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1.

Retinitis pigmentosa 2

Retinitis pigmentosa is characterized by constriction of the visual fields, night blindness, and fundus changes, including 'bone corpuscle' lumps of pigment. RP unassociated with other abnormalities is inherited most frequently (84%) as an autosomal recessive, next as an autosomal dominant (10%), and least frequently (6%) as an X-linked recessive in the white U.S. population (Boughman et al., 1980). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of retinitis pigmentosa, see 268000. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
394544
Concept ID:
C2681923
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Retinitis pigmentosa 3

X-linked retinitis pigmentosa (XLRP) is a severe form of inherited retinal degeneration that primarily affects the rod photoreceptors (Demirci et al., 2002). It typically causes an early-onset night blindness and loss of peripheral vision, often causing patients to become legally blind by the age of 30 to 40 years. In RP3, affected males have a severe phenotype, and carrier females show a wide spectrum of clinical features ranging from completely asymptomatic to severe RP (Jin et al., 2007). Mutation in the RPGR gene is believed to account for approximately 70% of XLRP (Vervoort et al., 2000). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of retinitis pigmentosa, see 268000. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
336999
Concept ID:
C1845667
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Posterior column ataxia-retinitis pigmentosa syndrome

Posterior column ataxia with retinitis pigmentosa (AXPC1) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by childhood-onset retinitis pigmentosa and later onset of gait ataxia due to sensory loss (summary by Ishiura et al., 2011). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
324636
Concept ID:
C1836916
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Newfoundland cone-rod dystrophy

Newfoundland rod-cone dystrophy (NFRCD) is a severe retinal dystrophy in which night blindness is present from infancy. Progressive loss of peripheral, central, and color vision begins in childhood and results in severe visual loss by the second to fourth decade of life (Eichers et al., 2002). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
334840
Concept ID:
C1843815
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Retinitis pigmentosa 73

Any retinitis pigmentosa in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the HGSNAT gene. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
907690
Concept ID:
C4225287
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Retinitis pigmentosa and erythrocytic microcytosis

Features that occur less commonly in people with TRNT1 deficiency include hearing loss caused by abnormalities of the inner ear (sensorineural hearing loss), recurrent seizures (epilepsy), and problems with the kidneys or heart.

TRNT1 deficiency encompasses what was first thought to be two separate disorders, a severe disorder called sideroblastic anemia with B-cell immunodeficiency, periodic fevers, and developmental delay (SIFD) and a milder disorder called retinitis pigmentosa with erythrocytic microcytosis (RPEM), each named for its most common features. SIFD begins in infancy, and affected individuals usually do not survive past childhood. RPEM, on the other hand, is recognized in early adulthood, and the microcytosis usually does not cause any health problems. However, it has since been recognized that some individuals have a combination of features that fall between these two ends of the severity spectrum. All of these cases are now considered part of TRNT1 deficiency.

Neurological problems are also frequent in TRNT1 deficiency. Many affected individuals have delayed development of speech and motor skills, such as sitting, standing, and walking, and some have low muscle tone (hypotonia).

Eye abnormalities, often involving the light-sensing tissue at the back of the eye (the retina), can occur in people with TRNT1 deficiency. Some of these individuals have a condition called retinitis pigmentosa, in which the light-sensing cells of the retina gradually deteriorate. Eye problems in TRNT1 deficiency can lead to vision loss.

In addition, many individuals with TRNT1 deficiency have recurrent fevers that are not caused by an infection. These fever episodes are often one of the earliest recognized symptoms of TRNT1 deficiency, usually beginning in infancy. The fever episodes are typically accompanied by poor feeding, vomiting, and diarrhea, and can lead to hospitalization. In many affected individuals, the episodes occur regularly, arising approximately every 2 to 4 weeks and lasting 5 to 7 days, although the frequency can decrease with age.

Many people with TRNT1 deficiency have an immune system disorder (immunodeficiency) that can lead to recurrent bacterial infections. Repeated infections can cause life-threatening damage to internal organs. The immunodeficiency is characterized by low numbers of immune system cells called B cells, which normally help fight infections by producing immune proteins called antibodies (or immunoglobulins). These proteins target foreign invaders such as bacteria and viruses and mark them for destruction. In many individuals with TRNT1 deficiency, the amount of immunoglobulins is also low (hypogammaglobulinemia).

A common feature of TRNT1 deficiency is a blood condition called sideroblastic anemia, which is characterized by a shortage of red blood cells (anemia). In TRNT1 deficiency, the red blood cells that are present are unusually small (erythrocytic microcytosis). In addition, developing red blood cells in the bone marrow (erythroblasts) can have an abnormal buildup of iron that appears as a ring of blue staining in the cell after treatment in the lab with certain dyes. These abnormal cells are called ring sideroblasts.

TRNT1 deficiency is a condition that affects many body systems. Its signs and symptoms can involve blood cells, the immune system, the eyes, and the nervous system. The severity of the signs and symptoms vary widely. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
934743
Concept ID:
C4310776
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Usher syndrome, type 4

An atypical form of Usher syndrome, here designated type IV (USH4), is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by late onset of retinitis pigmentosa and usually late-onset of progressive sensorineural hearing loss without vestibular involvement (summary by Khateb et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Usher syndrome, see 276900. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1648315
Concept ID:
C4748364
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Ring scotoma

An annular field defect centered on fixation. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
140951
Concept ID:
C0438434
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