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Items: 14

1.

Pyruvate kinase deficiency of red cells

Red cell pyruvate kinase deficiency is the most common cause of hereditary nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia. PK deficiency is also the most frequent enzyme abnormality of the glycolytic pathway (Zanella et al., 2005). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
473069
Concept ID:
C0340968
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Anemia, nonspherocytic hemolytic, due to G6PD deficiency

G6PD deficiency is the most common genetic cause of chronic and drug-, food-, or infection-induced hemolytic anemia. G6PD catalyzes the first reaction in the pentose phosphate pathway, which is the only NADPH-generation process in mature red cells; therefore, defense against oxidative damage is dependent on G6PD. Most G6PD-deficient patients are asymptomatic throughout their life, but G6PD deficiency can be life-threatening. The most common clinical manifestations of G6PD deficiency are neonatal jaundice and acute hemolytic anemia, which in most patients is triggered by an exogenous agent, e.g., primaquine or fava beans. Acute hemolysis is characterized by fatigue, back pain, anemia, and jaundice. Increased unconjugated bilirubin, lactate dehydrogenase, and reticulocytosis are markers of the disorder. The striking similarity between the areas where G6PD deficiency is common and Plasmodium falciparum malaria (see 611162) is endemic provided evidence that G6PD deficiency confers resistance against malaria (summary by Cappellini and Fiorelli, 2008). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
403555
Concept ID:
C2720289
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Gilbert syndrome

The hereditary hyperbilirubinemias include (1) those resulting in predominantly unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia: Gilbert or Arias syndrome, Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I (218800), and Crigler-Najjar syndrome type II (606785); and (2) those resulting in predominantly conjugated hyperbilirubinemia: Dubin-Johnson syndrome (237500), Rotor syndrome (237450), and several forms of intrahepatic cholestasis (147480, 211600, 214950, 243300) (Wolkoff et al., 1983). Detailed studies show that patients with Gilbert syndrome have reduced activity of bilirubin glucuronosyltransferase (Bosma et al., 1995, Koiwai et al., 1995). Genetic Heterogeneity of Hyperbilirubinemia See also Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I (HBLRCN1; 218800), Crigler-Najjar syndrome type II (HBLRCN2; 606785), and transient familial neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (HBLRTFN; 237900), all caused by mutation in the UGT1A1 gene (191740) on chromosome 2q37; Dubin-Johnson syndrome (DJS, HBLRDJ; 237500), caused by mutation in the ABCC2 gene (601107) on chromosome 10q24; and Rotor syndrome (HBLRR; 237450), caused by digenic mutation in the SLCO1B1 (604843) and SLCOB3 (605495) genes, both on chromosome 12p. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
4891
Concept ID:
C0017551
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Crigler-Najjar syndrome type 1

Crigler-Najjar syndrome is a severe condition characterized by high levels of a toxic substance called bilirubin in the blood (hyperbilirubinemia). Bilirubin is produced when red blood cells are broken down. This substance is removed from the body only after it undergoes a chemical reaction in the liver, which converts the toxic form of bilirubin (called unconjugated bilirubin) to a nontoxic form called conjugated bilirubin. People with Crigler-Najjar syndrome have a buildup of unconjugated bilirubin in their blood (unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia).

Bilirubin has an orange-yellow tint, and hyperbilirubinemia causes yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes (jaundice). In Crigler-Najjar syndrome, jaundice is apparent at birth or in infancy. Severe unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia can lead to a condition called kernicterus, which is a form of brain damage caused by the accumulation of unconjugated bilirubin in the brain and nerve tissues. Babies with kernicterus are often extremely tired (lethargic) and may have weak muscle tone (hypotonia). These babies may experience episodes of increased muscle tone (hypertonia) and arching of their backs. Kernicterus can lead to other neurological problems, including involuntary writhing movements of the body (choreoathetosis), hearing problems, or intellectual disability.

Crigler-Najjar syndrome is divided into two types. Type 1 (CN1) is very severe, and affected individuals can die in childhood due to kernicterus, although with proper treatment, they may survive longer. Type 2 (CN2) is less severe. People with CN2 are less likely to develop kernicterus, and most affected individuals survive into adulthood. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
41346
Concept ID:
C0010324
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Crigler-Najjar syndrome, type II

The hereditary hyperbilirubinemias include (1) those resulting in predominantly unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia: Gilbert or Arias syndrome, Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I, and Crigler-Najjar syndrome type II; and (2) those resulting in predominantly conjugated hyperbilirubinemia: Dubin-Johnson syndrome (237500), Rotor syndrome (237450), and several forms of intrahepatic cholestasis (147480, 211600, 214950, 243300) (Wolkoff et al., 1983). Detailed studies show that patients with Crigler-Najjar syndrome type II have reduced activity of bilirubin glucuronosyltransferase (Labrune et al., 1989, Seppen et al., 1994). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
419718
Concept ID:
C2931132
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Hypermanganesemia with dystonia, polycythemia, and cirrhosis

Hypermanganesemia with dystonia 1 (HMNDYT1) is characterized by the following: A movement disorder resulting from manganese accumulation in the basal ganglia. Whole-blood manganese concentrations that often exceed 2000 nmol/L (normal: <320 nmol/L). Polycythemia. Hepatomegaly with variable hepatic fibrosis/cirrhosis. Neurologic findings can manifest in childhood (ages 2-15 years) as four-limb dystonia, leading to a characteristic high-stepping gait ("cock-walk gait"), dysarthria, fine tremor, and bradykinesia or on occasion spastic paraplegia; or in adulthood as parkinsonism (shuffling gait, rigidity, bradykinesia, hypomimia, and monotone speech) unresponsive to L-dopa treatment. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
412958
Concept ID:
C2750442
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type 4

Congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type IV (CDAN4) is an autosomal dominant red blood cell disorder characterized by ineffective erythropoiesis and hemolysis resulting in anemia. Circulating erythroblasts and erythroblasts in the bone marrow show various morphologic abnormalities. Affected individuals with CDAN4 also have increased levels of fetal hemoglobin (summary by Arnaud et al., 2010). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital dyserythropoietic anemia, see CDAN1 (224120). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
462276
Concept ID:
C3150926
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Rh-null, regulator type

The RH-null phenotype designates rare individuals whose red blood cells lack all Rh antigens. Two RH-null types, the regulator type (RHNR) and the amorph type (RHNA; 617970), arising from independent genetic mechanisms have been distinguished. The regulator type is caused by mutation in the RHAG gene (180297), which encodes the Rh50 glycoprotein that is crucial for the surface disposition of Rh antigens. The amorph type arises from mutations at the RH locus itself that silence Rh expression. The RH locus contains the RHD (111680) and RHCE (111700) genes tandemly arranged at chromosome 1p36-p34. Four genes must therefore be silenced to produce the RH-null phenotype. The absence of the D antigen, produced by the RHD gene, is common in the human population; the D-negative phenotype may result from deletion or genetic alteration of the RHD gene. The absence of D antigen defines the Rh-negative status of the human erythrocyte (summary by Huang et al., 2000). Whereas Rh-null cells lack all Rh antigens, Rh-mod cells display a markedly reduced antigen expression. Clinically, Rh-deficient individuals exhibit a mild to moderate chronic hemolytic anemia accompanied by a varying degree of spherostomatocytosis (summary by Huang et al., 1999). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
340309
Concept ID:
C1849387
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Hypercholanemia, familial, 2

Familial hypercholanemia-2 (FHCA2) is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism characterized by persistently increased plasma levels of conjugated bile salts apparent from infancy. Most patients are asymptomatic and have no liver dysfunction, although some neonates may have transient jaundice or transiently elevated liver enzymes. These abnormalities improve with age. The bile acid defect can result in impaired absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, including D and K, causing decreased bone mineral density or prolonged prothrobin time (PT) (summary by Deng et al., 2016 and Liu et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of FHCA, see FHCA1 (607748). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1780531
Concept ID:
C5543243
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Rajab interstitial lung disease with brain calcifications 1

Rajab interstitial lung disease with brain calcifications-1 (RILCBC1) is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder with a highly variable phenotype. Most patients present in infancy or early childhood with poor growth and interstitial lung disease, which may lead to death. Some may also have liver, skeletal, and renal abnormalities, and most have intracranial calcifications on brain imaging. Some may have early impaired motor development, but most have normal cognitive development (summary by Xu et al., 2018). Genetic Heterogeneity of Rajab Interstitial Lung Disease with Brain Calcifications Also see Rajab interstitial disease with brain calcifications-2 (RILDBC2; 619013), caused by mutation in the FARSA gene (602918). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1750003
Concept ID:
C5436276
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Extrahepatic biliary atresia

Biliary atresia is a disorder of infants in which there is progressive obliteration or discontinuity of the extrahepatic biliary system, resulting in obstruction of bile flow. Untreated, the resulting cholestasis leads to progressive conjugated hyperbilirubinemia, cirrhosis, and hepatic failure (Bates et al., 1998). Most patients require liver transplantation within the first year of life (Leyva-Vega et al., 2010). See also Alagille syndrome (118450), which includes biliary atresia as a feature. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1621383
Concept ID:
C4520983
Congenital Abnormality
12.

Branchial arch abnormalities, choanal atresia, athelia, hearing loss, and hypothyroidism syndrome

Branchial arch abnormalities, choanal atresia, athelia, hearing loss, and hypothyroidism syndrome (BCAHH) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by choanal atresia, athelia or hypoplastic nipples, branchial sinus abnormalities, neck pits, lacrimal duct anomalies, hearing loss, external ear malformations, and thyroid abnormalities. Additional features may include developmental delay, impaired intellectual development, and growth failure/retardation (summary by Cuvertino et al., 2020 and Baldridge et al., 2020). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1824056
Concept ID:
C5774283
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Fibrosis, neurodegeneration, and cerebral angiomatosis

Fibrosis, neurodegeneration, and cerebral angiomatosis (FINCA) is characterized by severe progressive cerebropulmonary symptoms, resulting in death in infancy from respiratory failure. Features include malabsorption, progressive growth failure, recurrent infections, chronic hemolytic anemia, and transient liver dysfunction. Neuropathology shows increased angiomatosis-like leptomeningeal, cortical, and superficial white matter vascularization and congestion, vacuolar degeneration and myelin loss in white matter, as well as neuronal degeneration. Interstitial fibrosis and granuloma-like lesions are seen in the lungs, and there is hepatomegaly with steatosis and collagen accumulation (Uusimaa et al., 2018). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1648312
Concept ID:
C4748939
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia

An increased amount of unconjugated (indirect) bilurubin in the blood. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
82786
Concept ID:
C0268306
Disease or Syndrome
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