the frequency of episodes ranges from several per day to one per year. In some affected individuals, episodes occur less often with age.

People with familial paroxysmal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia experience episodes of abnormal movement that are brought on by alcohol, caffeine, stress, fatigue, menses, or excitement or develop without a known cause. Episodes are not induced by exercise or sudden movement and do not occur during sleep. An episode is characterized by irregular, jerking or shaking movements that range from mild to severe. In this disorder, the dyskinesia can include slow, prolonged contraction of muscles (dystonia); small, fast, "dance-like" motions (chorea); writhing movements of the limbs (athetosis); and, rarely, flailing movements of the limbs (ballismus). The dyskinesia also affects muscles in the torso and face. The type of abnormal movement varies among affected individuals, even among affected members of the same family. Individuals with familial paroxysmal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia do not lose consciousness during an episode. Most people do not experience any neurological symptoms between episodes.

Familial paroxysmal nonkinesigenic dyskinesia is a disorder of the nervous system that causes episodes of involuntary movement. Paroxysmal indicates that the abnormal movements come and go over time. Nonkinesigenic means that episodes are not triggered by sudden movement. Dyskinesia broadly refers to involuntary movement of the body. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
370188
Concept ID:
C1970149
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, IIA 17

Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 17 (PCH17) is a severe autosomal recessive developmental disorder characterized by neonatal hypotonia, severe feeding difficulties, and respiratory insufficiency. Brain imaging shows cerebellar and brainstem hypoplasia. Most affected individuals die in infancy. Those who survive show variable developmental delay. Other features of the disorder include distal hypertonia, poor overall growth, visual defects, autonomic problems, dysmorphic features, and seizures (Coolen et al., 2022). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PCH, see PCH1A (607596). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1809583
Concept ID:
C5676999
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Paroxysmal dystonia

A form of dystonia characterized by episodes of dystonia (often hemidystonia or generalized) lasting from minutes to hours. There are no dystonic symptoms between episodes. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
97951
Concept ID:
C0393588
Sign or Symptom
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