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1.

Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis

The phenotypic spectrum of SHOX deficiency disorders, caused by haploinsufficiency of the short stature homeobox-containing gene (SHOX), ranges from Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) at the severe end of the spectrum to nonspecific short stature at the mild end of the spectrum. In adults with SHOX deficiency, the proportion of LWD versus short stature without features of LWD is not well defined. In LWD the classic clinical triad is short stature, mesomelia, and Madelung deformity. Mesomelia, in which the middle portion of a limb is shortened in relation to the proximal portion, can be evident first in school-aged children and increases with age in frequency and severity. Madelung deformity (abnormal alignment of the radius, ulna, and carpal bones at the wrist) typically develops in mid-to-late childhood and is more common and severe in females. The phenotype of short stature caused by SHOX deficiency in the absence of mesomelia and Madelung deformity (called SHOX-deficient short stature in this GeneReview) is highly variable, even within the same family. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
75562
Concept ID:
C0265309
Disease or Syndrome
2.

ALG12-congenital disorder of glycosylation

Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG), previously called carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndromes (CDGSs), are a group of hereditary multisystem disorders first recognized by Jaeken et al. (1980). The characteristic biochemical abnormality of CDGs is the hypoglycosylation of glycoproteins, which is routinely determined by isoelectric focusing (IEF) of serum transferrin. Type I CDG comprises those disorders in which there is a defect in the assembly of lipid-linked oligosaccharides or their transfer onto nascent glycoproteins, whereas type II CDG comprises defects of trimming, elongation, and processing of protein-bound glycans. CDG1G is a multisystem disorder characterized by impaired psychomotor development, dysmorphic features, failure to thrive, male genital hypoplasia, coagulation abnormalities, and immune deficiency. More variable features include skeletal dysplasia, cardiac anomalies, ocular abnormalities, and sensorineural hearing loss. Some patients die in the early neonatal or infantile period, whereas others are mildly affected and live to adulthood (summary by Tahata et al., 2019). For a general discussion of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
443954
Concept ID:
C2931001
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Orofacial-digital syndrome IV

Oral-facial-digital syndrome is actually a group of related conditions that affect the development of the oral cavity (the mouth and teeth), facial features, and digits (fingers and toes).

Researchers have identified at least 13 potential forms of oral-facial-digital syndrome. The different types are classified by their patterns of signs and symptoms. However, the features of the various types overlap significantly, and some types are not well defined. The classification system for oral-facial-digital syndrome continues to evolve as researchers find more affected individuals and learn more about this disorder.

The signs and symptoms of oral-facial-digital syndrome vary widely. However, most forms of this disorder involve problems with development of the oral cavity, facial features, and digits. Most forms are also associated with brain abnormalities and some degree of intellectual disability.

Abnormalities of the digits can affect both the fingers and the toes in people with oral-facial-digital syndrome. These abnormalities include fusion of certain fingers or toes (syndactyly), digits that are shorter than usual (brachydactyly), or digits that are unusually curved (clinodactyly). The presence of extra digits (polydactyly) is also seen in most forms of oral-facial-digital syndrome.

Abnormalities of the oral cavity that occur in many types of oral-facial-digital syndrome include a split (cleft) in the tongue, a tongue with an unusual lobed shape, and the growth of noncancerous tumors or nodules on the tongue. Affected individuals may also have extra, missing, or defective teeth. Another common feature is an opening in the roof of the mouth (a cleft palate). Some people with oral-facial-digital syndrome have bands of extra tissue (called hyperplastic frenula) that abnormally attach the lip to the gums.

Distinctive facial features often associated with oral-facial-digital syndrome include a split in the lip (a cleft lip); a wide nose with a broad, flat nasal bridge; and widely spaced eyes (hypertelorism).

Other features occur in only one or a few types of oral-facial digital syndrome. These features help distinguish the different forms of the disorder. For example, the most common form of oral-facial-digital syndrome, type I, is associated with polycystic kidney disease. This kidney disease is characterized by the growth of fluid-filled sacs (cysts) that interfere with the kidneys' ability to filter waste products from the blood. Other forms of oral-facial-digital syndrome are characterized by neurological problems, particular changes in the structure of the brain, bone abnormalities, vision loss, and heart defects. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
98358
Concept ID:
C0406727
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Langer mesomelic dysplasia syndrome

Langer mesomelic dysplasia (LMD) is characterized by severe limb aplasia or severe hypoplasia of the ulna and fibula, and a thickened and curved radius and tibia. These changes can result in displacement deformities of the hands and feet. Hypoplasia of the mandible is also observed (Langer, 1967). See also Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (127300), a less severe phenotype that results from heterozygous defect in the SHOX or SHOXY genes. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
96585
Concept ID:
C0432230
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Stüve-Wiedemann syndrome 1

Stuve-Wiedemann syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by bowing of the long bones and other skeletal anomalies, episodic hyperthermia, respiratory distress, and feeding difficulties usually resulting in early death (Dagoneau et al., 2004). See also 'classic' Schwartz-Jampel syndrome type 1 (SJS1; 255800), a phenotypically similar but genetically distinct disorder caused by mutation in the HSPG2 gene (142461) on chromosome 1p36. Genetic Heterogeneity of Stuve-Wiedemann Syndrome Stuve-Wiedemann syndrome-2 (STWS2; 619751) is caused by mutation in the IL6ST gene (600694) on chromosome 5q11. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1803541
Concept ID:
C5676888
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Grebe syndrome

Acromesomelic dysplasia-2A (AMD2A), or Grebe chondrodysplasia, is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe abnormality of the limbs and limb joints. The severity of limb shortening progresses in a proximal-distal gradient, with the hands and feet being most affected. The fingers and toes lack articulation and appear as skin appendages. In contrast, axial skeletal structures and the craniofacial skeleton are not affected. Heterozygous individuals are of average stature and have mild skeletal abnormalities (summary by Thomas et al., 1997). Because Grebe syndrome exhibits increasing severity in a proximal-distal gradient, it is classified as a form of acromesomelic dysplasia (Costa et al., 1998). For discussion of the genetic heterogeneity of acromesomelic dysplasia, see AMD1 (602875). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
75557
Concept ID:
C0265260
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Acrocapitofemoral dysplasia

Acrocapitofemoral dysplasia (ACFD) is an autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia characterized by postnatal-onset disproportionate short stature, relatively large head, narrow thorax, lumbar lordosis, short limbs, and brachydactyly with small broad nails (Ozyavuz Cubuk and Duz, 2021). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
334681
Concept ID:
C1843096
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Autosomal recessive omodysplasia

Omodysplasia-1 (OMOD1) is a rare autosomal recessive skeletal dysplasia characterized by severe congenital micromelia with shortening and distal tapering of the humeri and femora to give a club-like appearance. Typical facial features include a prominent forehead, frontal bossing, short nose with a depressed broad bridge, short columella, anteverted nostrils, long philtrum, and small chin. Variable findings are cryptorchidism, hernias, congenital heart defects, and cognitive delay (Elcioglu et al., 2004; Albano et al., 2007). Genetic Heterogeneity of Omodysplasia Also see omodysplasia-2 (OMOD2; 164745), an autosomal dominant form of the disorder in which abnormalities are limited to the upper limbs. The facial changes and typical growth defect of the distal humerus with complex deformity of the elbows appear to be similar in both entities (Baxova et al., 1994). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
340513
Concept ID:
C1850318
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Acromesomelic dysplasia 2C, Hunter-Thompson type

Acromesomelic dysplasia-2C (AMD2C) is characterized by skeletal abnormalities restricted to the limbs; the craniofacial skeleton and axial skeletal structures are normal. The severity of the long bone shortening progresses in a proximal to distal direction. The hands and feet are most severely affected, but the distal phalanges are relative normal. Affected individuals have joint dislocations but the number of joints involved is not constant (summary by Thomas et al., 1996). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of acromesomelic dysplasia, see AMD1 (602875). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
419681
Concept ID:
C2930970
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Short-rib thoracic dysplasia 13 with or without polydactyly

An asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy that has material basis in homozygous mutation in the CEP120 gene on chromosome 5q23. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
898712
Concept ID:
C4225378
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Tibia, hypoplasia or aplasia of, with polydactyly

Tibial hemimelia-polysyndactyly-triphalangeal thumb syndrome is a rare, genetic dysostosis syndrome, with marked inter- and intra-familial variation, typically characterized by triphalangeal thumbs, hand and/or foot polysyndactyly and/or absent/hypoplastic tibiae (associated with duplication of fibulae in some cases), although isolated triphalangeal thumbs have also been reported. It is often accompanied with remarkable short stature and additional features may include radio-ulnar synostosis and hand oligodactyly, as well as abnormal carpal and metatarsal bones. [from ORDO]

MedGen UID:
348786
Concept ID:
C1861098
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Acheiropodia

Acheiropody is characterized by bilateral congenital amputations of the upper and lower extremities and aplasia of the hands and feet. Specific patterns of malformations consist of a complete amputation of the distal epiphysis of the humerus, amputation of the distal part of the tibial diaphysis, and aplasia of the radius, ulna, fibula, and of the carpal, metacarpal, tarsal, metatarsal, and phalangeal bones (summary by Ianakiev et al., 2001). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
120547
Concept ID:
C0265559
Congenital Abnormality
13.

Acromelic frontonasal dysostosis

Verloes et al. (1992) described a rare variant of frontonasal dysplasia (see FND1, 136760), designated acromelic frontonasal dysplasia (AFND), in which similar craniofacial anomalies are associated with variable central nervous system malformations and limb defects including tibial hypoplasia/aplasia, talipes equinovarus, and preaxial polydactyly of the feet. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
350933
Concept ID:
C1863616
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Richieri Costa-Pereira syndrome

Patients with Richieri-Costa-Pereira syndrome display a pattern of anomalies consisting of microstomia, micrognathia, abnormal fusion of the mandible, cleft palate/Robin sequence, absence of lower central incisors, minor ear anomalies, hypoplastic first ray, abnormal tibiae, hypoplastic halluces, and clubfeet. Learning disability is also a common finding (summary by Favaro et al., 2011). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
336581
Concept ID:
C1849348
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Bent bone dysplasia syndrome 2

Bent bone dysplasia syndrome-2 (BBDS2) is characterized by defects in both the axial and appendicular skeleton, with radiographic findings of undermineralized bone and a distinct angulation of the mid femoral shaft. Extraskeletal features include facial dysmorphisms, abnormally formed ears with tags, widely spaced nipples, and atrial septal defects. Abnormalities of muscle function are suggested by the presence of elbow fusions, ulnar flexion contractions at the wrist, and bilateral talipes equinovarus, as well as failure to mount a respiratory effort at birth (Barad et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of bent bone dysplasia syndrome, see BBDS1 (614592). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1824006
Concept ID:
C5774233
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Chromosome 17P13.3, telomeric, duplication syndrome

MedGen UID:
390813
Concept ID:
C2675492
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Chondrodysplasia punctata, MT type

A rare, non-rhizomelic, chondrodysplasia punctata syndrome characterized, radiologically, by stippled calcifications and disproportionate, short metacarpals and tibiae (with characteristic overshoot of the proximal fibula), clinically manifesting with severe short stature, bilateral shortening of upper and lower limbs, flat midface and nose, in the absence of cataracts and cutaneous anomalies. Neonatal tachypnea, hydrocephalus and mild developmental delay have been seldomly associated. Additional radiologic features include bowed long bones, platyspondyly and/or vertebral clefts. [from ORDO]

MedGen UID:
98147
Concept ID:
C0432224
Congenital Abnormality
18.

Short-rib thoracic dysplasia 20 with polydactyly

Short-rib thoracic dysplasia (SRTD) with or without polydactyly refers to a group of autosomal recessive skeletal ciliopathies that are characterized by a constricted thoracic cage, short ribs, shortened tubular bones, and a 'trident' appearance of the acetabular roof. SRTD encompasses Ellis-van Creveld syndrome (EVC) and the disorders previously designated as Jeune syndrome or asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD), short rib-polydactyly syndrome (SRPS), and Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (MZSDS). Polydactyly is variably present, and there is phenotypic overlap in the various forms of SRTDs, which differ by visceral malformation and metaphyseal appearance. Nonskeletal involvement can include cleft lip/palate as well as anomalies of major organs such as the brain, eye, heart, kidneys, liver, pancreas, intestines, and genitalia. Some forms of SRTD are lethal in the neonatal period due to respiratory insufficiency secondary to a severely restricted thoracic cage, whereas others are compatible with life (summary by Huber and Cormier-Daire, 2012 and Schmidts et al., 2013). There is phenotypic overlap with the cranioectodermal dysplasias (Sensenbrenner syndrome; see CED1, 218330). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1634931
Concept ID:
C4693616
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Skeletal defects, genital hypoplasia, and intellectual disability

MedGen UID:
382795
Concept ID:
C2676231
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Microcephaly-micromelia syndrome

Microcephaly-micromelia syndrome (MIMIS) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder that usually results in death in utero or in the perinatal period. Affected individuals have severe growth retardation with microcephaly and variable malformations of the limbs, particularly the upper limbs. Defects include radial ray anomalies, malformed digits, and clubfeet (summary by Evrony et al., 2017). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
381553
Concept ID:
C1855079
Disease or Syndrome
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