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Items: 16

1.

Wolfram syndrome 1

WFS1 Wolfram syndrome spectrum disorder (WFS1-WSSD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by onset of diabetes mellitus (DM) and optic atrophy (OA) before age 16 years, and typically associated with other endocrine abnormalities, sensorineural hearing loss, and progressive neurologic abnormalities (cerebellar ataxia, peripheral neuropathy, dementia, psychiatric illness, and urinary tract atony). Although DM is mostly insulin-dependent, overall the course is milder (with lower prevalence of microvascular disease) than that seen in isolated DM. OA typically results in significantly reduced visual acuity in the first decade. Sensorineural hearing impairment ranges from congenital deafness to milder, sometimes progressive, hearing impairment. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1641635
Concept ID:
C4551693
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Kearns-Sayre syndrome

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletion syndromes predominantly comprise three overlapping phenotypes that are usually simplex (i.e., a single occurrence in a family), but rarely may be observed in different members of the same family or may evolve from one clinical syndrome to another in a given individual over time. The three classic phenotypes caused by mtDNA deletions are Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS), Pearson syndrome, and progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO). KSS is a progressive multisystem disorder defined by onset before age 20 years, pigmentary retinopathy, and PEO; additional features include cerebellar ataxia, impaired intellect (intellectual disability, dementia, or both), sensorineural hearing loss, ptosis, oropharyngeal and esophageal dysfunction, exercise intolerance, muscle weakness, cardiac conduction block, and endocrinopathy. Pearson syndrome is characterized by sideroblastic anemia and exocrine pancreas dysfunction and may be fatal in infancy without appropriate hematologic management. PEO is characterized by ptosis, impaired eye movements due to paralysis of the extraocular muscles (ophthalmoplegia), oropharyngeal weakness, and variably severe proximal limb weakness with exercise intolerance. Rarely, a mtDNA deletion can manifest as Leigh syndrome. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
9618
Concept ID:
C0022541
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Megaloblastic anemia, thiamine-responsive, with diabetes mellitus and sensorineural deafness

Thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia syndrome (TRMA) is characterized by megaloblastic anemia, progressive sensorineural hearing loss, and diabetes mellitus. Onset of megaloblastic anemia occurs between infancy and adolescence. The anemia is corrected with thiamine treatment, but the red cells remain macrocytic and anemia can recur if treatment is withdrawn. Progressive sensorineural hearing loss often occurs early and can be detected in toddlers; hearing loss is irreversible and may not be prevented by thiamine treatment. The diabetes mellitus is non-type I in nature, with age of onset from infancy to adolescence. Thiamine treatment may reduce insulin requirement and delay onset of diabetes in some individuals. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
83338
Concept ID:
C0342287
Congenital Abnormality
4.

X-linked sideroblastic anemia 1

X-linked sideroblastic anemia is an inherited disorder that prevents developing red blood cells (erythroblasts) from making enough hemoglobin, which is the protein that carries oxygen in the blood. People with X-linked sideroblastic anemia have mature red blood cells that are smaller than normal (microcytic) and appear pale (hypochromic) because of the shortage of hemoglobin. This disorder also leads to an abnormal accumulation of iron in red blood cells. The iron-loaded erythroblasts, which are present in bone marrow, are called ring sideroblasts. These abnormal cells give the condition its name.

The signs and symptoms of X-linked sideroblastic anemia result from a combination of reduced hemoglobin and an overload of iron. They range from mild to severe and most often appear in young adulthood. Common features include fatigue, dizziness, a rapid heartbeat, pale skin, and an enlarged liver and spleen (hepatosplenomegaly). Over time, severe medical problems such as heart disease and liver damage (cirrhosis) can result from the buildup of excess iron in these organs. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
1638704
Concept ID:
C4551511
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Myopathy, lactic acidosis, and sideroblastic anemia 1

Myopathy, lactic acidosis, and sideroblastic anemia (MLASA) is a rare autosomal recessive oxidative phosphorylation disorder specific to skeletal muscle and bone marrow (Bykhovskaya et al., 2004). Genetic Heterogeneity of Myopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and Sideroblastic Anemia MLASA2 (613561) is caused by mutation in the YARS2 gene (610957) on chromosome 12p11. MLASA3 (500011) is caused by heteroplasmic mutation in the mitochondrially-encoded MTATP6 gene (516060). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1634824
Concept ID:
C4551958
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Myopathy, lactic acidosis, and sideroblastic anemia 2

Myopathy, lactic acidosis, and sideroblastic anemia-2 (MLASA2) is an autosomal recessive disorder of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The disorder shows marked phenotypic variability: some patients have a severe multisystem disorder from infancy, including cardiomyopathy and respiratory insufficiency resulting in early death, whereas others present in the second or third decade of life with sideroblastic anemia and mild muscle weakness (summary by Riley et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of MLASA, see MLASA1 (600462). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
462152
Concept ID:
C3150802
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Hereditary myopathy with lactic acidosis due to ISCU deficiency

Hereditary myopathy with lactic acidosis (HML) is an autosomal recessive muscular disorder characterized by childhood onset of exercise intolerance with muscle tenderness, cramping, dyspnea, and palpitations. Biochemical features include lactic acidosis and, rarely, rhabdomyolysis. It is a chronic disorder with remission and exacerbation of the muscle phenotype (summary by Sanaker et al., 2010). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
342573
Concept ID:
C1850718
Disease or Syndrome
8.

X-linked sideroblastic anemia with ataxia

X-linked sideroblastic anemia and ataxia is a rare condition characterized by a blood disorder called sideroblastic anemia and movement problems known as ataxia. This condition occurs only in males.

Sideroblastic anemia results when developing red blood cells called erythroblasts do not make enough hemoglobin, which is the protein that carries oxygen in the blood. People with X-linked sideroblastic anemia and ataxia have mature red blood cells that are smaller than normal (microcytic) and appear pale (hypochromic) because of the shortage of hemoglobin. This disorder also leads to an abnormal accumulation of iron in red blood cells. The iron-loaded erythroblasts, which are present in bone marrow, are called ring sideroblasts. These abnormal cells give the condition its name. Unlike other forms of sideroblastic anemia, X-linked sideroblastic anemia and ataxia does not cause a potentially dangerous buildup of iron in the body. The anemia is typically mild and usually does not cause any symptoms.

X-linked sideroblastic anemia and ataxia causes problems with balance and coordination that appear early in life. The ataxia primarily affects the trunk, making it difficult to sit, stand, and walk unassisted. In addition to ataxia, people with this condition often have trouble coordinating movements that involve judging distance or scale (dysmetria) and find it difficult to make rapid, alternating movements (dysdiadochokinesis). Mild speech difficulties (dysarthria), tremor, and abnormal eye movements have also been reported in some affected individuals. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
335078
Concept ID:
C1845028
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Pearson syndrome

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletion syndromes predominantly comprise three overlapping phenotypes that are usually simplex (i.e., a single occurrence in a family), but rarely may be observed in different members of the same family or may evolve from one clinical syndrome to another in a given individual over time. The three classic phenotypes caused by mtDNA deletions are Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS), Pearson syndrome, and progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO). KSS is a progressive multisystem disorder defined by onset before age 20 years, pigmentary retinopathy, and PEO; additional features include cerebellar ataxia, impaired intellect (intellectual disability, dementia, or both), sensorineural hearing loss, ptosis, oropharyngeal and esophageal dysfunction, exercise intolerance, muscle weakness, cardiac conduction block, and endocrinopathy. Pearson syndrome is characterized by sideroblastic anemia and exocrine pancreas dysfunction and may be fatal in infancy without appropriate hematologic management. PEO is characterized by ptosis, impaired eye movements due to paralysis of the extraocular muscles (ophthalmoplegia), oropharyngeal weakness, and variably severe proximal limb weakness with exercise intolerance. Rarely, a mtDNA deletion can manifest as Leigh syndrome. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
87459
Concept ID:
C0342784
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Congenital sideroblastic anemia-B-cell immunodeficiency-periodic fever-developmental delay syndrome

Sideroblastic anemia with B-cell immunodeficiency, periodic fevers, and developmental delay (SIFD) is an autosomal recessive syndromic disorder characterized by onset of severe sideroblastic anemia in the neonatal period or infancy. Affected individuals show delayed psychomotor development with variable neurodegeneration. Recurrent periodic fevers without an infectious etiology occur throughout infancy and childhood; immunologic work-up shows B-cell lymphopenia and hypogammaglobulinemia. Other more variable features include sensorineural hearing loss, retinitis pigmentosa, nephrocalcinosis, and cardiomyopathy. Death in the first decade may occur (summary by Wiseman et al., 2013). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
863609
Concept ID:
C4015172
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Sideroblastic anemia 2

MedGen UID:
899109
Concept ID:
C4225425
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Severe congenital hypochromic anemia with ringed sideroblasts

STEAP3/TSAP6-related sideroblastic anemia is a very rare severe non-syndromic hypochromic anemia, which is characterized by transfusion-dependent hypochromic, poorly regenerative anemia, iron overload, resembling non-syndromic sideroblastic anemia (see this term) except for increased erythrocyte protoporphyrin levels. [from ORDO]

MedGen UID:
815250
Concept ID:
C3808920
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Hydrops-lactic acidosis-sideroblastic anemia-multisystemic failure syndrome

Hydrops, lactic acidosis, and sideroblastic anemia (HLASA) is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder characterized by the onset of hydrops in utero. The severity of the hydrops and the disorder in general is highly variable. At birth, affected infants usually show poor growth, lactic acidosis, pulmonary hypertension with hypoxic respiratory insufficiency, and sideroblastic anemia. More variable features may include hepatosplenomegaly or cholestasis, hypoglycemia, pancreatic insufficiency, and micropenis or hypospadias. Death in infancy may occur. Those who survive tend to have resolution of lactic acidosis and anemia, but may show developmental delay and sensorineural deafness (summary by Riley et al., 2020). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
934728
Concept ID:
C4310761
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Wolfram syndrome, mitochondrial form

MedGen UID:
325511
Concept ID:
C1838782
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Autosomal dominant sideroblastic anemia

Sideroblastic anemia comprises a heterogeneous group of inherited and acquired disorders characterized by ineffective erythropoiesis. Anemia, if present, may be microcytic or macrocytic. Sometimes a dimorphic picture is observed in which 2 populations of erythrocytes can be detected in peripheral blood smears. The presence of ringed sideroblasts (erythroblasts containing pathologic mitochondrial iron deposits) in bone marrow is pathognomonic for sideroblastic anemia (van Waveren Hogervorst et al., 1987; Schmitz-Abe et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of sideroblastic anemia, see SIDBA1 (300751). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
902781
Concept ID:
C4225428
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Sideroblastic anemia

Sideroblastic anemia results from a defect in the incorporation of iron into the heme molecule. A sideroblast is an erythroblast that has stainable deposits of iron in cytoplasm (this can be demonstrated by Prussian blue staining). [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
8067
Concept ID:
C0002896
Disease or Syndrome
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