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1.

Argininosuccinate lyase deficiency

Deficiency of argininosuccinate lyase (ASL), the enzyme that cleaves argininosuccinic acid to produce arginine and fumarate in the fourth step of the urea cycle, may present as a severe neonatal-onset form or a late-onset form: The severe neonatal-onset form is characterized by hyperammonemia within the first few days after birth that can manifest as increasing lethargy, somnolence, refusal to feed, vomiting, tachypnea, and respiratory alkalosis. Absence of treatment leads to worsening lethargy, seizures, coma, and even death. In contrast, the manifestations of late-onset form range from episodic hyperammonemia triggered by acute infection or stress to cognitive impairment, behavioral abnormalities, and/or learning disabilities in the absence of any documented episodes of hyperammonemia. Manifestations of ASL deficiency that appear to be unrelated to the severity or duration of hyperammonemic episodes: Neurocognitive deficiencies (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, developmental delay, seizures, and learning disability). Liver disease (hepatitis, cirrhosis). Trichorrhexis nodosa (coarse brittle hair that breaks easily). Systemic hypertension. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
78687
Concept ID:
C0268547
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Trichothiodystrophy 1, photosensitive

About half of all people with trichothiodystrophy have a photosensitive form of the disorder, which causes them to be extremely sensitive to ultraviolet (UV) rays from sunlight. They develop a severe sunburn after spending just a few minutes in the sun. However, for reasons that are unclear, they do not develop other sun-related problems such as excessive freckling of the skin or an increased risk of skin cancer. Many people with trichothiodystrophy report that they do not sweat.

Trichothiodystrophy is also associated with recurrent infections, particularly respiratory infections, which can be life-threatening. People with trichothiodystrophy may have abnormal red blood cells, including red blood cells that are smaller than normal. They may also have elevated levels of a type of hemoglobin called A2, which is a protein found in red blood cells. Other features of trichothiodystrophy can include dry, scaly skin (ichthyosis); abnormalities of the fingernails and toenails; clouding of the lens in both eyes from birth (congenital cataracts); poor coordination; and skeletal abnormalities including degeneration of both hips at an early age.

Intellectual disability and delayed development are common in people with trichothiodystrophy, although most affected individuals are highly social with an outgoing and engaging personality. Some people with trichothiodystrophy have brain abnormalities that can be seen with imaging tests. A common neurological feature of this disorder is impaired myelin production (dysmyelination). Myelin is a fatty substance that insulates nerve cells and promotes the rapid transmission of nerve impulses.

Mothers of children with trichothiodystrophy may experience problems during pregnancy including pregnancy-induced high blood pressure (preeclampsia) and a related condition called HELLP syndrome that can damage the liver. Babies with trichothiodystrophy are at increased risk of premature birth, low birth weight, and slow growth. Most children with trichothiodystrophy have short stature compared to others their age. 

The signs and symptoms of trichothiodystrophy vary widely. Mild cases may involve only the hair. More severe cases also cause delayed development, significant intellectual disability, and recurrent infections; severely affected individuals may survive only into infancy or early childhood.

In people with trichothiodystrophy, tests show that the hair is lacking sulfur-containing proteins that normally gives hair its strength. A cross section of a cut hair shows alternating light and dark banding that has been described as a "tiger tail."

Trichothiodystrophy, commonly called TTD, is a rare inherited condition that affects many parts of the body. The hallmark of this condition is hair that is sparse and easily broken.  [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
355730
Concept ID:
C1866504
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Trichohepatoenteric syndrome 1

Trichohepatoenteric syndrome (THES), generally considered to be a neonatal enteropathy, is characterized by intractable diarrhea (seen in almost all affected children), woolly hair (seen in all), intrauterine growth restriction, facial dysmorphism, and short stature. Additional findings include poorly characterized immunodeficiency, recurrent infections, skin abnormalities, and liver disease. Mild intellectual disability (ID) is seen in about 50% of affected individuals. Less common findings include congenital heart defects and platelet anomalies. To date 52 affected individuals have been reported. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1644087
Concept ID:
C4551982
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Trichothiodystrophy 4, nonphotosensitive

Trichothiodystrophy is a rare autosomal recessive disorder in which patients have brittle, sulfur-deficient hair that displays a diagnostic alternating light and dark banding pattern, called 'tiger tail banding,' under polarizing microscopy. TTD patients display a wide variety of clinical features, including cutaneous, neurologic, and growth abnormalities. Common additional clinical features are ichthyosis, intellectual/developmental disabilities, decreased fertility, abnormal characteristics at birth, ocular abnormalities, short stature, and infections. There are both photosensitive and nonphotosensitive forms of the disorder (summary by Faghri et al., 2008). Sabinas brittle hair syndrome (211390) is another form of nonphotosensitive TTD. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of trichothiodystrophy, see 601675. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
272036
Concept ID:
C1313961
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Trichohepatoenteric syndrome 2

Trichohepatoenteric syndrome (THES), generally considered to be a neonatal enteropathy, is characterized by intractable diarrhea (seen in almost all affected children), woolly hair (seen in all), intrauterine growth restriction, facial dysmorphism, and short stature. Additional findings include poorly characterized immunodeficiency, recurrent infections, skin abnormalities, and liver disease. Mild intellectual disability (ID) is seen in about 50% of affected individuals. Less common findings include congenital heart defects and platelet anomalies. To date 52 affected individuals have been reported. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
482919
Concept ID:
C3281289
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Trichothiodystrophy 3, photosensitive

Trichothiodystrophy is a rare autosomal recessive disorder in which patients have brittle, sulfur-deficient hair that displays a diagnostic alternating light and dark banding pattern, called 'tiger tail banding,' under polarizing microscopy. TTD patients display a wide variety of clinical features, including cutaneous, neurologic, and growth abnormalities. Common additional clinical features are ichthyosis, intellectual/developmental disabilities, decreased fertility, abnormal characteristics at birth, ocular abnormalities, short stature, and infections. There are both photosensitive and nonphotosensitive forms of the disorder. Patients with TTD have not been reported to have a predisposition to cancer (summary by Faghri et al., 2008). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of TTD, see 601675. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
865608
Concept ID:
C4017171
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Follicular atrophoderma and basal cell epitheliomata

Bazex-Dupre-Christol syndrome (BDCS) is an X-linked dominant disorder characterized by a triad of congenital hypotrichosis, follicular atrophoderma affecting the dorsa of the hands and feet, the face, and extensor surfaces of the elbows or knees, and the development of basal cell neoplasms, including basal cell nevi and basal cell carcinomas from the second decade onward (Yung and Newton-Bishop, 2005). Rombo syndrome (180730) has similar features, but shows autosomal dominant inheritance. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
87539
Concept ID:
C0346104
Neoplastic Process
8.

Ectodermal dysplasia 12, hypohidrotic/hair/tooth/nail type

Some ectodermal dysplasias are here classified as congenital disorders characterized by abnormal development in 2 or more ectodermal structures (hair, nails, teeth, and sweat glands) without other systemic findings. Hypohidrotic, or anhidrotic, ectodermal dysplasia (HED/EDA) is characterized by a triad of signs comprising sparse hair (hypotrichosis), abnormal or missing teeth (anodontia or hypodontia), and inability to sweat (anhidrosis or hypohidrosis). Typical clinical manifestations also include dryness of the skin, eyes, airways, and mucous membranes presumably due to the defective development of several exocrine glands. Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia can be associated with dysmorphic features (forehead bumps, rings under the eyes, everted nose, and prominent lips) and occasionally with absent nipples (summary by Cluzeau et al., 2011). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
934583
Concept ID:
C4310616
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Onychotrichodysplasia and neutropenia

MedGen UID:
340512
Concept ID:
C1850316
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Trichothiodystrophy 8, nonphotosensitive

Nonphotosensitive trichothiodystrophy-8 (TTD8) is characterized by brittle hair and nails and scaly skin, accompanied by failure to thrive, microcephaly, and neuromotor developmental delay. Hair analysis shows low sulfur content, and skin fibroblasts demonstrate normal DNA repair efficiency after UV irradiation (Botta et al., 2021). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of trichothiodystrophy, see TTD1 (601675). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1794267
Concept ID:
C5562057
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Wooly hair, autosomal recessive 3

Any wooly hair in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the KRT25 gene. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
902275
Concept ID:
C4225214
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Pili torti-developmental delay-neurological abnormalities syndrome

Abnormal hair, joint laxity, and developmental delay (HJDD) is characterized by normal hair at birth that gradually becomes sparse, twisted, brittle, and easily broken, with pili torti and trichorrhexis nodosa observed on light microscopy. Other features include increased joint mobility and cognitive delay (summary by Sharma et al., 2019). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
342358
Concept ID:
C1849811
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Neurodegeneration, childhood-onset, with hypotonia, respiratory insufficiency, and brain imaging abnormalities

Childhood-onset neurodegeneration with hypotonia, respiratory insufficiency, and brain imaging abnormalities (CONRIBA) is characterized by severe global developmental delay apparent in infancy or early childhood. Affected individuals have hypotonia with impaired motor development, respiratory insufficiency, and feeding difficulties requiring intervention. Intellectual and speech development is also delayed, and most have visual defects, including cortical visual blindness, nystagmus, and esotropia. The disorder is progressive, as manifest by developmental regression consistent with neurodegeneration. Although overt seizures are not observed, some patients may have episodic hypertonia or apnea, and EEG may show nonspecific abnormalities. Brain imaging shows unique diffusion restriction signal abnormalities affecting the brainstem, cerebellum, and corticospinal tracts. Early death may occur (summary by Polovitskaya et al., 2020). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1781967
Concept ID:
C5543020
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Trichorrhexis nodosa

Trichorrhexis nodosa is the formation of nodes along the hair shaft through which breakage readily occurs. It is thus a focal defect in the hair fiber that is characterized by thickening or weak points (nodes) that cause the hair to break off easily. The result is defective, abnormally fragile hair. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
82668
Concept ID:
C0263485
Disease or Syndrome
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