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Items: 17

1.

Androgen resistance syndrome

Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is typically characterized by evidence of feminization (i.e., undermasculinization) of the external genitalia at birth, abnormal secondary sexual development in puberty, and infertility in individuals with a 46,XY karyotype. AIS represents a spectrum of defects in androgen action and can be subdivided into three broad phenotypes: Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS), with typical female external genitalia. Partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (PAIS) with predominantly female, predominantly male, or ambiguous external genitalia. Mild androgen insensitivity syndrome (MAIS) with typical male external genitalia. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
21102
Concept ID:
C0039585
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 1 with or without anosmia

Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency (IGD) is characterized by inappropriately low serum concentrations of the gonadotropins LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in the presence of low circulating concentrations of sex steroids. IGD is associated with a normal sense of smell (normosmic IGD) in approximately 40% of affected individuals and an impaired sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome) in approximately 60%. IGD can first become apparent in infancy, adolescence, or adulthood. Infant boys with congenital IGD often have micropenis and cryptorchidism. Adolescents and adults with IGD have clinical evidence of hypogonadism and incomplete sexual maturation on physical examination. Adult males with IGD tend to have prepubertal testicular volume (i.e., <4 mL), absence of secondary sexual features (e.g., facial and axillary hair growth, deepening of the voice), decreased muscle mass, diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. Adult females have little or no breast development and primary amenorrhea. Although skeletal maturation is delayed, the rate of linear growth is usually normal except for the absence of a distinct pubertal growth spurt. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
295872
Concept ID:
C1563719
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Blepharophimosis, ptosis, and epicanthus inversus syndrome

Blepharophimosis, ptosis, and epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES) is defined by a complex eyelid malformation characterized by four major features, all present at birth: blepharophimosis, ptosis, epicanthus inversus, and telecanthus. BPES type I includes the four major features and primary ovarian insufficiency; BPES type II includes only the four major features. Other ophthalmic manifestations that can be associated with BPES include dysplastic eyelids, lacrimal duct anomalies, strabismus, refractive errors, and amblyopia. Other craniofacial features may include a broad nasal bridge and low-set ears. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
66312
Concept ID:
C0220663
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 7 with or without anosmia

Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency (IGD) is characterized by inappropriately low serum concentrations of the gonadotropins LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in the presence of low circulating concentrations of sex steroids. IGD is associated with a normal sense of smell (normosmic IGD) in approximately 40% of affected individuals and an impaired sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome) in approximately 60%. IGD can first become apparent in infancy, adolescence, or adulthood. Infant boys with congenital IGD often have micropenis and cryptorchidism. Adolescents and adults with IGD have clinical evidence of hypogonadism and incomplete sexual maturation on physical examination. Adult males with IGD tend to have prepubertal testicular volume (i.e., <4 mL), absence of secondary sexual features (e.g., facial and axillary hair growth, deepening of the voice), decreased muscle mass, diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. Adult females have little or no breast development and primary amenorrhea. Although skeletal maturation is delayed, the rate of linear growth is usually normal except for the absence of a distinct pubertal growth spurt. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
87440
Concept ID:
C0342384
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, and cleft lip-palate syndrome 3

The TP63-related disorders comprise six overlapping phenotypes: Ankyloblepharon-ectodermal defects-cleft lip/palate (AEC) syndrome (which includes Rapp-Hodgkin syndrome). Acro-dermo-ungual-lacrimal-tooth (ADULT) syndrome. Ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, cleft lip/palate syndrome 3 (EEC3). Limb-mammary syndrome. Split-hand/foot malformation type 4 (SHFM4). Isolated cleft lip/cleft palate (orofacial cleft 8). Individuals typically have varying combinations of ectodermal dysplasia (hypohidrosis, nail dysplasia, sparse hair, tooth abnormalities), cleft lip/palate, split-hand/foot malformation/syndactyly, lacrimal duct obstruction, hypopigmentation, hypoplastic breasts and/or nipples, and hypospadias. Findings associated with a single phenotype include ankyloblepharon filiforme adnatum (tissue strands that completely or partially fuse the upper and lower eyelids), skin erosions especially on the scalp associated with areas of scarring, and alopecia, trismus, and excessive freckling. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
347666
Concept ID:
C1858562
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Meier-Gorlin syndrome 3

Most people with Meier-Gorlin syndrome have distinctive facial features. In addition to being abnormally small, the ears may be low-set or rotated backward. Additional features can include a small mouth (microstomia), an underdeveloped lower jaw (micrognathia), full lips, and a narrow nose with a high nasal bridge.

Meier-Gorlin syndrome is a condition primarily characterized by short stature. It is considered a form of primordial dwarfism because the growth problems begin before birth (intrauterine growth retardation). After birth, affected individuals continue to grow at a slow rate. Other characteristic features of this condition are underdeveloped or missing kneecaps (patellae), small ears, and, often, an abnormally small head (microcephaly). Despite a small head size, most people with Meier-Gorlin syndrome have normal intellect.

Some people with Meier-Gorlin syndrome have other skeletal abnormalities, such as unusually narrow long bones in the arms and legs, a deformity of the knee joint that allows the knee to bend backwards (genu recurvatum), and slowed mineralization of bones (delayed bone age).

Abnormalities in sexual development may also occur in Meier-Gorlin syndrome. In some males with this condition, the testes are small or undescended (cryptorchidism). Affected females may have unusually small external genital folds (hypoplasia of the labia majora) and small breasts. Both males and females with this condition can have sparse or absent underarm (axillary) hair.

Additional features of Meier-Gorlin syndrome can include difficulty feeding and a lung condition known as pulmonary emphysema or other breathing problems. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
462463
Concept ID:
C3151113
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Isolated lutropin deficiency

Male patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism due to isolated luteinizing hormone (LH) deficiency have normal sexual differentiation but fail to develop spontaneous puberty. Absence of LH alters Leydig cell proliferation and maturation and impairs the onset of normal spermatogenesis, which requires high levels of intratesticular testosterone. Infertility and very low levels of spermatogenesis generally persist in affected men despite long-term exposure to gonadotropin therapy. Female patients exhibit normal pubertal development and menarche, followed by oligomenorrhea and anovulatory secondary amenorrhea (summary by Basciani et al., 2012). Congenital idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH) is a disorder characterized by absent or incomplete sexual maturation by the age of 18 years, in conjunction with low levels of circulating gonadotropins and testosterone and no other abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism can be caused by an isolated defect in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GNRH; 152760) release, action, or both. Other associated nonreproductive phenotypes, such as anosmia, cleft palate, and sensorineural hearing loss, occur with variable frequency. In the presence of anosmia, idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism has been called 'Kallmann syndrome (KS),' whereas in the presence of a normal sense of smell, it has been termed 'normosmic idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (nIHH)' (summary by Raivio et al., 2007). Because families have been found to segregate both KS and nIHH, the disorder is here referred to as 'hypogonadotropic hypogonadism with or without anosmia (HH).' For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, see 147950. Reviews Arnhold et al. (2009) noted that the clinical manifestations of female patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism due to mutations in LHB are very similar to those of women with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism due to inactivating mutations of the LH receptor (see 238320): all have female external genitalia, spontaneous development of normal pubic hair and breasts at puberty, and normal to late menarche followed by oligoamenorrhea and infertility. Pelvic ultrasound shows a small or normal uterus and normal or enlarged ovaries with cysts. However, women with LHB mutations can be treated with luteinizing hormone or chorionic gonadotropin (CG; 118860) replacement therapy; women with LH receptor mutations are resistant to LH, and no treatment is effective in recovering their fertility. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
82881
Concept ID:
C0271582
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, and cleft lip-palate syndrome 1

An EEC syndrome characterized by autosomal dominant inheritance that has material basis in variation in the chromosome region 7q11.2-q21.3. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
343663
Concept ID:
C1851841
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Scalp-ear-nipple syndrome

Scalp-ear-nipple syndrome is characterized by aplasia cutis congenita of the scalp, breast anomalies that range from hypothelia or athelia to amastia, and minor anomalies of the external ears. Less frequent clinical characteristics include nail dystrophy, dental anomalies, cutaneous syndactyly of the digits, and renal malformations. Penetrance appears to be high, although there is substantial variable expressivity within families (Marneros et al., 2013). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
357183
Concept ID:
C1867020
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Hypotrichosis 12

Any hypotrichosis in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the RPL21 gene. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
863000
Concept ID:
C4014563
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Hypotrichosis 1

Hereditary hypotrichosis simplex (HHS) is a rare form of nonsyndromic hereditary hypotrichosis without characteristic hair shaft anomalies. Affected individuals typically show normal hair at birth, but hair loss and thinning of the hair shaft start during early childhood and progress with age. HHS can be largely divided into 2 forms: the scalp-limited form (e.g., 146520) and the generalized form, such as HYPT1, in which all body hair is affected. HHS is characterized by progressive hair follicle miniaturization, which is a typical feature of androgenetic alopecia (see 109200). HHS can be inherited either as an autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive trait (e.g., HYPT8, 278150) (summary by Shimomura et al., 2010). Genetic Heterogeneity of Nonsyndromic Hypotrichosis See also HYPT2 (146520), caused by mutation in the CDSN gene (602593) on chromosome 6p21; HYPT3 (613981), caused by mutation in the KRT74 gene (608248) on chromosome 12q13; HYPT4 (146550), caused by mutation in the HRURF gene (619257) on chromosome 8p21; HYPT5 (612841), caused by mutation in the EPS8L3 gene (614989) on chromosome 1p13; HYPT6 (607903), caused by mutation in the DSG4 gene (607892) on chromosome 18q12; HYPT7 (604379), caused by mutation in the LIPH gene (607365) on chromosome 3q27; HYPT8 (278150), caused by mutation in the LPAR6 gene (609239) on chromosome 13q14; HYPT9 (614237), mapped to chromosome 10q11.23-q22.3; HYPT10 (614238), mapped to chromosome 7p22.3-p21.3; HYPT11 (615059), caused by mutation in the SNRPE gene (128260) on chromosome 1q32; HYPT12 (615885), caused by mutation in the RPL21 gene (603636) on chromosome 13q12; HYPT13 (615896), caused by mutation in the KRT71 gene (608245) on chromosome 12q13; HYPT14 (618275), caused by mutation in the LSS gene (600909) on chromosome 21q22; and HYPT15 (620177), caused by mutation in the C3ORF52 gene (611956) on chromosome 3q13. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1644234
Concept ID:
C4551976
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Hypotrichosis 14

Hypotrichosis-14 (HYPT14) is characterized by sparse to absent lanugo-like scalp hair, sparse and brittle eyebrows, and sparse eyelashes and body hair (Romano et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hypotrichosis, see HYPT1 (605389). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1648477
Concept ID:
C4748930
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Gonadal dysgenesis, dysmorphic facies, retinal dystrophy, and myopathy

Myoectodermal gonadal dysgenesis syndrome (MEGD) is characterized by 46,XY complete or partial gonadal dysgenesis, or 46,XX gonadal dysgenesis, in association with extragonadal anomalies, including low birth weight, typical facies, rod and cone dystrophy, sensorineural hearing loss, omphalocele, anal atresia, renal agenesis, skeletal abnormalities, dry and scaly skin, severe myopathy, and neuromotor delay. Dysmorphic facial features along with muscular habitus are the hallmarks of the syndrome. Abnormal hair patterning with frontal upsweep and additional whorls, eyebrow abnormalities comprising broad, arched, and sparse or thick eyebrows, underdeveloped alae nasi, smooth philtrum, and low-set ears with overfolded helices facilitate a gestalt diagnosis. (Guran et al., 2019; Altunoglu et al., 2022). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1679397
Concept ID:
C5193085
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Onychotrichodysplasia and neutropenia

MedGen UID:
340512
Concept ID:
C1850316
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Lessel-kubisch syndrome

Lessel-Kubisch syndrome (LSKB) is characterized by short stature and progeroid features, including prematurely gray hair, pinched facies, and scleroderma-like skin changes. Renal failure-associated hypertension and hypogonadism have also been observed (Lessel et al., 2017). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1684750
Concept ID:
C5231460
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Kallmann syndrome with spastic paraplegia

MedGen UID:
333437
Concept ID:
C1839911
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Sparse pubic hair

Reduced number or density of pubic hair. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
388095
Concept ID:
C1858573
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