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Items: 15

1.

Telangiectasia, hereditary hemorrhagic, type 1

Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is characterized by the presence of multiple arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) that lack intervening capillaries and result in direct connections between arteries and veins. The most common clinical manifestation is spontaneous and recurrent nosebleeds (epistaxis) beginning on average at age 12 years. Telangiectases (small AVMs) are characteristically found on the lips, tongue, buccal and gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa, face, and fingers. The appearance of telangiectases is generally later than epistaxis but may be during childhood. Large AVMs occur most often in the lungs, liver, or brain; complications from bleeding or shunting may be sudden and catastrophic. A minority of individuals with HHT have GI bleeding, which is rarely seen before age 50 years. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1643786
Concept ID:
C4551861
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome

Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome is characterized by hemangioblastomas of the brain, spinal cord, and retina; renal cysts and clear cell renal cell carcinoma; pheochromocytoma, pancreatic cysts, and neuroendocrine tumors; endolymphatic sac tumors; and epididymal and broad ligament cysts. Cerebellar hemangioblastomas may be associated with headache, vomiting, gait disturbances, or ataxia. Spinal hemangioblastomas and related syrinx usually present with pain. Sensory and motor loss may develop with cord compression. Retinal hemangioblastomas may be the initial manifestation of VHL syndrome and can cause vision loss. Renal cell carcinoma occurs in about 70% of individuals with VHL and is the leading cause of mortality. Pheochromocytomas can be asymptomatic but may cause sustained or episodic hypertension. Pancreatic lesions often remain asymptomatic and rarely cause endocrine or exocrine insufficiency. Endolymphatic sac tumors can cause hearing loss of varying severity, which can be a presenting symptom. Cystadenomas of the epididymis are relatively common. They rarely cause problems, unless bilateral, in which case they may result in infertility. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
42458
Concept ID:
C0019562
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Telangiectasia, hereditary hemorrhagic, type 2

Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is characterized by the presence of multiple arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) that lack intervening capillaries and result in direct connections between arteries and veins. The most common clinical manifestation is spontaneous and recurrent nosebleeds (epistaxis) beginning on average at age 12 years. Telangiectases (small AVMs) are characteristically found on the lips, tongue, buccal and gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa, face, and fingers. The appearance of telangiectases is generally later than epistaxis but may be during childhood. Large AVMs occur most often in the lungs, liver, or brain; complications from bleeding or shunting may be sudden and catastrophic. A minority of individuals with HHT have GI bleeding, which is rarely seen before age 50 years. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
324960
Concept ID:
C1838163
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Deficiency of cytochrome-b5 reductase

Methemoglobinemia due to NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized clinically by decreased oxygen carrying capacity of the blood, with resultant cyanosis and hypoxia (review by Percy and Lappin, 2008). There are 2 types of methemoglobin reductase deficiency. In type I, the defect affects the soluble form of the enzyme, is restricted to red blood cells, and causes well-tolerated methemoglobinemia. In type II, the defect affects both the soluble and microsomal forms of the enzyme and is thus generalized, affecting red cells, leukocytes, and all body tissues. Type II methemoglobinemia is associated with mental deficiency and other neurologic symptoms. The neurologic symptoms may be related to the major role played by the cytochrome b5 system in the desaturation of fatty acids (Vives-Corrons et al., 1978; Kaplan et al., 1979). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
75661
Concept ID:
C0268193
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Fumarase deficiency

Fumarate hydratase (FH) deficiency results in severe neonatal and early infantile encephalopathy that is characterized by poor feeding, failure to thrive, hypotonia, lethargy, and seizures. Dysmorphic facial features include frontal bossing, depressed nasal bridge, and widely spaced eyes. Many affected individuals are microcephalic. A spectrum of brain abnormalities are seen on magnetic resonance imaging, including cerebral atrophy, enlarged ventricles and generous extra-axial cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) spaces, delayed myelination for age, thinning of the corpus callosum, and an abnormally small brain stem. Brain malformations including bilateral polymicrogyria and absence of the corpus callosum can also be observed. Development is severely affected: most affected individuals are nonverbal and nonambulatory, and many die during early childhood. Less severely affected individuals with moderate cognitive impairment and long-term survival have been reported. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
87458
Concept ID:
C0342770
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Hypermanganesemia with dystonia, polycythemia, and cirrhosis

Hypermanganesemia with dystonia 1 (HMNDYT1) is characterized by the following: A movement disorder resulting from manganese accumulation in the basal ganglia. Whole-blood manganese concentrations that often exceed 2000 nmol/L (normal: <320 nmol/L). Polycythemia. Hepatomegaly with variable hepatic fibrosis/cirrhosis. Neurologic findings can manifest in childhood (ages 2-15 years) as four-limb dystonia, leading to a characteristic high-stepping gait ("cock-walk gait"), dysarthria, fine tremor, and bradykinesia or on occasion spastic paraplegia; or in adulthood as parkinsonism (shuffling gait, rigidity, bradykinesia, hypomimia, and monotone speech) unresponsive to L-dopa treatment. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
412958
Concept ID:
C2750442
Disease or Syndrome
7.

ABCD syndrome

ABCD syndrome (ABCDS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by albinism, black lock, cell migration disorder of the neurocytes of the gut (Hirschsprung disease), and deafness (summary by Verheij et al., 2002). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
333014
Concept ID:
C1838099
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Ogden syndrome

Ogden syndrome (OGDNS) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by postnatal growth failure, severely delayed psychomotor development, variable dysmorphic features, and hypotonia. Many patients also have cardiac malformations or arrhythmias (summary by Popp et al., 2015). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
477078
Concept ID:
C3275447
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Erythrocytosis, familial, 4

Familial erythrocytosis-4 (ECYT4) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by increased serum red blood cell mass and hemoglobin concentration as well as elevated serum erythropoietin (EPO; 133170). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of familial erythrocytosis, see ECYT1 (133100). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
435867
Concept ID:
C2673187
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Deficiency of bisphosphoglycerate mutase

A rare, autosomal recessive, inherited disorder caused by mutation of the BPGM gene. It is characterized by hemolytic anemia and splenomegaly. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
489898
Concept ID:
C1291620
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Pyruvate kinase hyperactivity

Elevation of red cell ATP levels is accompanied by elevated red cell pyruvate kinase activity and mild erythrocytosis. Red cell life span is slightly shortened. The patients in whom this trait was first described were asymptomatic (summary by Beutler et al., 1997). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
350114
Concept ID:
C1863224
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Erythrocytosis, familial, 6

Familial erythrocytosis-6 is characterized by an increased oxygen affinity of hemoglobin (Hb), which results in decreased delivery of oxygen into the peripheral tissues and compensatory polycythemia. Patients are generally asymptomatic, as compensatory polycythemia assures normal oxygen tissue delivery. Patients have normal red cell morphology (summary by Kralovics and Prchal, 2000). Wajcman and Galacteros (2005) noted that although high oxygen affinity hemoglobins are usually well tolerated in young patients, they can lead to thrombotic complications in older patients or when they are associated with another cause that increases thrombotic risk. Wajcman and Galacteros (2005) also noted that the effect of increased oxygen affinity of Hb caused by an alpha chain variant (see 617981) is usually milder than that caused by a beta chain variant. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1634191
Concept ID:
C4693822
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Erythrocytosis, familial, 7

Familial erythrocytosis-7 (ECYT7) is characterized by an increased oxygen affinity of hemoglobin (Hb), which results in decreased delivery of oxygen into the peripheral tissues and compensatory polycythemia. Patients are generally asymptomatic, as compensatory polycythemia assures normal oxygen tissue delivery. Patients have normal red cell morphology (summary by Kralovics and Prchal, 2000). Wajcman and Galacteros (2005) noted that although high oxygen affinity hemoglobins are usually well tolerated in young patients, they can lead to thrombotic complications in older patients or when they are associated with another cause that increases thrombotic risk. Wajcman and Galacteros (2005) also noted that the effect of increased oxygen affinity of Hb caused by an alpha chain variant is usually milder than that caused by a beta chain variant (see 617980). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1642594
Concept ID:
C4693823
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Erythrocytosis, familial, 5

Erythrocytosis-5 (ECYT5) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by increased red cell mass and typically elevated hemoglobin concentration and hematocrit. Some patients have increased serum EPO levels (summary by Zmajkovic et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of familial erythrocytosis, see ECYT1 (133100). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1638941
Concept ID:
C4693552
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Polycythemia

Polycythemia is diagnosed if the red blood cell count, the hemoglobin level, and the red blood cell volume all exceed the upper limits of normal. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
18552
Concept ID:
C0032461
Disease or Syndrome
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