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Items: 1 to 20 of 141

1.

Telecanthus

Distance between the inner canthi more than two standard deviations above the mean (objective); or, apparently increased distance between the inner canthi. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
140836
Concept ID:
C0423113
Finding
2.

Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency

Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) represents a clinical spectrum in which presentations can be divided into type I (neonatal onset with congenital anomalies), type II (neonatal onset without congenital anomalies), and type III (late onset). Individuals with type I or II MADD typically become symptomatic in the neonatal period with severe metabolic acidosis, which may be accompanied by profound hypoglycemia and hyperammonemia. Many affected individuals die in the newborn period despite metabolic treatment. In those who survive the neonatal period, recurrent metabolic decompensation resembling Reye syndrome and the development of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy can occur. Congenital anomalies may include dysmorphic facial features, large cystic kidneys, hypospadias and chordee in males, and neuronal migration defects (heterotopias) on brain MRI. Individuals with type III MADD, the most common presentation, can present from infancy to adulthood. The most common symptoms are muscle weakness, exercise intolerance, and/or muscle pain, although metabolic decompensation with episodes of rhabdomyolysis can also be seen. Rarely, individuals with late-onset MADD (type III) may develop severe sensory neuropathy in addition to proximal myopathy. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
75696
Concept ID:
C0268596
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Waardenburg syndrome type 1

Waardenburg syndrome type I (WS1) is an auditory-pigmentary disorder comprising congenital sensorineural hearing loss and pigmentary disturbances of the iris, hair, and skin along with dystopia canthorum (lateral displacement of the inner canthi). The hearing loss in WS1, observed in approximately 60% of affected individuals, is congenital, typically non-progressive, either unilateral or bilateral, and sensorineural. Most commonly, hearing loss in WS1 is bilateral and profound (>100 dB). The majority of individuals with WS1 have either a white forelock or early graying of the scalp hair before age 30 years. The classic white forelock observed in approximately 45% of individuals is the most common hair pigmentation anomaly seen in WS1. Affected individuals may have complete heterochromia iridium, partial/segmental heterochromia, or hypoplastic or brilliant blue irides. Congenital leukoderma is frequently seen on the face, trunk, or limbs. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
376211
Concept ID:
C1847800
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Blepharophimosis, ptosis, and epicanthus inversus syndrome

Blepharophimosis, ptosis, and epicanthus inversus syndrome (BPES) is defined by a complex eyelid malformation characterized by four major features, all present at birth: blepharophimosis, ptosis, epicanthus inversus, and telecanthus. BPES type I includes the four major features and primary ovarian insufficiency; BPES type II includes only the four major features. Other ophthalmic manifestations that can be associated with BPES include dysplastic eyelids, lacrimal duct anomalies, strabismus, refractive errors, and amblyopia. Other craniofacial features may include a broad nasal bridge and low-set ears. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
66312
Concept ID:
C0220663
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Coffin-Lowry syndrome

Coffin-Lowry syndrome (CLS) is usually characterized by severe-to-profound intellectual disability in males; less severely impaired individuals have been reported. Neuropsychiatric concerns can include behavioral problems, loss of strength, progressive spasticity or paraplegia, sleep apnea, or stroke. Stimulus-induced drop attacks (SIDAs) in which unexpected tactile or auditory stimuli or excitement triggers a brief collapse but no loss of consciousness are present in approximately 20% of affected individuals. Typically SIDAs begin between mid-childhood and the teens. Characteristic facial features may be more apparent with age. Upper-extremity differences may be subtle and include short, soft, fleshy hands with tapered fingers as well as fleshy forearms. Progressive kyphoscoliosis is one of the most difficult aspects of long-term care. Affected females tend to have intellectual disability in the mild-to-moderate range and may also have the typical facial, hand, and skeletal findings noted in males. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
75556
Concept ID:
C0265252
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Orofaciodigital syndrome I

Oral-facial-digital syndrome type I (OFD1) is usually male lethal during gestation and predominantly affects females. OFD1 is characterized by the following features: Oral (lobulated tongue, tongue nodules, cleft of the hard or soft palate, accessory gingival frenulae, hypodontia, and other dental abnormalities). Facial (widely spaced eyes or telecanthus, hypoplasia of the alae nasi, median cleft or pseudocleft upper lip, micrognathia). Digital (brachydactyly, syndactyly, clinodactyly of the fifth finger; duplicated hallux [great toe]). Kidney (polycystic kidney disease). Brain (e.g., intracerebral cysts, agenesis of the corpus callosum, cerebellar agenesis with or without Dandy-Walker malformation). Intellectual disability (in ~50% of individuals). [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
307142
Concept ID:
C1510460
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Cranioectodermal dysplasia 1

Cranioectodermal dysplasia (CED) is a ciliopathy with skeletal involvement (narrow thorax, shortened proximal limbs, syndactyly, polydactyly, brachydactyly), ectodermal features (widely spaced hypoplastic teeth, hypodontia, sparse hair, skin laxity, abnormal nails), joint laxity, growth deficiency, and characteristic facial features (frontal bossing, low-set simple ears, high forehead, telecanthus, epicanthal folds, full cheeks, everted lower lip). Most affected children develop nephronophthisis that often leads to end-stage kidney disease in infancy or childhood, a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Hepatic fibrosis and retinal dystrophy are also observed. Dolichocephaly, often secondary to sagittal craniosynostosis, is a primary manifestation that distinguishes CED from most other ciliopathies. Brain malformations and developmental delay may also occur. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
96586
Concept ID:
C0432235
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Craniofrontonasal syndrome

Craniofrontonasal syndrome is an X-linked developmental disorder that shows paradoxically greater severity in heterozygous females than in hemizygous males. Females have frontonasal dysplasia, craniofacial asymmetry, craniosynostosis, bifid nasal tip, grooved nails, wiry hair, and abnormalities of the thoracic skeleton, whereas males typically show only hypertelorism (Twigg et al., 2004; Wieland et al., 2004). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
65095
Concept ID:
C0220767
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Fetal akinesia deformation sequence 1

Decreased fetal activity associated with multiple joint contractures, facial anomalies and pulmonary hypoplasia. Ultrasound examination may reveal polyhydramnios, ankylosis, scalp edema, and decreased chest movements (reflecting pulmonary hypoplasia). [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
220903
Concept ID:
C1276035
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Hajdu-Cheney syndrome

Hajdu-Cheney syndrome (HJCYS) is a rare autosomal dominant skeletal disorder characterized by short stature, coarse and dysmorphic facies, bowing of the long bones, and vertebral anomalies. Facial features include hypertelorism, bushy eyebrows, micrognathia, small mouth with dental anomalies, low-set ears, and short neck. There is progressive focal bone destruction, including acroosteolysis and generalized osteoporosis. Additional and variable features include hearing loss, renal cysts, and cardiovascular anomalies (summary by Ramos et al., 1998; Simpson et al., 2011; Isidor et al., 2011). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
182961
Concept ID:
C0917715
Disease or Syndrome
11.

X-linked Opitz G/BBB syndrome

X-linked Opitz G/BBB syndrome (X-OS) is a multiple-congenital-anomaly disorder characterized by facial anomalies (hypertelorism, prominent forehead, widow's peak, broad nasal bridge, anteverted nares), genitourinary abnormalities (hypospadias, cryptorchidism, and hypoplastic/bifid scrotum), and laryngotracheoesophageal defects. Developmental delay and intellectual disability are observed in about 50% of affected males. Cleft lip and/or palate are present in approximately 50% of affected individuals. Other malformations (present in <50% of individuals) include congenital heart defects, imperforate or ectopic anus, and midline brain defects (Dandy-Walker malformation and agenesis or hypoplasia of the corpus callosum and/or cerebellar vermis). Wide clinical variability occurs even among members of the same family. Female heterozygotes usually manifest hypertelorism only. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
424842
Concept ID:
C2936904
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome

Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome (SGS) is characterized by: delayed motor and cognitive milestones and mild-to-moderate intellectual disability; craniosynostosis of the coronal, sagittal, or lambdoid sutures; distinctive craniofacial features; and musculoskeletal findings including olichostenomelia, arachnodactyly, camptodactyly, pectus excavatum or carinatum, scoliosis, joint hypermobility or contractures, pes planus, foot malposition, and C1-C2 spine malformation. Cardiovascular anomalies may include mitral valve prolapse, secundum atrial septal defect, and aortic root dilatation. Minimal subcutaneous fat, abdominal wall defects, and myopia are also characteristic findings. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
231160
Concept ID:
C1321551
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, dermatosparaxis type

Dermatosparaxis (meaning 'tearing of skin') is an autosomal recessive disorder of connective tissue resulting from deficiency of procollagen peptidase, an enzyme that aids in the processing of type I procollagen. The disorder and the responsible biochemical defect was first observed in cattle (Lapiere et al., 1971). Lapiere and Nusgens (1993) reviewed the discovery of dermatosparaxis in cattle, the elucidation of the disorder, its occurrence in other animals, and the delayed recognition of the disorder in the human. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
397792
Concept ID:
C2700425
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Freeman-Sheldon syndrome

Freeman-Sheldon syndrome (FSS), or DA2A, is phenotypically similar to DA1. In addition to contractures of the hands and feet, FSS is characterized by oropharyngeal abnormalities, scoliosis, and a distinctive face that includes a very small oral orifice (often only a few millimeters in diameter at birth), puckered lips, and an H-shaped dimple of the chin; hence, FSS has been called 'whistling face syndrome.' The limb phenotypes of DA1 and FSS may be so similar that they can only be distinguished by the differences in facial morphology (summary by Bamshad et al., 2009). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of distal arthrogryposis, see DA1 (108120). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
120516
Concept ID:
C0265224
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Waardenburg syndrome type 3

Waardenburg syndrome type 3 is an auditory-pigmentary syndrome characterized by pigmentary abnormalities of the hair, skin, and eyes; congenital sensorineural hearing loss; presence of 'dystopia canthorum,' the lateral displacement of the ocular inner canthi; and upper limb abnormalities (reviews by Read and Newton, 1997 and Pingault et al., 2010). WS type 3 is also referred to as 'Klein-Waardenburg syndrome' (Gorlin et al., 1976). Clinical Variability of Waardenburg Syndrome Types 1-4 Waardenburg syndrome has been classified into 4 main phenotypes. Type I Waardenburg syndrome (WS1; 193500) is characterized by pigmentary abnormalities of the hair, including a white forelock and premature graying; pigmentary changes of the iris, such as heterochromia iridis and brilliant blue eyes; congenital sensorineural hearing loss; and 'dystopia canthorum.' WS type II (WS2) is distinguished from type I by the absence of dystopia canthorum. WS type III has dystopia canthorum and is distinguished by the presence of upper limb abnormalities. WS type IV (WS4; 277580), also known as Waardenburg-Shah syndrome, has the additional feature of Hirschsprung disease (reviews by Read and Newton, 1997 and Pingault et al., 2010). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
86948
Concept ID:
C0079661
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Cranioectodermal dysplasia 2

Cranioectodermal dysplasia (CED) is a ciliopathy with skeletal involvement (narrow thorax, shortened proximal limbs, syndactyly, polydactyly, brachydactyly), ectodermal features (widely spaced hypoplastic teeth, hypodontia, sparse hair, skin laxity, abnormal nails), joint laxity, growth deficiency, and characteristic facial features (frontal bossing, low-set simple ears, high forehead, telecanthus, epicanthal folds, full cheeks, everted lower lip). Most affected children develop nephronophthisis that often leads to end-stage kidney disease in infancy or childhood, a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Hepatic fibrosis and retinal dystrophy are also observed. Dolichocephaly, often secondary to sagittal craniosynostosis, is a primary manifestation that distinguishes CED from most other ciliopathies. Brain malformations and developmental delay may also occur. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
462224
Concept ID:
C3150874
Disease or Syndrome
17.

SHORT syndrome

SHORT syndrome is a mnemonic for short stature, hyperextensibility, ocular depression (deeply set eyes), Rieger anomaly, and teething delay. It is now recognized that the features most consistently observed in SHORT syndrome are mild intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR); mild to moderate short stature; partial lipodystrophy (evident in the face, and later in the chest and upper extremities, often sparing the buttocks and legs); and a characteristic facial gestalt. Insulin resistance may be evident in mid-childhood or adolescence, although diabetes mellitus typically does not develop until early adulthood. Other frequent features include Axenfeld-Rieger anomaly or related ocular anterior chamber dysgenesis, delayed dentition and other dental issues, and sensorineural hearing loss. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
164212
Concept ID:
C0878684
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Branchiooculofacial syndrome

The branchiooculofacial syndrome (BOFS) is characterized by: branchial (cervical or infra- or supra-auricular) skin defects that range from barely perceptible thin skin or hair patch to erythematous "hemangiomatous" lesions to large weeping erosions; ocular anomalies that can include microphthalmia, anophthalmia, coloboma, and nasolacrimal duct stenosis/atresia; and facial anomalies that can include ocular hypertelorism or telecanthus, broad nasal tip, upslanted palpebral fissures, cleft lip or prominent philtral pillars that give the appearance of a repaired cleft lip (formerly called "pseudocleft lip") with or without cleft palate, upper lip pits, and lower facial weakness (asymmetric crying face or partial 7th cranial nerve weakness). Malformed and prominent pinnae and hearing loss from inner ear and/or petrous bone anomalies are common. Intellect is usually normal. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
91261
Concept ID:
C0376524
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Baraitser-winter syndrome 2

Baraitser-Winter cerebrofrontofacial (BWCFF) syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by typical craniofacial features and intellectual disability. Many (but not all) affected individuals have pachygyria that is predominantly frontal, wasting of the shoulder girdle muscles, and sensory impairment due to iris or retinal coloboma and/or sensorineural deafness. Intellectual disability, which is common but variable, is related to the severity of the brain malformations. Seizures, congenital heart defects, renal malformations, and gastrointestinal dysfunction are also common. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
482865
Concept ID:
C3281235
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Cornelia de Lange syndrome 5

Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) encompasses a spectrum of findings from mild to severe. Severe (classic) CdLS is characterized by distinctive facial features, growth restriction (prenatal onset; <5th centile throughout life), hypertrichosis, and upper-limb reduction defects that range from subtle phalangeal abnormalities to oligodactyly (missing digits). Craniofacial features include synophrys, highly arched and/or thick eyebrows, long eyelashes, short nasal bridge with anteverted nares, small widely spaced teeth, and microcephaly. Individuals with a milder phenotype have less severe growth, cognitive, and limb involvement, but often have facial features consistent with CdLS. Across the CdLS spectrum IQ ranges from below 30 to 102 (mean: 53). Many individuals demonstrate autistic and self-destructive tendencies. Other frequent findings include cardiac septal defects, gastrointestinal dysfunction, hearing loss, myopia, and cryptorchidism or hypoplastic genitalia. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
763817
Concept ID:
C3550903
Disease or Syndrome
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