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1.

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome

The WAS-related disorders, which include Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, X-linked thrombocytopenia (XLT), and X-linked congenital neutropenia (XLN), are a spectrum of disorders of hematopoietic cells, with predominant defects of platelets and lymphocytes caused by pathogenic variants in WAS. WAS-related disorders usually present in infancy. Affected males have thrombocytopenia with intermittent mucosal bleeding, bloody diarrhea, and intermittent or chronic petechiae and purpura; eczema; and recurrent bacterial and viral infections, particularly of the ear. At least 40% of those who survive the early complications develop one or more autoimmune conditions including hemolytic anemia, immune thrombocytopenic purpura, immune-mediated neutropenia, rheumatoid arthritis, vasculitis, and immune-mediated damage to the kidneys and liver. Individuals with a WAS-related disorder, particularly those who have been exposed to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), are at increased risk of developing lymphomas, which often occur in unusual, extranodal locations including the brain, lung, or gastrointestinal tract. Males with XLT have thrombocytopenia with small platelets; other complications of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, including eczema and immune dysfunction, are usually mild or absent. Males with XLN have congenital neutropenia, myeloid dysplasia, and lymphoid cell abnormalities. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
21921
Concept ID:
C0043194
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 1

Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is characterized by oculocutaneous albinism, a bleeding diathesis, and, in some individuals, pulmonary fibrosis, granulomatous colitis, or immunodeficiency. Ocular findings include reduced iris pigment with iris transillumination, reduced retinal pigment, foveal hypoplasia with significant reduction in visual acuity (usually in the range of 20/50 to 20/400), nystagmus, and increased crossing of the optic nerve fibers. Hair color ranges from white to brown; skin color ranges from white to olive and is usually a shade lighter than that of other family members. The bleeding diathesis can result in variable bruising, epistaxis, gingival bleeding, postpartum hemorrhage, colonic bleeding, and prolonged bleeding with menses or after tooth extraction, circumcision, and other surgeries. Pulmonary fibrosis, a restrictive lung disease, typically causes symptoms in the early thirties and can progress to death within a decade. Granulomatous colitis is severe in about 15% of affected individuals. Neutropenia and/or immune defects occur primarily in individuals with pathogenic variants in AP3B1 and AP3D1. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
419514
Concept ID:
C2931875
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Macrothrombocytopenia and granulocyte inclusions with or without nephritis or sensorineural hearing loss

MYH9-related disease (MYH9-RD) is characterized in all affected individuals by hematologic features present from birth consisting of platelet macrocytosis (i.e., >40% of platelets larger than 3.9 µm in diameter), thrombocytopenia (platelet count <150 x 109/L), and aggregates of the MYH9 protein in the cytoplasm of neutrophil granulocytes. Most affected individuals develop one or more additional extrahematologic manifestations of the disease over their lifetime, including sensorineural hearing loss, renal disease (manifesting initially as glomerular nephropathy), presenile cataracts, and/or elevation of liver enzymes. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1704278
Concept ID:
C5200934
Disease or Syndrome
4.

von Willebrand disease type 1

Von Willebrand disease (VWD), a congenital bleeding disorder caused by deficient or defective plasma von Willebrand factor (VWF), may only become apparent on hemostatic challenge, and bleeding history may become more apparent with increasing age. Recent guidelines on VWD have recommended taking a VWF level of 30 or 40 IU/dL as a cutoff for those diagnosed with the disorder. Individuals with VWF levels greater than 30 IU/dL and lower than 50 IU/dL can be described as having a risk factor for bleeding. This change in guidelines significantly alters the proportion of individuals with each disease type. Type 1 VWD (~30% of VWD) typically manifests as mild mucocutaneous bleeding. Type 2 VWD accounts for approximately 60% of VWD. Type 2 subtypes include: Type 2A, which usually manifests as mild-to-moderate mucocutaneous bleeding; Type 2B, which typically manifests as mild-to-moderate mucocutaneous bleeding that can include thrombocytopenia that worsens in certain circumstances; Type 2M, which typically manifests as mild-moderate mucocutaneous bleeding; Type 2N, which can manifest as excessive bleeding with surgery and mimics mild hemophilia A. Type 3 VWD (<10% of VWD) manifests with severe mucocutaneous and musculoskeletal bleeding. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
220393
Concept ID:
C1264039
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Bernard Soulier syndrome

Bernard-Soulier syndrome is an autosomal recessive bleeding disorder caused by a defect in or deficiency of the platelet membrane von Willebrand factor (VWF; 613160) receptor complex, glycoprotein Ib (GP Ib). GP Ib is composed of 4 subunits encoded by 4 separate genes: GP1BA, GP1BB, GP9, and GP5 (173511). Genetic Heterogeneity of Platelet-Type Bleeding Disorders Inherited platelet disorders are a heterogeneous group of bleeding disorders affecting platelet number, function, or both. Functional defects can involve platelet receptors, signaling pathways, cytoskeletal proteins, granule contents, activation, or aggregation (review by Cox et al., 2011 and Nurden and Nurden, 2011). Platelet-type bleeding disorders include Bernard-Soulier syndrome (BDPLT1); Glanzmann thrombasthenia (BDPLT2; 273800), caused by mutation in the ITGA2B (607759) or ITGB3 (173470) gene; pseudo-von Willebrand disease (BDPLT3; 177820), caused by mutation in the GP1BA gene (606672); gray platelet syndrome (BDPLT4; 139090), caused by mutation in the NBEAL2 gene (614169); Quebec platelet disorder (BDPLT5; 601709), caused by tandem duplication of the PLAU gene (191840); May-Hegglin anomaly (BDPLT6; 155100), caused by mutation in the MYH9 gene (160775); Scott syndrome (BDPLT7; 262890), caused by mutation in the TMEM16F gene (608663); BDPLT8 (609821), caused by mutation in the P2RY12 gene (600515); BDPLT9 (614200), associated with deficiency of the glycoprotein Ia/IIa receptor (see ITGA2; 192974); glycoprotein IV deficiency (BDPLT10; 608404), caused by mutation in the CD36 gene (173510); BDPLT11 (614201), caused by mutation in the GP6 gene (605546); BDPLT12 (605735), associated with a deficiency of platelet COX1 (176805); susceptibility to BDPLT13 (614009), caused by mutation in the TBXA2R gene (188070); BDPLT14 (614158), associated with deficiency of thromboxane synthetase (TBXAS1; 274180); BDPLT15 (615193), caused by mutation in the ACTN1 gene (102575); BDPLT16 (187800), caused by mutation in the ITGA2B (607759) or ITGB3 (173470) gene; BDPLT17 (187900), caused by mutation in the GFI1B gene (604383); BDPLT18 (615888), caused by mutation in the RASGRP2 gene (605577); BDPLT19 (616176), caused by mutation in the PRKACG gene (176893); BDPLT20 (616913), caused by mutation in the SLFN14 gene (614958); BDPLT21 (617443), caused by mutation in the FLI1 gene (193067); BDPLT22 (618462), caused by mutation in the EPHB2 gene (600997); BDPLT23 (619267), caused by mutation in the ITGB3 gene (173470); BDPLT24 (619271), caused by mutation in the ITGB3 gene (173470); and BDPLT25 (620486), caused by mutation in the TPM4 gene (600317). See reviews by Rao (2003), Cox et al. (2011), and Nurden and Nurden (2011). For a discussion of the genetic heterogeneity of hereditary thrombocytopenia, see THC1 (313900). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
2212
Concept ID:
C0005129
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 2

Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is characterized by oculocutaneous albinism, a bleeding diathesis, and, in some individuals, pulmonary fibrosis, granulomatous colitis, or immunodeficiency. Ocular findings include reduced iris pigment with iris transillumination, reduced retinal pigment, foveal hypoplasia with significant reduction in visual acuity (usually in the range of 20/50 to 20/400), nystagmus, and increased crossing of the optic nerve fibers. Hair color ranges from white to brown; skin color ranges from white to olive and is usually a shade lighter than that of other family members. The bleeding diathesis can result in variable bruising, epistaxis, gingival bleeding, postpartum hemorrhage, colonic bleeding, and prolonged bleeding with menses or after tooth extraction, circumcision, and other surgeries. Pulmonary fibrosis, a restrictive lung disease, typically causes symptoms in the early thirties and can progress to death within a decade. Granulomatous colitis is severe in about 15% of affected individuals. Neutropenia and/or immune defects occur primarily in individuals with pathogenic variants in AP3B1 and AP3D1. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
374912
Concept ID:
C1842362
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Congenital prothrombin deficiency

Prothrombin deficiency is an extremely rare autosomal recessive bleeding disorder characterized by low levels of circulating prothrombin; it affects about 1 in 2,000,000 individuals. There are 2 main types: type I deficiency, known as true prothrombin deficiency or 'hypoprothrombinemia,' is defined as plasma levels of prothrombin being less than 10% of normal with a concomitant decrease in activity. These patients have severe bleeding from birth, including umbilical cord hemorrhage, hematomas, ecchymoses, hematuria, mucosal bleeding, hemarthroses, intracranial bleeding, gastrointestinal bleeding, and menorrhagia. Type II deficiency, known as 'dysprothrombinemia,' is characterized by normal or low-normal synthesis of a dysfunctional protein. Bleeding symptoms are more variable, depending on the amount of residual functional activity. Variant prothrombin gene alleles can result in 'hypoprothrombinemia' or 'dysprothrombinemia,' and individuals who are compound heterozygous for these 2 types of alleles have variable manifestations. Heterozygous mutation carriers, who have plasma levels between 40 and 60% of normal, are usually asymptomatic, but can show bleeding after tooth extraction or surgical procedures (review by Lancellotti and De Cristofaro, 2009). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
124425
Concept ID:
C0272317
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 6

Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is characterized by oculocutaneous albinism, a bleeding diathesis, and, in some individuals, pulmonary fibrosis, granulomatous colitis, or immunodeficiency. Ocular findings include reduced iris pigment with iris transillumination, reduced retinal pigment, foveal hypoplasia with significant reduction in visual acuity (usually in the range of 20/50 to 20/400), nystagmus, and increased crossing of the optic nerve fibers. Hair color ranges from white to brown; skin color ranges from white to olive and is usually a shade lighter than that of other family members. The bleeding diathesis can result in variable bruising, epistaxis, gingival bleeding, postpartum hemorrhage, colonic bleeding, and prolonged bleeding with menses or after tooth extraction, circumcision, and other surgeries. Pulmonary fibrosis, a restrictive lung disease, typically causes symptoms in the early thirties and can progress to death within a decade. Granulomatous colitis is severe in about 15% of affected individuals. Neutropenia and/or immune defects occur primarily in individuals with pathogenic variants in AP3B1 and AP3D1. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
854714
Concept ID:
C3888007
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 5

Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is characterized by oculocutaneous albinism, a bleeding diathesis, and, in some individuals, pulmonary fibrosis, granulomatous colitis, or immunodeficiency. Ocular findings include reduced iris pigment with iris transillumination, reduced retinal pigment, foveal hypoplasia with significant reduction in visual acuity (usually in the range of 20/50 to 20/400), nystagmus, and increased crossing of the optic nerve fibers. Hair color ranges from white to brown; skin color ranges from white to olive and is usually a shade lighter than that of other family members. The bleeding diathesis can result in variable bruising, epistaxis, gingival bleeding, postpartum hemorrhage, colonic bleeding, and prolonged bleeding with menses or after tooth extraction, circumcision, and other surgeries. Pulmonary fibrosis, a restrictive lung disease, typically causes symptoms in the early thirties and can progress to death within a decade. Granulomatous colitis is severe in about 15% of affected individuals. Neutropenia and/or immune defects occur primarily in individuals with pathogenic variants in AP3B1 and AP3D1. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
854711
Concept ID:
C3888004
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome 7

Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is characterized by oculocutaneous albinism, a bleeding diathesis, and, in some individuals, pulmonary fibrosis, granulomatous colitis, or immunodeficiency. Ocular findings include reduced iris pigment with iris transillumination, reduced retinal pigment, foveal hypoplasia with significant reduction in visual acuity (usually in the range of 20/50 to 20/400), nystagmus, and increased crossing of the optic nerve fibers. Hair color ranges from white to brown; skin color ranges from white to olive and is usually a shade lighter than that of other family members. The bleeding diathesis can result in variable bruising, epistaxis, gingival bleeding, postpartum hemorrhage, colonic bleeding, and prolonged bleeding with menses or after tooth extraction, circumcision, and other surgeries. Pulmonary fibrosis, a restrictive lung disease, typically causes symptoms in the early thirties and can progress to death within a decade. Granulomatous colitis is severe in about 15% of affected individuals. Neutropenia and/or immune defects occur primarily in individuals with pathogenic variants in AP3B1 and AP3D1. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
481386
Concept ID:
C3279756
Disease or Syndrome
11.

von Willebrand disease type 3

Von Willebrand disease (VWD), a congenital bleeding disorder caused by deficient or defective plasma von Willebrand factor (VWF), may only become apparent on hemostatic challenge, and bleeding history may become more apparent with increasing age. Recent guidelines on VWD have recommended taking a VWF level of 30 or 40 IU/dL as a cutoff for those diagnosed with the disorder. Individuals with VWF levels greater than 30 IU/dL and lower than 50 IU/dL can be described as having a risk factor for bleeding. This change in guidelines significantly alters the proportion of individuals with each disease type. Type 1 VWD (~30% of VWD) typically manifests as mild mucocutaneous bleeding. Type 2 VWD accounts for approximately 60% of VWD. Type 2 subtypes include: Type 2A, which usually manifests as mild-to-moderate mucocutaneous bleeding; Type 2B, which typically manifests as mild-to-moderate mucocutaneous bleeding that can include thrombocytopenia that worsens in certain circumstances; Type 2M, which typically manifests as mild-moderate mucocutaneous bleeding; Type 2N, which can manifest as excessive bleeding with surgery and mimics mild hemophilia A. Type 3 VWD (<10% of VWD) manifests with severe mucocutaneous and musculoskeletal bleeding. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
266075
Concept ID:
C1264041
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Hereditary thrombocytopenia and hematological cancer predisposition syndrome associated with RUNX1

RUNX1 familial platelet disorder with associated myeloid malignancies (RUNX1-FPDMM) is characterized by prolonged bleeding and/or easy bruising and an increased risk of developing a hematologic malignancy. RUNX1-FPDMM is characterized by thrombocytopenia with normal platelet size; bleeding is often greater than expected due to qualitative platelet dysfunction. Myeloid malignancies are the most common, including acute myelogenous leukemia (and myelodysplastic syndrome. T- and B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias and lymphomas have also been reported, as well as skin manifestations (e.g., eczema, psoriasis). [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
321945
Concept ID:
C1832388
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Beta-thalassemia-X-linked thrombocytopenia syndrome

GATA1-related cytopenia is characterized by thrombocytopenia and/or anemia ranging from mild to severe. One or more of the following may also be present: platelet dysfunction, mild ß-thalassemia, neutropenia, and congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP) in males. Thrombocytopenia typically presents in infancy as a bleeding disorder with easy bruising and mucosal bleeding (e.g., epistaxis). Anemia ranges from minimal (mild dyserythropoiesis) to severe (hydrops fetalis requiring in utero transfusion). At the extreme end of the clinical spectrum, severe hemorrhage and/or erythrocyte transfusion dependence are life long; at the milder end, anemia and the risk for bleeding may decrease spontaneously with age. Heterozygous females may have mild-to-moderate symptoms such as menorrhagia. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
326415
Concept ID:
C1839161
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Gray platelet syndrome

The gray platelet syndrome (GPS) is a rare inherited disorder characterized by mild to moderate bleeding tendency, moderate thrombocytopenia, and a marked decrease or absence of platelet alpha-granules and of the proteins contained in alpha-granules. The platelets are enlarged, but not giant, and have a gray appearance on light microscopy of Wright-stained peripheral blood smears due to decreased granules. Many patients with gray platelet syndrome develop a stable myelofibrosis (summary by Nurden and Nurden, 2007). Cases suggesting autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive inheritance have been described, indicating that GPS is probably a genetically heterogeneous disorder with more than one molecular cause. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
82900
Concept ID:
C0272302
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Pseudo von Willebrand disease

Platelet-type von Willebrand disease (VWDP), also known as pseudo-von Willebrand disease, is an autosomal dominant bleeding disorder characterized by abnormally enhanced binding of von Willebrand factor by the platelet glycoprotein Ib (GP Ib) receptor complex. Hemostatic function is impaired due to the removal of VWF multimers from the circulation (Murata et al., 1993). Miller (1996) gave a comprehensive review of the disorder. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
226914
Concept ID:
C1280798
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Glanzmann thrombasthenia

Glanzmann thrombasthenia is a bleeding disorder that is characterized by prolonged or spontaneous bleeding starting from birth. People with Glanzmann thrombasthenia tend to bruise easily, have frequent nosebleeds (epistaxis), and may bleed from the gums. They may also develop red or purple spots on the skin caused by bleeding underneath the skin (petechiae) or swelling caused by bleeding within tissues (hematoma). Glanzmann thrombasthenia can also cause prolonged bleeding following injury, trauma, or surgery (including dental work). Women with this condition can have prolonged and sometimes abnormally heavy menstrual bleeding. Affected women also have an increased risk of excessive blood loss during pregnancy and childbirth.

About a quarter of individuals with Glanzmann thrombasthenia have bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract, which often occurs later in life. Rarely, affected individuals have bleeding inside the skull (intracranial hemorrhage) or joints (hemarthrosis).

The severity and frequency of the bleeding episodes in Glanzmann thrombasthenia can vary greatly among affected individuals, even in the same family. Spontaneous bleeding tends to become less frequent with age. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
52736
Concept ID:
C0040015
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Osteogenesis imperfecta type 16

Osteogenesis imperfecta type XVI (OI16) is characterized by prenatal onset of multiple fractures of ribs and long bones, blue sclerae, decreased ossification of the skull, and severe demineralization. Heterozygous family members may exhibit recurrent fractures with minimal trauma, osteopenia, and blue sclerae (Keller et al., 2018; Lindahl et al., 2018). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
864047
Concept ID:
C4015610
Disease or Syndrome
18.

RIN2 syndrome

A very rare inherited connective tissue disorder with characteristics of macrocephaly, sparse scalp hair, soft redundant and hyperextensible skin, joint hypermobility, and scoliosis. Patients have progressive facial coarsening with downslanted palpebral fissures, upper eyelid fullness/infraorbital folds, thick/everted vermillion, gingival overgrowth and abnormal position of the teeth. Rare manifestations such as abnormal high-pitched voice, bronchiectasis, hypergonadotropic hypergonadism and brachydactyly have also been reported. Caused by homozygous mutation in the RIN2 gene on chromosome 20p11. [from SNOMEDCT_US]

MedGen UID:
416526
Concept ID:
C2751321
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Platelet-type bleeding disorder 10

Any inherited bleeding disorder, platelet-type in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the CD36 gene. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
374856
Concept ID:
C1842090
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Platelet-type bleeding disorder 17

Platelet-type bleeding disorder-17 is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by increased bleeding tendency due to abnormal platelet function. It is a type of 'gray platelet syndrome' because the platelets appear abnormal on light microscopy. Electron microscopy shows decreased or absent alpha-granules within platelets, and bone marrow biopsy shows increased numbers of abnormal megakaryocytes, suggesting a defect in megakaryopoiesis and platelet production. The bleeding severity is variable (summary by Monteferrario et al., 2014). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
396078
Concept ID:
C1861194
Disease or Syndrome
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