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1.

Carnitine acylcarnitine translocase deficiency

Carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase (CACT) is a critical component of the carnitine shuttle, which facilitates the transfer of long-chain fatty acylcarnitines across the inner mitochondrial membrane. CACT deficiency causes a defect in mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid ß-oxidation, with variable clinical severity. Severe neonatal-onset disease is most common, with symptoms evident within two days after birth; attenuated cases may present in the first months of life. Hyperammonemia and cardiac arrhythmia are prominent in early-onset disease, with high rates of cardiac arrest. Other clinical features are typical for disorders of long-chain fatty acid oxidation: poor feeding, lethargy, hypoketotic hypoglycemia, hypotonia, transaminitis, liver dysfunction with hepatomegaly, and rhabdomyolysis. Univentricular or biventricular hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, ranging from mild to severe, may respond to appropriate dietary and medical therapies. Hyperammonemia is difficult to treat and is an important determinant of long-term neurocognitive outcome. Affected individuals with early-onset disease typically experience brain injury at presentation, and have recurrent hyperammonemia leading to developmental delay / intellectual disability. Affected individuals with later-onset disease have milder symptoms and are less likely to experience recurrent hyperammonemia, allowing a better developmental outcome. Prompt treatment of the presenting episode to prevent hypoglycemic, hypoxic, or hyperammonemic brain injury may allow normal growth and development. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
91000
Concept ID:
C0342791
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Dilated cardiomyopathy 1E

Any familial isolated dilated cardiomyopathy in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the SCN5A gene. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
331341
Concept ID:
C1832680
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia 9

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) – previously referred to as arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) – is characterized by progressive fibrofatty replacement of the myocardium that predisposes to ventricular tachycardia and sudden death in young individuals and athletes. It primarily affects the right ventricle, and it may also involve the left ventricle. The presentation of disease is highly variable even within families, and some affected individuals may not meet established clinical criteria. The mean age at diagnosis is 31 years (±13; range: 4-64 years). [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
373205
Concept ID:
C1836906
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome 2

Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome (JLNS) is characterized by congenital profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss and long QTc, usually >500 msec. Prolongation of the QTc interval is associated with tachyarrhythmias, including ventricular tachycardia, episodes of torsade de pointes ventricular tachycardia, and ventricular fibrillation, which may culminate in syncope or sudden death. Iron-deficient anemia and elevated levels of gastrin are also frequent features of JLNS. The classic presentation of JLNS is a deaf child who experiences syncopal episodes during periods of stress, exercise, or fright. Fifty percent of individuals with JLNS had cardiac events before age three years. More than half of untreated children with JLNS die before age 15 years. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
394108
Concept ID:
C2676723
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia 5

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) – previously referred to as arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) – is characterized by progressive fibrofatty replacement of the myocardium that predisposes to ventricular tachycardia and sudden death in young individuals and athletes. It primarily affects the right ventricle, and it may also involve the left ventricle. The presentation of disease is highly variable even within families, and some affected individuals may not meet established clinical criteria. The mean age at diagnosis is 31 years (±13; range: 4-64 years). [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
346805
Concept ID:
C1858379
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia 8

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) – previously referred to as arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) – is characterized by progressive fibrofatty replacement of the myocardium that predisposes to ventricular tachycardia and sudden death in young individuals and athletes. It primarily affects the right ventricle, and it may also involve the left ventricle. The presentation of disease is highly variable even within families, and some affected individuals may not meet established clinical criteria. The mean age at diagnosis is 31 years (±13; range: 4-64 years). [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
336069
Concept ID:
C1843896
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia 10

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) – previously referred to as arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) – is characterized by progressive fibrofatty replacement of the myocardium that predisposes to ventricular tachycardia and sudden death in young individuals and athletes. It primarily affects the right ventricle, and it may also involve the left ventricle. The presentation of disease is highly variable even within families, and some affected individuals may not meet established clinical criteria. The mean age at diagnosis is 31 years (±13; range: 4-64 years). [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
347543
Concept ID:
C1857777
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Myotonic dystrophy type 2

Myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) is characterized by myotonia and muscle dysfunction (proximal and axial weakness, myalgia, and stiffness), and less commonly by posterior subcapsular cataracts, cardiac conduction defects, insulin-insensitive type 2 diabetes mellitus, and other endocrine abnormalities. While myotonia (involuntary muscle contraction with delayed relaxation) has been reported during the first decade, onset is typically in the third to fourth decade, most commonly with fluctuating or episodic muscle pain that can be debilitating and proximal and axial weakness of the neck flexors and the hip flexors. Subsequently, weakness occurs in the elbow extensors and finger flexors. Facial weakness and weakness of the ankle dorsiflexors are less common. Myotonia rarely causes severe symptoms. In a subset of individuals, calf hypertrophy in combination with brisk reflexes is notable. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
419137
Concept ID:
C2931689
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia 5

Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is characterized by episodic syncope occurring during exercise or acute emotion. The underlying cause of these episodes is the onset of fast ventricular tachycardia (bidirectional or polymorphic). Spontaneous recovery may occur when these arrhythmias self-terminate. In other instances, ventricular tachycardia may degenerate into ventricular fibrillation and cause sudden death if cardiopulmonary resuscitation is not readily available. The mean onset of symptoms (usually a syncopal episode) is between age seven and 12 years; onset as late as the fourth decade of life has been reported. If untreated, CPVT is highly lethal, as approximately 30% of affected individuals experience at least one cardiac arrest and up to 80% have one or more syncopal spells. Sudden death may be the first manifestation of the disease. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
815866
Concept ID:
C3809536
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Naxos disease

Naxos disease (NXD) is characterized by arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy associated with abnormalities of the skin, hair, and nails. The ectodermal features are evident from birth or early childhood, whereas the cardiac symptoms develop in young adulthood or later. Clinical variability of ectodermal features has been observed, with hair anomalies ranging from woolly hair to alopecia, and skin abnormalities ranging from mild focal palmoplantar keratoderma to generalized skin fragility or even lethal neonatal epidermolysis bullosa (Protonotarios et al., 1986; Cabral et al., 2010; Pigors et al., 2011; Erken et al., 2011; Sen-Chowdhry and McKenna, 2014). Another syndrome involving cardiomyopathy, woolly hair, and keratoderma (DCWHK; 605676) is caused by mutation in the desmoplakin gene (DSP; 125647). Also see 610476 for a similar disorder caused by homozygous mutation in the DSC2 gene (125645). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
321991
Concept ID:
C1832600
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia 4

Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is characterized by episodic syncope occurring during exercise or acute emotion. The underlying cause of these episodes is the onset of fast ventricular tachycardia (bidirectional or polymorphic). Spontaneous recovery may occur when these arrhythmias self-terminate. In other instances, ventricular tachycardia may degenerate into ventricular fibrillation and cause sudden death if cardiopulmonary resuscitation is not readily available. The mean onset of symptoms (usually a syncopal episode) is between age seven and 12 years; onset as late as the fourth decade of life has been reported. If untreated, CPVT is highly lethal, as approximately 30% of affected individuals experience at least one cardiac arrest and up to 80% have one or more syncopal spells. Sudden death may be the first manifestation of the disease. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
766961
Concept ID:
C3554047
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Marshall-Smith syndrome

The Marshall-Smith syndrome (MRSHSS) is a malformation syndrome characterized by accelerated skeletal maturation, relative failure to thrive, respiratory difficulties, mental retardation, and unusual facies, including prominent forehead, shallow orbits, blue sclerae, depressed nasal bridge, and micrognathia (Adam et al., 2005). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
75551
Concept ID:
C0265211
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Ogden syndrome

Ogden syndrome (OGDNS) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by postnatal growth failure, severely delayed psychomotor development, variable dysmorphic features, and hypotonia. Many patients also have cardiac malformations or arrhythmias (summary by Popp et al., 2015). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
477078
Concept ID:
C3275447
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2Y

Autosomal recessive myopathy with rigid spine and distal joint contractures (MRRSDC) is characterized by onset of slowly progressive muscle weakness in the first or second decades of life. There is initial involvement of the proximal lower limbs, followed by distal upper and lower limb muscle weakness and atrophy. Other features include joint contractures, rigid spine, and restricted pulmonary function; some patients may have mild cardiac involvement (summary by Kayman-Kurekci et al., 2014). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1385152
Concept ID:
C4511482
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia 3

Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is characterized by episodic syncope occurring during exercise or acute emotion. The underlying cause of these episodes is the onset of fast ventricular tachycardia (bidirectional or polymorphic). Spontaneous recovery may occur when these arrhythmias self-terminate. In other instances, ventricular tachycardia may degenerate into ventricular fibrillation and cause sudden death if cardiopulmonary resuscitation is not readily available. The mean onset of symptoms (usually a syncopal episode) is between age seven and 12 years; onset as late as the fourth decade of life has been reported. If untreated, CPVT is highly lethal, as approximately 30% of affected individuals experience at least one cardiac arrest and up to 80% have one or more syncopal spells. Sudden death may be the first manifestation of the disease. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
462813
Concept ID:
C3151463
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Atrial conduction disease

A rare genetic cardiac disease characterized by variably expressed atrial tachyarrhythmia (such as atrial flutter, paroxysmal or chronic atrial fibrillation, ectopic atrial tachycardia, or multifocal atrial tachycardia), infra-Hisian conduction system disease, and vulnerability to dilated cardiomyopathy. Age of onset ranges between childhood and adulthood. [from ORDO]

MedGen UID:
863722
Concept ID:
C4015285
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Ventricular fibrillation, paroxysmal familial, 2

Any ventricular fibrillation in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the DPP6 gene. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
442823
Concept ID:
C2751829
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia 6

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) – previously referred to as arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) – is characterized by progressive fibrofatty replacement of the myocardium that predisposes to ventricular tachycardia and sudden death in young individuals and athletes. It primarily affects the right ventricle, and it may also involve the left ventricle. The presentation of disease is highly variable even within families, and some affected individuals may not meet established clinical criteria. The mean age at diagnosis is 31 years (±13; range: 4-64 years). [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
346892
Concept ID:
C1858378
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, familial, 14

Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia-14 (ARVD14) is characterized by palpitations, chest pain, and presyncope. Electrocardiography shows epsilon waves, T-wave inversion across anterior leads, premature ventricular contractions, ventricular tachycardia, and left bundle branch block. Dilation of the right ventricle with hypokinesia and aneurysmal changes are seen on echocardiography. Cardiac MRI may show fibrofatty infiltration, which has been confirmed by endocardial biopsy in some patients. Sudden death may occur (Mayosi et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of ARVD, see ARVD1 (107970). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1712001
Concept ID:
C5394505
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Ventricular extrasystoles with syncopal episodes-perodactyly-robin sequence syndrome

This syndrome is characterized by cardiac arrhythmias (ventricular extrasystoles manifesting as bigeminy or multifocal tachycardia with syncopal episodes), perodactyly (hypoplasia and/or agenesis of the distal phalanges of the toes) and Pierre-Robin sequence (see this term). [from ORDO]

MedGen UID:
395493
Concept ID:
C1860471
Disease or Syndrome
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