U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Format
Items per page

Send to:

Choose Destination

Search results

Items: 1 to 20 of 163

1.

Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome due to CREBBP mutations

Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) is characterized by distinctive facial features, broad and often angulated thumbs and halluces, short stature, and moderate-to-severe intellectual disability. The characteristic craniofacial features are downslanted palpebral fissures, low-hanging columella, high palate, grimacing smile, and talon cusps. Prenatal growth is often normal, then height, weight, and head circumference percentiles rapidly drop in the first few months of life. Short stature is typical in adulthood. Obesity may develop in childhood or adolescence. Average IQ ranges between 35 and 50; however, developmental outcome varies considerably. Some individuals with EP300-RSTS have normal intellect. Additional features include ocular abnormalities, hearing loss, respiratory difficulties, congenital heart defects, renal abnormalities, cryptorchidism, feeding problems, recurrent infections, and severe constipation. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1639327
Concept ID:
C4551859
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Complete trisomy 21 syndrome

Down syndrome, the most frequent form of mental retardation caused by a microscopically demonstrable chromosomal aberration, is characterized by well-defined and distinctive phenotypic features and natural history. It is caused by triplicate state (trisomy) of all or a critical portion of chromosome 21. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
4385
Concept ID:
C0013080
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Cornelia de Lange syndrome 1

Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) encompasses a spectrum of findings from mild to severe. Severe (classic) CdLS is characterized by distinctive facial features, growth restriction (prenatal onset; <5th centile throughout life), hypertrichosis, and upper-limb reduction defects that range from subtle phalangeal abnormalities to oligodactyly (missing digits). Craniofacial features include synophrys, highly arched and/or thick eyebrows, long eyelashes, short nasal bridge with anteverted nares, small widely spaced teeth, and microcephaly. Individuals with a milder phenotype have less severe growth, cognitive, and limb involvement, but often have facial features consistent with CdLS. Across the CdLS spectrum IQ ranges from below 30 to 102 (mean: 53). Many individuals demonstrate autistic and self-destructive tendencies. Other frequent findings include cardiac septal defects, gastrointestinal dysfunction, hearing loss, myopia, and cryptorchidism or hypoplastic genitalia. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1645760
Concept ID:
C4551851
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Cohen syndrome

Cohen syndrome is characterized by failure to thrive in infancy and childhood; truncal obesity in the teen years; early-onset hypotonia and developmental delays; microcephaly developing during the first year of life; moderate to profound psychomotor retardation; progressive retinochoroidal dystrophy and high myopia; neutropenia in many with recurrent infections and aphthous ulcers in some; a cheerful disposition; joint hypermobility; and characteristic facial features. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
78539
Concept ID:
C0265223
Congenital Abnormality
5.

4p partial monosomy syndrome

Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome is a congenital malformation syndrome characterized by pre- and postnatal growth deficiency, developmental disability of variable degree, characteristic craniofacial features ('Greek warrior helmet' appearance of the nose, high forehead, prominent glabella, hypertelorism, high-arched eyebrows, protruding eyes, epicanthal folds, short philtrum, distinct mouth with downturned corners, and micrognathia), and a seizure disorder (Battaglia et al., 2008). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
408255
Concept ID:
C1956097
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Peroxisome biogenesis disorder 1A (Zellweger)

Zellweger spectrum disorder (ZSD) is a phenotypic continuum ranging from severe to mild. While individual phenotypes (e.g., Zellweger syndrome [ZS], neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy [NALD], and infantile Refsum disease [IRD]) were described in the past before the biochemical and molecular bases of this spectrum were fully determined, the term "ZSD" is now used to refer to all individuals with a defect in one of the ZSD-PEX genes regardless of phenotype. Individuals with ZSD usually come to clinical attention in the newborn period or later in childhood. Affected newborns are hypotonic and feed poorly. They have distinctive facies, congenital malformations (neuronal migration defects associated with neonatal-onset seizures, renal cysts, and bony stippling [chondrodysplasia punctata] of the patella[e] and the long bones), and liver disease that can be severe. Infants with severe ZSD are significantly impaired and typically die during the first year of life, usually having made no developmental progress. Individuals with intermediate/milder ZSD do not have congenital malformations, but rather progressive peroxisome dysfunction variably manifest as sensory loss (secondary to retinal dystrophy and sensorineural hearing loss), neurologic involvement (ataxia, polyneuropathy, and leukodystrophy), liver dysfunction, adrenal insufficiency, and renal oxalate stones. While hypotonia and developmental delays are typical, intellect can be normal. Some have osteopenia; almost all have ameleogenesis imperfecta in the secondary teeth. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1648474
Concept ID:
C4721541
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Coffin-Siris syndrome 1

Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS) is classically characterized by aplasia or hypoplasia of the distal phalanx or nail of the fifth and additional digits, developmental or cognitive delay of varying degree, distinctive facial features, hypotonia, hirsutism/hypertrichosis, and sparse scalp hair. Congenital anomalies can include malformations of the cardiac, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and/or central nervous systems. Other findings commonly include feeding difficulties, slow growth, ophthalmologic abnormalities, and hearing impairment. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
482831
Concept ID:
C3281201
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Coffin-Lowry syndrome

Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS) is usually characterized by severe-to-profound intellectual disability in males; less severely impaired individuals have been reported. Neuropsychiatric concerns can include behavioral problems, loss of strength, progressive spasticity or paraplegia, sleep apnea, or stroke. Stimulus-induced drop attacks (SIDAs) in which unexpected tactile or auditory stimuli or excitement triggers a brief collapse but no loss of consciousness are present in approximately 20% of affected individuals. Typically SIDAs begin between mid-childhood and the teens. Characteristic facial features may be more apparent with age. Upper-extremity differences may be subtle and include short, soft, fleshy hands with tapered fingers as well as fleshy forearms. Progressive kyphoscoliosis is one of the most difficult aspects of long-term care. Affected females tend to have intellectual disability in the mild-to-moderate range and may also have the typical facial, hand, and skeletal findings noted in males. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
75556
Concept ID:
C0265252
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Miller Dieker syndrome

PAFAH1B1-related lissencephaly/subcortical band heterotopia (SBH) comprises a spectrum of severity. Affected newborns typically have mild-to-moderate hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and poor head control. During the first years, neurologic examination typically demonstrates poor visual tracking and response to sounds, axial hypotonia, and mild distal spasticity that can transition over time to more severe spasticity. Seizures occur in more than 90% of individuals with lissencephaly and often include infantile spasms. Seizures are often drug resistant, but even with good seizure control, the best developmental level achieved (excluding the few individuals with partial lissencephaly) is the equivalent of about age three to five months. In individuals with PAFAH1B1-related lissencephaly/SBH, developmental delay ranges from mild to severe. Other findings in PAFAH1B1-related lissencephaly/SBH include feeding issues and aspiration (which may result in need for gastrostomy tube placement), progressive microcephaly, and occasional developmental regression. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
78538
Concept ID:
C0265219
Disease or Syndrome
10.

FG syndrome 1

MED12-related disorders include the phenotypes of FG syndrome type 1 (FGS1), Lujan syndrome (LS), X-linked Ohdo syndrome (XLOS), Hardikar syndrome (HS), and nonspecific intellectual disability (NSID). FGS1 and LS share the clinical findings of cognitive impairment, hypotonia, and abnormalities of the corpus callosum. FGS1 is further characterized by absolute or relative macrocephaly, tall forehead, downslanted palpebral fissures, small and simple ears, constipation and/or anal anomalies, broad thumbs and halluces, and characteristic behavior. LS is further characterized by large head, tall thin body habitus, long thin face, prominent nasal bridge, high narrow palate, and short philtrum. Carrier females in families with FGS1 and LS are typically unaffected. XLOS is characterized by intellectual disability, blepharophimosis, and facial coarsening. HS has been described in females with cleft lip and/or cleft palate, biliary and liver anomalies, intestinal malrotation, pigmentary retinopathy, and coarctation of the aorta. Developmental and cognitive concerns have not been reported in females with HS. Pathogenic variants in MED12 have been reported in an increasing number of males and females with NSID, with affected individuals often having clinical features identified in other MED12-related disorders. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1768809
Concept ID:
C5399762
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Aarskog syndrome

Aarskog-Scott syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects the development of many parts of the body, most commonly the head and face, the hands and feet, and the genitals and urinary system (genitourinary tract). This condition mainly affects males, although females may have mild features of the syndrome.

People with Aarskog-Scott syndrome often have distinctive facial features, such as widely spaced eyes (hypertelorism), a small nose, a long area between the nose and mouth (philtrum), and a widow's peak hairline. They frequently have mild to moderate short stature during childhood, but their growth usually catches up with that of their peers during puberty. Hand abnormalities are common in this syndrome and include short fingers (brachydactyly), curved pinky fingers (fifth finger clinodactyly), webbing of the skin between some fingers (cutaneous syndactyly), and a single crease across the palm. Affected individuals can also have wide, flat feet with broad, rounded toes. Other abnormalities in people with Aarskog-Scott syndrome include heart defects and a split in the upper lip (cleft lip) with or without an opening in the roof of the mouth (cleft palate).

Most males with Aarskog-Scott syndrome have a shawl scrotum, in which the scrotum surrounds the penis instead of hanging below. Less often, they have undescended testes (cryptorchidism) or a soft out-pouching around the belly-button (umbilical hernia) or in the lower abdomen (inguinal hernia).

The intellectual development of people with Aarskog-Scott syndrome varies widely. Most individuals with Aarskog-Scott syndrome have normal intelligence; however, some may have mild learning and behavior problems, and in rare cases, severe intellectual disability has been reported. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
61234
Concept ID:
C0175701
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Linear skin defects with multiple congenital anomalies 1

Microphthalmia with linear skin defects (MLS) syndrome is characterized by unilateral or bilateral microphthalmia and/or anophthalmia and linear skin defects, usually involving the face and neck, which are present at birth and heal with age, leaving minimal residual scarring. Other findings can include a wide variety of other ocular abnormalities (e.g., corneal anomalies, orbital cysts, cataracts), central nervous system involvement (e.g., structural anomalies, developmental delay, infantile seizures), cardiac concerns (e.g., hypertrophic or oncocytic cardiomyopathy, atrial or ventricular septal defects, arrhythmias), short stature, diaphragmatic hernia, nail dystrophy, hearing impairment, and genitourinary malformations. Inter- and intrafamilial variability is described. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
163210
Concept ID:
C0796070
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Weaver syndrome

EZH2-related overgrowth includes EZH2-related Weaver syndrome at one end of the spectrum and tall stature at the other. Although most individuals diagnosed with a heterozygous EZH2 pathogenic variant have been identified because of a clinical suspicion of Weaver syndrome, a minority have been identified through molecular genetic testing of family members of probands or individuals with overgrowth who did not have a clinical diagnosis of Weaver syndrome. Thus, the extent of the phenotypic spectrum associated with a heterozygous EZH2 pathogenic variant is not yet known. Weaver syndrome is characterized by tall stature, variable intellect (ranging from normal intellect to severe intellectual disability), characteristic facial appearance, and a range of associated clinical features including advanced bone age, poor coordination, soft doughy skin, camptodactyly of the fingers and/or toes, umbilical hernia, abnormal tone, and hoarse low cry in infancy. Brain MRI has identified abnormalities in a few individuals with EZH2-related overgrowth. Neuroblastoma occurs at a slightly increased frequency in individuals with a heterozygous EZH2 pathogenic variant but data are insufficient to determine absolute risk. There is currently no evidence that additional malignancies (including hematologic malignancies) occur with increased frequency. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
120511
Concept ID:
C0265210
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Cranioectodermal dysplasia 1

Cranioectodermal dysplasia (CED) is a ciliopathy with skeletal involvement (narrow thorax, shortened proximal limbs, syndactyly, polydactyly, brachydactyly), ectodermal features (widely spaced hypoplastic teeth, hypodontia, sparse hair, skin laxity, abnormal nails), joint laxity, growth deficiency, and characteristic facial features (frontal bossing, low-set simple ears, high forehead, telecanthus, epicanthal folds, full cheeks, everted lower lip). Most affected children develop nephronophthisis that often leads to end-stage kidney disease in infancy or childhood, a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Hepatic fibrosis and retinal dystrophy are also observed. Dolichocephaly, often secondary to sagittal craniosynostosis, is a primary manifestation that distinguishes CED from most other ciliopathies. Brain malformations and developmental delay may also occur. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
96586
Concept ID:
C0432235
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Pitt-Hopkins syndrome

Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS) is characterized by significant developmental delays with moderate-to-severe intellectual disability and behavioral differences, characteristic facial features, and episodic hyperventilation and/or breath-holding while awake. Speech is significantly delayed and most individuals are nonverbal with receptive language often stronger than expressive language. Other common findings are autism spectrum disorder symptoms, sleep disturbance, stereotypic hand movements, seizures, constipation, and severe myopia. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
370910
Concept ID:
C1970431
Disease or Syndrome
16.

5p partial monosomy syndrome

Cri-du-chat syndrome was first described by Lejeune et al. (1963) as a hereditary congenital syndrome associated with deletion of part of the short arm of chromosome 5. The deletions can vary in size from extremely small and involving only band 5p15.2 to the entire short arm. Although the majority of deletions arise as new mutations, approximately 12% result from unbalanced segregation of translocations or recombination involving a pericentric inversion in one of the parents. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
41345
Concept ID:
C0010314
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Child syndrome

The NSDHL-related disorders include: CHILD (congenital hemidysplasia with ichthyosiform nevus and limb defects) syndrome, an X-linked condition that is usually male lethal during gestation and thus predominantly affects females; and CK syndrome, an X-linked disorder that affects males. CHILD syndrome is characterized by unilateral distribution of ichthyosiform (yellow scaly) skin lesions and ipsilateral limb defects that range from shortening of the metacarpals and phalanges to absence of the entire limb. Intellect is usually normal. The ichthyosiform skin lesions are usually present at birth or in the first weeks of life; new lesions can develop in later life. Nail changes are also common. The heart, lung, and kidneys can also be involved. CK syndrome (named for the initials of the original proband) is characterized by mild to severe cognitive impairment and behavior problems (aggression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and irritability). All affected males reported have developed seizures in infancy and have cerebral cortical malformations and microcephaly. All have distinctive facial features, a thin habitus, and relatively long, thin fingers and toes. Some have scoliosis and kyphosis. Strabismus is common. Optic atrophy is also reported. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
82697
Concept ID:
C0265267
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Autosomal recessive severe congenital neutropenia due to G6PC3 deficiency

G6PC3 deficiency is characterized by severe congenital neutropenia which occurs in a phenotypic continuum that includes the following: Isolated severe congenital neutropenia (nonsyndromic). Classic G6PC3 deficiency (severe congenital neutropenia plus cardiovascular and/or urogenital abnormalities). Severe G6PC3 deficiency (classic G6PC3 deficiency plus involvement of non-myeloid hematopoietic cell lines, additional extra-hematologic features, and pulmonary hypertension; known as Dursun syndrome). Neutropenia usually presents with recurrent bacterial infections in the first few months of life. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), failure to thrive (FTT), and poor postnatal growth are common. Other findings in classic and severe G6PC3 deficiency can include inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) resembling Crohn's disease, and endocrine disorders (growth hormone deficiency, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and delayed puberty). [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
414066
Concept ID:
C2751630
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Branchiooculofacial syndrome

The branchiooculofacial syndrome (BOFS) is characterized by: branchial (cervical or infra- or supra-auricular) skin defects that range from barely perceptible thin skin or hair patch to erythematous "hemangiomatous" lesions to large weeping erosions; ocular anomalies that can include microphthalmia, anophthalmia, coloboma, and nasolacrimal duct stenosis/atresia; and facial anomalies that can include ocular hypertelorism or telecanthus, broad nasal tip, upslanted palpebral fissures, cleft lip or prominent philtral pillars that give the appearance of a repaired cleft lip (formerly called "pseudocleft lip") with or without cleft palate, upper lip pits, and lower facial weakness (asymmetric crying face or partial 7th cranial nerve weakness). Malformed and prominent pinnae and hearing loss from inner ear and/or petrous bone anomalies are common. Intellect is usually normal. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
91261
Concept ID:
C0376524
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Cornelia de Lange syndrome 4

Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) encompasses a spectrum of findings from mild to severe. Severe (classic) CdLS is characterized by distinctive facial features, growth restriction (prenatal onset; <5th centile throughout life), hypertrichosis, and upper-limb reduction defects that range from subtle phalangeal abnormalities to oligodactyly (missing digits). Craniofacial features include synophrys, highly arched and/or thick eyebrows, long eyelashes, short nasal bridge with anteverted nares, small widely spaced teeth, and microcephaly. Individuals with a milder phenotype have less severe growth, cognitive, and limb involvement, but often have facial features consistent with CdLS. Across the CdLS spectrum IQ ranges from below 30 to 102 (mean: 53). Many individuals demonstrate autistic and self-destructive tendencies. Other frequent findings include cardiac septal defects, gastrointestinal dysfunction, hearing loss, myopia, and cryptorchidism or hypoplastic genitalia. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
766431
Concept ID:
C3553517
Disease or Syndrome
Format
Items per page

Send to:

Choose Destination

Supplemental Content

Find related data

Search details

See more...

Recent activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...