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Items: 12

1.

Severe X-linked myotubular myopathy

X-linked myotubular myopathy (X-MTM), also known as myotubular myopathy (MTM), is characterized by muscle weakness that ranges from severe to mild. Approximately 80% of affected males present with severe (classic) X-MTM characterized by polyhydramnios, decreased fetal movement, and neonatal weakness, hypotonia, and respiratory failure. Motor milestones are significantly delayed and most individuals fail to achieve independent ambulation. Weakness is profound and often involves facial and extraocular muscles. Respiratory failure is nearly uniform, with most individuals requiring 24-hour ventilatory assistance. It is estimated that at least 25% of boys with severe X-MTM die in the first year of life, and those who survive rarely live into adulthood. Males with mild or moderate X-MTM (~20%) achieve motor milestones more quickly than males with the severe form; many ambulate independently, and may live into adulthood. Most require gastrostomy tubes and/or ventilator support. In all subtypes of X-MTM, the muscle disease is not obviously progressive. Female carriers of X-MTM are generally asymptomatic, although manifesting heterozygotes are increasingly being identified. In affected females, symptoms range from severe, generalized weakness presenting in childhood, with infantile onset similar to affected male patients, to mild (often asymmetric) weakness manifesting in adulthood. Affected adult females may experience progressive respiratory decline and ultimately require ventilatory support. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
98374
Concept ID:
C0410203
Congenital Abnormality
2.

Brown-Vialetto-van Laere syndrome 1

Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by sensorineural hearing loss and a variety of cranial nerve palsies, usually involving the motor components of the seventh and ninth to twelfth (more rarely the third, fifth, and sixth) cranial nerves. Spinal motor nerves and, less commonly, upper motor neurons are sometimes affected, giving a picture resembling amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS; 105400). The onset of the disease is usually in the second decade, but earlier and later onset have been reported. Hearing loss tends to precede the onset of neurologic signs, mostly progressive muscle weakness causing respiratory compromise. However, patients with very early onset may present with bulbar palsy and may not develop hearing loss until later. The symptoms, severity, and disease duration are variable (summary by Green et al., 2010). Genetic Heterogeneity of Brown-Vialetto-Van Laere Syndrome See also BVVLS2 (614707), caused by mutation in the SLC52A2 gene (607882) on chromosome 8q. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
163239
Concept ID:
C0796274
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Treacher Collins syndrome 4

Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is characterized by bilateral and symmetric downslanting palpebral fissures, malar hypoplasia, micrognathia, and external ear abnormalities. Hypoplasia of the zygomatic bones and mandible can cause significant feeding and respiratory difficulties. About 40%-50% of individuals have conductive hearing loss attributed most commonly to malformation of the ossicles and hypoplasia of the middle ear cavities. Inner ear structures tend to be normal. Other, less common abnormalities include cleft palate and unilateral or bilateral choanal stenosis or atresia. Typically intellect is normal. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1712280
Concept ID:
C5394546
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Neurodevelopmental disorder with progressive spasticity and brain white matter abnormalities

Neurodevelopmental disorder with progressive spasticity and brain white matter abnormalities (NEDSWMA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by impaired psychomotor development apparent in infancy. Affected individuals show poor overall growth, progressive microcephaly, and axial hypotonia, with later onset of spasticity. The disorder is progressive. Some patients show normal early development, but later have regression of motor, cognitive, and language skills. More variable features include seizures, joint contractures, ocular disturbances, episodic respiratory failure, and nonspecific dysmorphic facial features. The intellectual impairment is variable, ranging from poor visual contact with inability to walk or speak to milder intellectual disability with the ability to say some words. Brain imaging shows variable white matter abnormalities, including thin corpus callosum and poor myelination (summary by Husain et al., 2020). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1736667
Concept ID:
C5436628
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome 2

Megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome-2 (MMIHS2) is characterized by prenatal bladder enlargement, neonatal functional gastrointestinal obstruction, and chronic dependence on total parenteral nutrition and urinary catheterization. The majority of cases have a fatal outcome due to malnutrition and sepsis, followed by multiorgan failure (summary by Wang et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of MMIHS, see 249210. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1788773
Concept ID:
C5543476
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, type 1E

Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 1E (PCH1E) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by severe hypotonia and respiratory insufficiency apparent soon after birth. Virtually all patients die in the first days or weeks of life. Postmortem examination and brain imaging show pontocerebellar atrophy and loss of anterior motor neurons in the spinal cord. Additional more variable features may include optic atrophy, peripheral neuropathy, dysmorphic features, congenital contracture or foot deformities, and seizures (summary by Braunisch et al., 2018). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PCH, see PCH1A (607596). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1788285
Concept ID:
C5543328
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Congenital myopathy 2b, severe infantile, autosomal recessive

Autosomal recessive congenital myopathy-2B (CMYP2B) is a disorder of the skeletal muscle characterized by severe hypotonia with lack of spontaneous movements and respiratory insufficiency, usually leading to death in infancy or early childhood (Agrawal et al., 2004). However, longer survival has also been reported, likely due to the type of mutation and extent of its impact (O'Grady et al., 2015). Mutations in the ACTA1 gene can cause a range of skeletal muscle diseases. About 90% of patients with ACTA1 mutations carry heterozygous mutations, usually de novo (CMYP2A; 161800), whereas 10% of patients carry biallelic ACTA1 mutations (CMYP2B) (Nowak et al., 2007). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1840936
Concept ID:
C5830300
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 34

MedGen UID:
1720533
Concept ID:
C5394053
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Muscular dystrophy, limb-girdle, autosomal recessive 28

Autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy-28 (LGMDR28) is characterized by progressive muscle weakness affecting the proximal and axial muscles of the upper and lower limbs. The age at onset is highly variable, usually in the first decade, although onset in the fourth decade has also been reported. The disorder can be rapidly progressive or show a slower course. Most patients have limited ambulation or become wheelchair-bound within a few decades, and respiratory insufficiency commonly occurs. Laboratory studies show increased serum creatine kinase and elevated fasting blood glucose levels, although cholesterol is normal. EMG shows a myopathic pattern; muscle biopsy is generally unremarkable, but can show nonspecific myopathic or dystrophic features (Yogev et al., 2023; Morales-Rosado et al., 2023). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, see LGMDR1 (253600). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1841154
Concept ID:
C5830518
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome 7

Mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome-7 (MMDS7) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a clinical spectrum ranging from neonatal fatal glycine encephalopathy to an attenuated phenotype of developmental delay, behavioral problems, limited epilepsy, and variable movement problems (Arribas-Carreira et al., 2023). For a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome, see MMDS1 (605711). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1841222
Concept ID:
C5830586
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 58

Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-58 (COXPD58) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a wide range of clinical presentations including neonatal lactic acidosis, epileptic encephalopathy, developmental delay and impaired intellectual development with nonspecific changes on brain MRI, or mitochondrial myopathy with a treatable neuromuscular transmission defect (Van Haute et al., 2023). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1841277
Concept ID:
C5830641
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Respiratory failure requiring assisted ventilation

A state of respiratory distress that requires a life saving intervention in the form of gaining airway access and instituting positive pressure ventilation. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
870821
Concept ID:
C4025279
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