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Items: 8

1.

Congenital myotonia, autosomal dominant form

Myotonia congenita is characterized by muscle stiffness present from childhood; all striated muscle groups including the extrinsic eye muscles, facial muscles, and tongue may be involved. Stiffness is relieved by repeated contractions of the muscle (the "warm-up" phenomenon). Muscles are usually hypertrophic. Whereas autosomal recessive (AR) myotonia congenita is often associated with more severe manifestations (such as progressive minor distal weakness and attacks of transient weakness brought on by movement after rest), autosomal dominant (AD) myotonia congenita is not. The age of onset varies: in AD myotonia congenita onset is usually in infancy or early childhood; in AR myotonia congenita the average age of onset is slightly older. In both AR and AD myotonia congenita onset may be as late as the third or fourth decade of life. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
422446
Concept ID:
C2936781
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Congenital myotonia, autosomal recessive form

Myotonia congenita is characterized by muscle stiffness present from childhood; all striated muscle groups including the extrinsic eye muscles, facial muscles, and tongue may be involved. Stiffness is relieved by repeated contractions of the muscle (the "warm-up" phenomenon). Muscles are usually hypertrophic. Whereas autosomal recessive (AR) myotonia congenita is often associated with more severe manifestations (such as progressive minor distal weakness and attacks of transient weakness brought on by movement after rest), autosomal dominant (AD) myotonia congenita is not. The age of onset varies: in AD myotonia congenita onset is usually in infancy or early childhood; in AR myotonia congenita the average age of onset is slightly older. In both AR and AD myotonia congenita onset may be as late as the third or fourth decade of life. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
155852
Concept ID:
C0751360
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Paramyotonia congenita of Von Eulenburg

Paramyotonia congenita is a disorder that affects muscles used for movement (skeletal muscles). Beginning in infancy or early childhood, people with this condition experience bouts of sustained muscle tensing (myotonia) that prevent muscles from relaxing normally. Myotonia causes muscle stiffness that typically appears after exercise and can be induced by muscle cooling. This stiffness chiefly affects muscles in the face, neck, arms, and hands, although it can also affect muscles used for breathing and muscles in the lower body. Unlike many other forms of myotonia, the muscle stiffness associated with paramyotonia congenita tends to worsen with repeated movements.

Most people—even those without muscle disease—feel that their muscles do not work as well when they are cold. This effect is dramatic in people with paramyotonia congenita. Exposure to cold initially causes muscle stiffness in these individuals, and prolonged cold exposure leads to temporary episodes of mild to severe muscle weakness that may last for several hours at a time. Some older people with paramyotonia congenita develop permanent muscle weakness that can be disabling. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
113142
Concept ID:
C0221055
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Potassium-aggravated myotonia

In a report on the 37th ENMC Workshop, Rudel and Lehmann-Horn (1997) stated that the sodium channelopathies can be divided into 3 different forms: paramyotonia, potassium-aggravated myotonia, and periodic paralysis. Potassium-aggravated myotonia includes mild myotonia fluctuans, severe myotonia permanens, and acetazolamide-responsive myotonia. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
444151
Concept ID:
C2931826
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Brody myopathy

Brody disease (BROD) is an autosomal recessive skeletal muscle disorder characterized by exercise-induced muscle stiffness and cramps primarily affecting the arms, legs, and eyelids, although more generalized muscle involvement may also occur. Symptom onset is most often in the first decade, but many patients present and are diagnosed later in life. Skeletal muscle biopsy typically shows variation in fiber size, increased internal nuclei, and atrophy of type II muscle fibers. Rare patients have been reported to develop malignant hyperthermia after administration of anesthesia, suggesting that patients with the disorder should be tested. The disorder results from defective relaxation of fast-twitch (type II) skeletal muscle fibers due to defects in calcium homeostasis and reuptake in the muscle fiber (summary by Odermatt et al., 2000 and Molenaar et al., 2020). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
371441
Concept ID:
C1832918
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Familial normokalemic periodic paralysis

An autosomal dominant inherited non-dystrophic myotonia caused by mutations of the SCN4A gene, resulting in sodium muscle channelopathy. Currently, it is considered a variant of hyperkalemic periodic paralysis. Patients with normokalemic periodic paralysis do not have any change in their potassium levels during weakness, but become weak when they ingest potassium. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
78678
Concept ID:
C0268445
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Myofibrillar myopathy 10

Myofibrillar myopathy-10 (MFM10) is an autosomal recessive structural muscle disorder characterized by onset of muscle pain, cramping, and exercise fatigue in the first or second decades of life. Some patients have mild contractures of the large joints apparent in early childhood. Affected individuals have a characteristic appearance of a thick neck and prominent shoulder girdle with anteverted shoulders and a tendency toward kyphosis. There is no apparent muscle weakness, but some affected individuals show progressive muscle rigidity leading to limited mobility. There is variable cardiac involvement, ranging from chest pain with left ventricular hypertrophy to subclinical signs such as abnormal EKG or elevated cardiac enzymes. Skeletal muscle biopsy shows structural abnormalities with myofibrillar disorganization and accumulation of autophagocytic vacuoles (summary by Hedberg-Oldfors et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of myofibrillar myopathy, see MFM1 (601419). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1769385
Concept ID:
C5436656
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Percussion myotonia

A localized myotonic contraction in a muscle in reaction to percussion (tapping with the examiner's finger, a rubber percussion hammer, or a similar object). [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
148293
Concept ID:
C0751359
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