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Items: 18

1.

Cockayne syndrome type 1

Cockayne syndrome (referred to as CS in this GeneReview) spans a continuous phenotypic spectrum that includes: CS type I, the "classic" or "moderate" form; CS type II, a more severe form with symptoms present at birth; this form overlaps with cerebrooculofacioskeletal (COFS) syndrome; CS type III, a milder and later-onset form; COFS syndrome, a fetal form of CS. CS type I is characterized by normal prenatal growth with the onset of growth and developmental abnormalities in the first two years. By the time the disease has become fully manifest, height, weight, and head circumference are far below the fifth percentile. Progressive impairment of vision, hearing, and central and peripheral nervous system function leads to severe disability; death typically occurs in the first or second decade. CS type II is characterized by growth failure at birth, with little or no postnatal neurologic development. Congenital cataracts or other structural anomalies of the eye may be present. Affected children have early postnatal contractures of the spine (kyphosis, scoliosis) and joints. Death usually occurs by age five years. CS type III is a phenotype in which major clinical features associated with CS only become apparent after age two years; growth and/or cognition exceeds the expectations for CS type I. COFS syndrome is characterized by very severe prenatal developmental anomalies (arthrogryposis and microphthalmia). [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
155488
Concept ID:
C0751039
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Juvenile retinoschisis

X-linked congenital retinoschisis (XLRS) is characterized by symmetric bilateral macular involvement with onset in the first decade of life, in some cases as early as age three months. Fundus examination shows areas of schisis (splitting of the nerve fiber layer of the retina) in the macula, sometimes giving the impression of a spoke wheel pattern. Schisis of the peripheral retina, predominantly inferotemporally, occurs in approximately 50% of individuals. Affected males typically have 20/60 to 20/120 vision. Visual acuity often deteriorates during the first and second decades of life but then remains relatively stable until the fifth or sixth decade. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
811458
Concept ID:
C3714753
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Retinitis pigmentosa 4

Any retinitis pigmentosa in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the RHO gene. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
462351
Concept ID:
C3151001
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy (congenital with brain and eye anomalies), type A1

Congenital muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy with brain and eye anomalies (type A), which includes both the more severe Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) and the slightly less severe muscle-eye-brain disease (MEB), is a genetically heterogeneous autosomal recessive disorder with characteristic brain and eye malformations, profound mental retardation, congenital muscular dystrophy, and early death. The phenotype commonly includes cobblestone (type II) lissencephaly, cerebellar malformations, and retinal malformations. More variable features include macrocephaly or microcephaly, hypoplasia of midline brain structures, ventricular dilatation, microphthalmia, cleft lip/palate, and congenital contractures (Dobyns et al., 1989). Those with a more severe phenotype characterized as Walker-Warburg syndrome often die within the first year of life, whereas those characterized as having muscle-eye-brain disease may rarely acquire the ability to walk and to speak a few words. These are part of a group of disorders resulting from defective glycosylation of DAG1 (128239), collectively known as 'dystroglycanopathies' (Godfrey et al., 2007). Genetic Heterogeneity of Congenital Muscular Dystrophy-Dystroglycanopathy with Brain and Eye Anomalies (Type A) Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy with brain and eye anomalies (type A) is genetically heterogeneous and can be caused by mutation in other genes involved in DAG1 glycosylation: see MDDGA2 (613150), caused by mutation in the POMT2 gene (607439); MDDGA3 (253280), caused by mutation in the POMGNT1 gene (606822); MDDGA4 (253800), caused by mutation in the FKTN gene (607440); MDDGA5 (613153), caused by mutation in the FKRP gene (606596); MDDGA6 (613154), caused by mutation in the LARGE gene (603590); MDDGA7 (614643), caused by mutation in the ISPD gene (CRPPA; 614631); MDDGA8 (614830) caused by mutation in the GTDC2 gene (POMGNT2; 614828); MDDGA9 (616538), caused by mutation in the DAG1 gene (128239); MDDGA10 (615041), caused by mutation in the TMEM5 gene (RXYLT1; 605862); MDDGA11 (615181), caused by mutation in the B3GALNT2 gene (610194); MDDGA12 (615249), caused by mutation in the SGK196 gene (POMK; 615247); MDDGA13 (615287), caused by mutation in the B3GNT1 gene (B4GAT1; 605517); and MDDGA14 (615350), caused by mutation in the GMPPB gene (615320). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
924974
Concept ID:
C4284790
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis 10

The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL; CLN) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the intracellular accumulation of autofluorescent lipopigment storage material in different patterns ultrastructurally. The clinical course includes progressive dementia, seizures, and progressive visual failure (Mole et al., 2005). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, see CLN1 (256730). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
350481
Concept ID:
C1864669
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy (congenital with brain and eye anomalies), type A3

An autosomal recessive muscular dystrophy caused by mutations in the POMGNT1 gene. It is associated with characteristic brain and eye malformations, profound mental retardation, and death usually in the first years of life. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
462869
Concept ID:
C3151519
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Retinitis pigmentosa 73

Any retinitis pigmentosa in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the HGSNAT gene. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
907690
Concept ID:
C4225287
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Ataxia - intellectual disability - oculomotor apraxia - cerebellar cysts syndrome

Poretti-Boltshauser syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by cerebellar dysplasia, cerebellar vermis hypoplasia, cerebellar cysts in most patients, high myopia, variable retinal dystrophy, and eye movement abnormalities. Affected individuals have delayed motor development and often have speech delay. Cognitive function can range from normal to intellectually disabled (summary by Aldinger et al., 2014). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
863258
Concept ID:
C4014821
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Retinitis pigmentosa 68

Any retinitis pigmentosa in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the SLC7A14 gene. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
816710
Concept ID:
C3810380
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Cone-rod dystrophy and hearing loss 1

CRDHL1 is characterized by cone-rod dystrophy and sensorineural hearing loss, with relatively late onset of both ocular and hearing impairment. The funduscopic findings are characteristic, showing ring-shaped atrophy along the major vascular arcades that manifests on fundus autofluorescence as a hypoautofluorescent band along the vascular arcades surrounded by hyperautofluorescent borders (Namburi et al., 2016). Genetic Heterogeneity of Cone-Rod Dystrophy and Hearing Loss CRDHL2 (618358) is caused by mutation in the CEP250 gene (609689) on chromosome 20q11. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1682048
Concept ID:
C5193018
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Spondylometaphyseal dysplasia-cone-rod dystrophy syndrome

Spondylometaphyseal dysplasia with cone-rod dystrophy (SMDCRD) is characterized by postnatal growth deficiency resulting in profound short stature, rhizomelia with bowing of the lower extremities, platyspondyly with anterior vertebral protrusions, progressive metaphyseal irregularity and cupping with shortened tubular bones, and early-onset progressive visual impairment associated with a pigmentary maculopathy and electroretinographic evidence of cone-rod dysfunction (summary by Hoover-Fong et al., 2014). Yamamoto et al. (2014) reviewed 16 reported cases of SMDCRD, noting that all affected individuals presented uniform skeletal findings, with rhizomelia and bowed lower limbs observed in the first year of life, whereas retinal dystrophy had a more variable age of onset. There was severe disproportionate short stature, with a final height of less than 100 cm; scoliosis was usually mild. Visual loss was progressive, with stabilization in adolescence. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
324684
Concept ID:
C1837073
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Bardet-biedl syndrome 21

BBS21 is an autosomal recessive ciliopathy characterized by obesity, postaxial polydactyly, retinal degeneration, and mild cognitive impairment (Heon et al., 2016; Khan et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1374358
Concept ID:
C4319932
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Retinitis pigmentosa and erythrocytic microcytosis

Features that occur less commonly in people with TRNT1 deficiency include hearing loss caused by abnormalities of the inner ear (sensorineural hearing loss), recurrent seizures (epilepsy), and problems with the kidneys or heart.

TRNT1 deficiency encompasses what was first thought to be two separate disorders, a severe disorder called sideroblastic anemia with B-cell immunodeficiency, periodic fevers, and developmental delay (SIFD) and a milder disorder called retinitis pigmentosa with erythrocytic microcytosis (RPEM), each named for its most common features. SIFD begins in infancy, and affected individuals usually do not survive past childhood. RPEM, on the other hand, is recognized in early adulthood, and the microcytosis usually does not cause any health problems. However, it has since been recognized that some individuals have a combination of features that fall between these two ends of the severity spectrum. All of these cases are now considered part of TRNT1 deficiency.

Neurological problems are also frequent in TRNT1 deficiency. Many affected individuals have delayed development of speech and motor skills, such as sitting, standing, and walking, and some have low muscle tone (hypotonia).

Eye abnormalities, often involving the light-sensing tissue at the back of the eye (the retina), can occur in people with TRNT1 deficiency. Some of these individuals have a condition called retinitis pigmentosa, in which the light-sensing cells of the retina gradually deteriorate. Eye problems in TRNT1 deficiency can lead to vision loss.

In addition, many individuals with TRNT1 deficiency have recurrent fevers that are not caused by an infection. These fever episodes are often one of the earliest recognized symptoms of TRNT1 deficiency, usually beginning in infancy. The fever episodes are typically accompanied by poor feeding, vomiting, and diarrhea, and can lead to hospitalization. In many affected individuals, the episodes occur regularly, arising approximately every 2 to 4 weeks and lasting 5 to 7 days, although the frequency can decrease with age.

Many people with TRNT1 deficiency have an immune system disorder (immunodeficiency) that can lead to recurrent bacterial infections. Repeated infections can cause life-threatening damage to internal organs. The immunodeficiency is characterized by low numbers of immune system cells called B cells, which normally help fight infections by producing immune proteins called antibodies (or immunoglobulins). These proteins target foreign invaders such as bacteria and viruses and mark them for destruction. In many individuals with TRNT1 deficiency, the amount of immunoglobulins is also low (hypogammaglobulinemia).

A common feature of TRNT1 deficiency is a blood condition called sideroblastic anemia, which is characterized by a shortage of red blood cells (anemia). In TRNT1 deficiency, the red blood cells that are present are unusually small (erythrocytic microcytosis). In addition, developing red blood cells in the bone marrow (erythroblasts) can have an abnormal buildup of iron that appears as a ring of blue staining in the cell after treatment in the lab with certain dyes. These abnormal cells are called ring sideroblasts.

TRNT1 deficiency is a condition that affects many body systems. Its signs and symptoms can involve blood cells, the immune system, the eyes, and the nervous system. The severity of the signs and symptoms vary widely. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
934743
Concept ID:
C4310776
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Usher syndrome, type 4

An atypical form of Usher syndrome, here designated type IV (USH4), is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by late onset of retinitis pigmentosa and usually late-onset of progressive sensorineural hearing loss without vestibular involvement (summary by Khateb et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Usher syndrome, see 276900. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1648315
Concept ID:
C4748364
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Retinitis pigmentosa 77

Any retinitis pigmentosa in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the REEP6 gene. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
934593
Concept ID:
C4310626
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Familial progressive retinal dystrophy-iris coloboma-congenital cataract syndrome

Retinal dystrophy and iris coloboma with or without cataract (RDICC) is characterized by early-onset chorioretinal dystrophy that is variably associated with other eye anomalies, including iris coloboma and/or congenital or early-onset cataract. Congenital glaucoma has also been observed (Conte et al., 2015; Jedlickova et al., 2023). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
904740
Concept ID:
C4225233
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Dominant pericentral pigmentary retinopathy

A retinitis pigmentosa that is characterized pigmentary retinal degeneration with onset in the teens leading to blindness in the sixth ans seventh decades of life. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
357237
Concept ID:
C1867261
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Retinal atrophy

Well-demarcated area(s) of partial or complete depigmentation in the fundus, reflecting atrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium with associated retinal photoreceptor loss. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
101075
Concept ID:
C0521694
Disease or Syndrome
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