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Items: 14

1.

Autosomal recessive inherited pseudoxanthoma elasticum

Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is a systemic disorder that affects the elastic tissue of the skin, the eye, and vascular system. Individuals most commonly present with angioid streaks of the retina found on routine eye examination or associated with retinal hemorrhage and/or characteristic papules in the skin. The most frequent cause of morbidity and disability in PXE is reduced vision due to complications of subretinal neovascularizations and macular atrophy. Other manifestations include premature gastrointestinal angina and/or bleeding, intermittent claudication of arm and leg muscles, stroke, renovascular hypertension, and cardiovascular complications (angina/myocardial infarction). Most affected individuals live a normal life span. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
698415
Concept ID:
C1275116
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Retinal arterial tortuosity

Familial retinal arterial tortuosity is characterized by marked tortuosity of second- and third-order retinal arteries with normal first-order arteries and venous system. Two-thirds of patients experience variable degrees of symptomatic transient vision loss due to retinal hemorrhage following minor stress or trauma (summary by Nischler et al., 2011). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
140840
Concept ID:
C0423401
Finding
3.

Brain small vessel disease 1 with or without ocular anomalies

The spectrum of COL4A1-related disorders includes: small-vessel brain disease of varying severity including porencephaly, variably associated with eye defects (retinal arterial tortuosity, Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly, cataract) and systemic findings (kidney involvement, muscle cramps, cerebral aneurysms, Raynaud phenomenon, cardiac arrhythmia, and hemolytic anemia). On imaging studies, small-vessel brain disease is manifest as diffuse periventricular leukoencephalopathy, lacunar infarcts, microhemorrhage, dilated perivascular spaces, and deep intracerebral hemorrhages. Clinically, small-vessel brain disease manifests as infantile hemiparesis, seizures, single or recurrent hemorrhagic stroke, ischemic stroke, and isolated migraine with aura. Porencephaly (fluid-filled cavities in the brain detected by CT or MRI) is typically manifest as infantile hemiparesis, seizures, and intellectual disability; however, on occasion it can be an incidental finding. HANAC (hereditary angiopathy with nephropathy, aneurysms, and muscle cramps) syndrome usually associates asymptomatic small-vessel brain disease, cerebral large vessel involvement (i.e., aneurysms), and systemic findings involving the kidney, muscle, and small vessels of the eye. Two additional phenotypes include isolated retinal artery tortuosity and nonsyndromic autosomal dominant congenital cataract. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1647320
Concept ID:
C4551998
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Incontinentia pigmenti syndrome

Incontinentia pigmenti (IP) is a disorder that affects the skin, hair, teeth, nails, eyes, and central nervous system; it occurs primarily in females and on occasion in males. Characteristic skin lesions evolve through four stages: I. Blistering (birth to age ~4 months). II. Wart-like rash (for several months). III. Swirling macular hyperpigmentation (age ~6 months into adulthood). IV. Linear hypopigmentation. Alopecia, hypodontia, abnormal tooth shape, and dystrophic nails are observed. Neovascularization of the retina, present in some individuals, predisposes to retinal detachment. Neurologic findings including seizures, intellectual disability, and developmental delays are occasionally seen. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
7049
Concept ID:
C0021171
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukoencephalopathy and systemic manifestations

Retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukoencephalopathy and systemic manifestations (RVCL-S) is a small-vessel disease that affects highly vascularized tissues including the retina, brain, liver, and kidneys. Age of onset is often between 35 and 50 years. The most common presenting finding is decreased visual acuity and/or visual field defects. Neurologic manifestations may include hemiparesis, facial weakness, aphasia, and hemianopsia. Migraines and seizures are less frequently described. Renal manifestations may include mild-to-moderate increase in serum creatinine and mild proteinuria; progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) is uncommon. Hepatic manifestations frequently include mildly elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT). Less common findings include psychiatric disorders, hypertension, mild-to-moderate anemia, and Raynaud phenomenon. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
348124
Concept ID:
C1860518
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Autosomal dominant familial hematuria-retinal arteriolar tortuosity-contractures syndrome

The spectrum of COL4A1-related disorders includes: small-vessel brain disease of varying severity including porencephaly, variably associated with eye defects (retinal arterial tortuosity, Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly, cataract) and systemic findings (kidney involvement, muscle cramps, cerebral aneurysms, Raynaud phenomenon, cardiac arrhythmia, and hemolytic anemia). On imaging studies, small-vessel brain disease is manifest as diffuse periventricular leukoencephalopathy, lacunar infarcts, microhemorrhage, dilated perivascular spaces, and deep intracerebral hemorrhages. Clinically, small-vessel brain disease manifests as infantile hemiparesis, seizures, single or recurrent hemorrhagic stroke, ischemic stroke, and isolated migraine with aura. Porencephaly (fluid-filled cavities in the brain detected by CT or MRI) is typically manifest as infantile hemiparesis, seizures, and intellectual disability; however, on occasion it can be an incidental finding. HANAC (hereditary angiopathy with nephropathy, aneurysms, and muscle cramps) syndrome usually associates asymptomatic small-vessel brain disease, cerebral large vessel involvement (i.e., aneurysms), and systemic findings involving the kidney, muscle, and small vessels of the eye. Two additional phenotypes include isolated retinal artery tortuosity and nonsyndromic autosomal dominant congenital cataract. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
382033
Concept ID:
C2673195
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Pseudoxanthoma elasticum, forme fruste

Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is a systemic disorder that affects the elastic tissue of the skin, the eye, and vascular system. Individuals most commonly present with angioid streaks of the retina found on routine eye examination or associated with retinal hemorrhage and/or characteristic papules in the skin. The most frequent cause of morbidity and disability in PXE is reduced vision due to complications of subretinal neovascularizations and macular atrophy. Other manifestations include premature gastrointestinal angina and/or bleeding, intermittent claudication of arm and leg muscles, stroke, renovascular hypertension, and cardiovascular complications (angina/myocardial infarction). Most affected individuals live a normal life span. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
357280
Concept ID:
C1867450
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Pierson syndrome

Pierson syndrome (PIERS) is an autosomal recessive disorder comprising congenital nephrotic syndrome with diffuse mesangial sclerosis and distinct ocular abnormalities, including microcoria and hypoplasia of the ciliary and pupillary muscles, as well as other anomalies. Many patients die early, and those who survive tend to show neurodevelopmental delay and visual loss (summary by Zenker et al., 2004). Mutations in the LAMB2 gene also cause nephrotic syndrome type 5 with or without mild ocular anomalies (NPHS5; 614199). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
373199
Concept ID:
C1836876
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Fetal akinesia-cerebral and retinal hemorrhage syndrome

A rare lethal congenital myopathy syndrome characterized by decreased fetal movements and polyhydramnios in utero and the presence of akinesia, severe hypotonia with respiratory insufficiency, absent reflexes, joint contractures, skeletal abnormalities with thin ribs and bones, intracranial and retinal hemorrhages and decreased birth weight in the neonate. [from SNOMEDCT_US]

MedGen UID:
1631944
Concept ID:
C4706410
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type 6

Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type VI (HSAN6) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by neonatal hypotonia, respiratory and feeding difficulties, lack of psychomotor development, and autonomic abnormalities including labile cardiovascular function, lack of corneal reflexes leading to corneal scarring, areflexia, and absent axonal flare response after intradermal histamine injection (summary by Edvardson et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy, see HSAN1 (162400). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
761278
Concept ID:
C3539003
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Fundus dystrophy, pseudoinflammatory, recessive form

MedGen UID:
337888
Concept ID:
C1849694
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis, formerly termed Wegener granulomatosis, is a systemic disease with a complex genetic background. It is characterized by necrotizing granulomatous inflammation of the upper and lower respiratory tract, glomerulonephritis, vasculitis, and the presence of antineutrophil cytoplasmatic autoantibodies (ANCAs) in patient sera. These ANCAs are antibodies to a defined target antigen, proteinase-3 (PR3, PRTN3; 177020), which is present within primary azurophil granules of neutrophils (PMNs) and lysozymes of monocytes. On cytokine priming of PMNs, PR3 translocates to the cell surface, where PR3-ANCAs can interact with their antigens and activate PMNs. PMNs from patients with active GPA express PR3 on their surface, produce respiratory burst, and release proteolytic enzymes after activation with PR3-ANCAs. The consequence is a self-sustaining inflammatory process (Jagiello et al., 2004). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
811223
Concept ID:
C3495801
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Neurodevelopmental disorder with intracranial hemorrhage, seizures, and spasticity

Neurodevelopmental disorder with intracranial hemorrhage, seizures, and spasticity (NEDIHSS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by prenatal or neonatal onset of intracranial hemorrhage, usually with ventriculomegaly and calcifications, resulting in parenchymal brain damage. Some affected individuals have symptoms incompatible with life and die in utero. Those that survive show profound global developmental delay with almost no motor or cognitive skills, hypotonia, spasticity, and seizures. Other features may include facial dysmorphism, retinal vascular abnormalities, and poor overall growth. The pathogenesis of the disease likely results from dysfunction of vascular endothelial cells in the brain (Lecca et al., 2023). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1841145
Concept ID:
C5830509
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Retinal hemorrhage

Hemorrhage occurring within the retina. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
11210
Concept ID:
C0035317
Pathologic Function
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