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Items: 5

1.

Juvenile retinoschisis

X-linked congenital retinoschisis (XLRS) is characterized by symmetric bilateral macular involvement with onset in the first decade of life, in some cases as early as age three months. Fundus examination shows areas of schisis (splitting of the nerve fiber layer of the retina) in the macula, sometimes giving the impression of a spoke wheel pattern. Schisis of the peripheral retina, predominantly inferotemporally, occurs in approximately 50% of individuals. Affected males typically have 20/60 to 20/120 vision. Visual acuity often deteriorates during the first and second decades of life but then remains relatively stable until the fifth or sixth decade. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
811458
Concept ID:
C3714753
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Enhanced S-cone syndrome

An autosomal recessive retinopathy in which patients have increased sensitivity to blue light; perception of blue light is mediated by what is normally the least populous cone photoreceptor subtype, the S (short wavelength, blue) cones. Characteristics include visual loss, with night blindness occurring from early in life, varying degrees of L (long, red)- and M (middle, green)-cone vision, and retinal degeneration. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
341446
Concept ID:
C1849394
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Congenital myasthenic syndrome 12

Congenital myasthenic syndrome-12 is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder characterized by onset of proximal muscle weakness in the first decade. EMG classically shows a decremental response to repeated nerve stimulation. Affected individuals show a favorable response to acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors (summary by Senderek et al., 2011). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
765249
Concept ID:
C3552335
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Leukoencephalopathy with mild cerebellar ataxia and white matter edema

CLCN2-related leukoencephalopathy is characterized by nonspecific neurologic findings, mild visual impairment from chorioretinopathy or optic atrophy, male infertility, and characteristic findings on brain MRI. Neurologic findings include mild ataxia (action tremor and gait instability following initially normal motor development; occasionally, mild spasticity), cognitive impairment in some (typically mild, rarely severe), psychiatric symptoms in some (depression and schizophrenia-like symptoms), headaches in some (usually intermittent, severe, and diffuse) and auditory symptoms in some (hearing loss, tinnitus, vertigo). Affected individuals remain ambulatory, do not require support for walking, and rarely become blind. To date CLCN2-related leukoencephalopathy has been reported or identified in 31 individuals from 30 families. It is not yet known if the findings occurring in a few individuals (i.e., epilepsy and paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia) are part of the phenotypic spectrum or unrelated findings. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1638681
Concept ID:
C4554120
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Retinoschisis

Splitting of the neuroretinal layers of the retina. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
56292
Concept ID:
C0152439
Disease or Syndrome
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