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Items: 4

1.

Classic homocystinuria

Homocystinuria caused by cystathionine ß-synthase (CBS) deficiency is characterized by involvement of the eye (ectopia lentis and/or severe myopia), skeletal system (excessive height, long limbs, scolioisis, and pectus excavatum), vascular system (thromboembolism), and CNS (developmental delay/intellectual disability). All four ? or only one ? of the systems can be involved; expressivity is variable for all of the clinical signs. It is not unusual for a previously asymptomatic individual to present in adult years with only a thromboembolic event that is often cerebrovascular. Two phenotypic variants are recognized, B6-responsive homocystinuria and B6-non-responsive homocystinuria. B6-responsive homocystinuria is usually milder than the non-responsive variant. Thromboembolism is the major cause of early death and morbidity. IQ in individuals with untreated homocystinuria ranges widely, from 10 to 138. In B6-responsive individuals the mean IQ is 79 versus 57 for those who are B6-non-responsive. Other features that may occur include: seizures, psychiatric problems, extrapyramidal signs (e.g., dystonia), hypopigmentation of the skin and hair, malar flush, livedo reticularis, and pancreatitis. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
199606
Concept ID:
C0751202
Disease or Syndrome
2.

McLeod neuroacanthocytosis syndrome

McLeod neuroacanthocytosis syndrome (designated as MLS throughout this review) is a multisystem disorder with central nervous system (CNS), neuromuscular, cardiovascular, and hematologic manifestations in males: CNS manifestations are a neurodegenerative basal ganglia disease including movement disorders, cognitive alterations, and psychiatric symptoms. Neuromuscular manifestations include a (mostly subclinical) sensorimotor axonopathy and muscle weakness or atrophy of different degrees. Cardiac manifestations include dilated cardiomyopathy, atrial fibrillation, and tachyarrhythmia. Hematologically, MLS is defined as a specific blood group phenotype (named after the first proband, Hugh McLeod) that results from absent expression of the Kx erythrocyte antigen and weakened expression of Kell blood group antigens. The hematologic manifestations are red blood cell acanthocytosis and compensated hemolysis. Alloantibodies in the Kell and Kx blood group system can cause strong reactions to transfusions of incompatible blood and severe anemia in affected male newborns of Kell-negative mothers. Females heterozygous for XK pathogenic variants have mosaicism for the Kell and Kx blood group antigens. Although they usually lack CNS and neuromuscular manifestations, some heterozygous females may develop clinical manifestations including chorea or late-onset cognitive decline. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
140765
Concept ID:
C0398568
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy 5

Autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) is characterized by clusters of nocturnal motor seizures, which are often stereotyped and brief (5 seconds to 5 minutes). They vary from simple arousals from sleep to dramatic, often bizarre hyperkinetic events with tonic or dystonic features. Affected individuals may experience aura. Retained awareness during seizures is common. A minority of individuals experience daytime seizures. Onset ranges from infancy to adulthood. About 80% of individuals develop ADNFLE in the first two decades of life; mean age of onset is ten years. Clinical neurologic examination is normal and intellect is usually preserved, but reduced intellect, psychiatric comorbidity, or cognitive deficits may occur. Within a family, the manifestations of the disorder may vary considerably. ADNFLE is lifelong but not progressive. As an individual reaches middle age, attacks may become milder and less frequent. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
767220
Concept ID:
C3554306
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Personality disorder

A personality disorder is a deeply ingrained pattern of behavior of a specified kind that deviates markedly from the norms of generally accepted behavior. It is typically apparent by the time of adolescence and causes long-term difficulties in personal relationships or functioning in society. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
45827
Concept ID:
C0031212
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
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