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1.

Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome

Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is a congenital multiple-anomaly / cognitive impairment syndrome caused by an abnormality in cholesterol metabolism resulting from deficiency of the enzyme 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) reductase. It is characterized by prenatal and postnatal growth restriction, microcephaly, moderate-to-severe intellectual disability, and multiple major and minor malformations. The malformations include distinctive facial features, cleft palate, cardiac defects, underdeveloped external genitalia in males, postaxial polydactyly, and 2-3 syndactyly of the toes. The clinical spectrum is wide; individuals with normal development and only minor malformations have been described. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
61231
Concept ID:
C0175694
Disease or Syndrome
2.

DiGeorge syndrome

Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) can present with a wide range of features that are highly variable, even within families. The major clinical manifestations of 22q11.2DS include congenital heart disease, particularly conotruncal malformations (ventricular septal defect, tetralogy of Fallot, interrupted aortic arch, and truncus arteriosus), palatal abnormalities (velopharyngeal incompetence, submucosal cleft palate, bifid uvula, and cleft palate), immune deficiency, characteristic facial features, and learning difficulties. Hearing loss can be sensorineural and/or conductive. Laryngotracheoesophageal, gastrointestinal, ophthalmologic, central nervous system, skeletal, and genitourinary anomalies also occur. Psychiatric illness and autoimmune disorders are more common in individuals with 22q11.2DS. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
4297
Concept ID:
C0012236
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 1 with or without anosmia

Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency (IGD) is characterized by inappropriately low serum concentrations of the gonadotropins LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in the presence of low circulating concentrations of sex steroids. IGD is associated with a normal sense of smell (normosmic IGD) in approximately 40% of affected individuals and an impaired sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome) in approximately 60%. IGD can first become apparent in infancy, adolescence, or adulthood. Infant boys with congenital IGD often have micropenis and cryptorchidism. Adolescents and adults with IGD have clinical evidence of hypogonadism and incomplete sexual maturation on physical examination. Adult males with IGD tend to have prepubertal testicular volume (i.e., <4 mL), absence of secondary sexual features (e.g., facial and axillary hair growth, deepening of the voice), decreased muscle mass, diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. Adult females have little or no breast development and primary amenorrhea. Although skeletal maturation is delayed, the rate of linear growth is usually normal except for the absence of a distinct pubertal growth spurt. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
295872
Concept ID:
C1563719
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Branchiootorenal syndrome 1

Branchiootorenal spectrum disorder (BORSD) is characterized by malformations of the outer, middle, and inner ear associated with conductive, sensorineural, or mixed hearing impairment, branchial fistulae and cysts, and renal malformations ranging from mild renal hypoplasia to bilateral renal agenesis. Some individuals progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) later in life. Extreme variability can be observed in the presence, severity, and type of branchial arch, otologic, audiologic, and renal abnormality from right side to left side in an affected individual and also among individuals in the same family. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1632634
Concept ID:
C4551702
Disease or Syndrome
5.

LEOPARD syndrome 1

Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NSML) is a condition in which the cardinal features consist of lentigines, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, short stature, pectus deformity, and dysmorphic facial features including widely spaced eyes and ptosis. Multiple lentigines present as dispersed flat, black-brown macules, mostly on the face, neck, and upper part of the trunk with sparing of the mucosa. In general, lentigines do not appear until age four to five years but then increase to the thousands by puberty. Some individuals with NSML do not exhibit lentigines. Approximately 85% of affected individuals have heart defects, including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (typically appearing during infancy and sometimes progressive) and pulmonary valve stenosis. Postnatal growth restriction resulting in short stature occurs in fewer than 50% of affected persons, although most affected individuals have a height that is less than the 25th centile for age. Sensorineural hearing deficits, present in approximately 20% of affected individuals, are poorly characterized. Intellectual disability, typically mild, is observed in approximately 30% of persons with NSML. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
1631694
Concept ID:
C4551484
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Renal cysts and diabetes syndrome

The 17q12 recurrent deletion syndrome is characterized by variable combinations of the three following findings: structural or functional abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract, maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 5 (MODY5), and neurodevelopmental or neuropsychiatric disorders (e.g., developmental delay, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, anxiety, and bipolar disorder). Using a method of data analysis that avoids ascertainment bias, the authors determined that multicystic kidneys and other structural and functional kidney anomalies occur in 85% to 90% of affected individuals, MODY5 in approximately 40%, and some degree of developmental delay or learning disability in approximately 50%. MODY5 is most often diagnosed before age 25 years (range: age 10-50 years). [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
96569
Concept ID:
C0431693
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Fanconi anemia complementation group L

Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and/or lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
854018
Concept ID:
C3469528
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Child syndrome

The NSDHL-related disorders include: CHILD (congenital hemidysplasia with ichthyosiform nevus and limb defects) syndrome, an X-linked condition that is usually male lethal during gestation and thus predominantly affects females; and CK syndrome, an X-linked disorder that affects males. CHILD syndrome is characterized by unilateral distribution of ichthyosiform (yellow scaly) skin lesions and ipsilateral limb defects that range from shortening of the metacarpals and phalanges to absence of the entire limb. Intellect is usually normal. The ichthyosiform skin lesions are usually present at birth or in the first weeks of life; new lesions can develop in later life. Nail changes are also common. The heart, lung, and kidneys can also be involved. CK syndrome (named for the initials of the original proband) is characterized by mild to severe cognitive impairment and behavior problems (aggression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and irritability). All affected males reported have developed seizures in infancy and have cerebral cortical malformations and microcephaly. All have distinctive facial features, a thin habitus, and relatively long, thin fingers and toes. Some have scoliosis and kyphosis. Strabismus is common. Optic atrophy is also reported. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
82697
Concept ID:
C0265267
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Nager syndrome

Nager syndrome is the prototype for a group of disorders collectively referred to as the acrofacial dysostoses (AFDs), which are characterized by malformation of the craniofacial skeleton and the limbs. The major facial features of Nager syndrome include downslanted palpebral fissures, midface retrusion, and micrognathia, the latter of which often requires the placement of a tracheostomy in early childhood. Limb defects typically involve the anterior (radial) elements of the upper limbs and manifest as small or absent thumbs, triphalangeal thumbs, radial hypoplasia or aplasia, and radioulnar synostosis. Phocomelia of the upper limbs and, occasionally, lower-limb defects have also been reported. The presence of anterior upper-limb defects and the typical lack of lower-limb involvement distinguishes Nager syndrome from Miller syndrome (263750), another rare AFD; however, distinguishing Nager syndrome from other AFDs, including Miller syndrome, can be challenging (summary by Bernier et al., 2012). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
120519
Concept ID:
C0265245
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism 3 with or without anosmia

Isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) deficiency (IGD) is characterized by inappropriately low serum concentrations of the gonadotropins LH (luteinizing hormone) and FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in the presence of low circulating concentrations of sex steroids. IGD is associated with a normal sense of smell (normosmic IGD) in approximately 40% of affected individuals and an impaired sense of smell (Kallmann syndrome) in approximately 60%. IGD can first become apparent in infancy, adolescence, or adulthood. Infant boys with congenital IGD often have micropenis and cryptorchidism. Adolescents and adults with IGD have clinical evidence of hypogonadism and incomplete sexual maturation on physical examination. Adult males with IGD tend to have prepubertal testicular volume (i.e., <4 mL), absence of secondary sexual features (e.g., facial and axillary hair growth, deepening of the voice), decreased muscle mass, diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, and infertility. Adult females have little or no breast development and primary amenorrhea. Although skeletal maturation is delayed, the rate of linear growth is usually normal except for the absence of a distinct pubertal growth spurt. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
763392
Concept ID:
C3550478
Disease or Syndrome
11.

COACH syndrome 1

Any COACH syndrome in which the cause of the disease is a variation in the TMEM67 gene. [from MONDO]

MedGen UID:
1769861
Concept ID:
C5435651
Disease or Syndrome
12.

IFAP syndrome 1, with or without BRESHECK syndrome

The IFAP/BRESHECK syndrome is an X-linked multiple congenital anomaly disorder with variable severity. The classic triad, which defines IFAP, is ichthyosis follicularis, atrichia, and photophobia. Some patients have additional features, including mental retardation, brain anomalies, Hirschsprung disease, corneal opacifications, kidney dysplasia, cryptorchidism, cleft palate, and skeletal malformations, particularly of the vertebrae, which constitutes BRESHECK syndrome (summary by Naiki et al., 2012). Genetic Heterogeneity of IFAP Syndrome IFAP syndrome-2 (IFAP2; 619016) is caused by heterozygous mutation in the SREBF1 gene (184756) on chromosome 17p11. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1746744
Concept ID:
C5399971
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Acrodysostosis 1 with or without hormone resistance

Acrodysostosis-1 (ACRDYS1) is a form of skeletal dysplasia characterized by short stature, severe brachydactyly, facial dysostosis, and nasal hypoplasia. Affected individuals often have advanced bone age and obesity. Laboratory studies show resistance to multiple hormones, including parathyroid, thyrotropin, calcitonin, growth hormone-releasing hormone, and gonadotropin (summary by Linglart et al., 2011). However, not all patients show endocrine abnormalities (Lee et al., 2012). Genetic Heterogeneity of Acrodysostosis See also ACRDYS2 (614613), caused by mutation in the PDE4D gene (600129) on chromosome 5q12. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
477858
Concept ID:
C3276228
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome due to tenascin-X deficiency

The clinical features of TNXB-related classical-like Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (clEDS) strongly resemble those seen in classic EDS (cEDS). Affected individuals have generalized joint hypermobility, hyperextensible skin, and easy bruising, but do not have atrophic scarring, as is seen in cEDS. There are also several other distinguishing clinical findings including anomalies of feet and hands, edema in the legs in the absence of cardiac failure, mild proximal and distal muscle weakness, and axonal polyneuropathy. Vaginal, uterine, and/or rectal prolapse can also occur. Tissue fragility with resulting rupture of the trachea, esophagus, and small and large bowel has been reported. Vascular fragility causing a major event occurs in a minority of individuals. Significant variability in the severity of musculoskeletal symptoms and their effect on day-to-day function between unrelated affected individuals as well as among affected individuals in the same family has been reported. Fatigue has been reported in more than half of affected individuals. The severity of symptoms in middle-aged individuals can range from joint hypermobility without complications to being wheelchair-bound as a result of severe and painful foot deformities and fatigue. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
336244
Concept ID:
C1848029
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Klippel-Feil syndrome 1, autosomal dominant

Klippel-Feil syndrome is a bone disorder characterized by the abnormal joining (fusion) of two or more spinal bones in the neck (cervical vertebrae). The vertebral fusion is present from birth. Three major features result from this vertebral fusion: a short neck, the resulting appearance of a low hairline at the back of the head, and a limited range of motion in the neck. Most affected people have one or two of these characteristic features. Less than half of all individuals with Klippel-Feil syndrome have all three classic features of this condition.

In people with Klippel-Feil syndrome, the fused vertebrae can limit the range of movement of the neck and back as well as lead to chronic headaches and muscle pain in the neck and back that range in severity. People with minimal bone involvement often have fewer problems compared to individuals with several vertebrae affected. The shortened neck can cause a slight difference in the size and shape of the right and left sides of the face (facial asymmetry). Trauma to the spine, such as a fall or car accident, can aggravate problems in the fused area. Fusion of the vertebrae can lead to nerve damage in the head, neck, or back. Over time, individuals with Klippel-Feil syndrome can develop a narrowing of the spinal canal (spinal stenosis) in the neck, which can compress and damage the spinal cord. Rarely, spinal nerve abnormalities may cause abnormal sensations or involuntary movements in people with Klippel-Feil syndrome. Affected individuals may develop a painful joint disorder called osteoarthritis around the areas of fused bone or experience painful involuntary tensing of the neck muscles (cervical dystonia). In addition to the fused cervical bones, people with this condition may have abnormalities in other vertebrae. Many people with Klippel-Feil syndrome have abnormal side-to-side curvature of the spine (scoliosis) due to malformation of the vertebrae; fusion of additional vertebrae below the neck may also occur.

People with Klippel-Feil syndrome may have a wide variety of other features in addition to their spine abnormalities. Some people with this condition have hearing difficulties, eye abnormalities, an opening in the roof of the mouth (cleft palate), genitourinary problems such as abnormal kidneys or reproductive organs, heart abnormalities, or lung defects that can cause breathing problems. Affected individuals may have other skeletal defects including arms or legs of unequal length (limb length discrepancy), which can result in misalignment of the hips or knees. Additionally, the shoulder blades may be underdeveloped so that they sit abnormally high on the back, a condition called Sprengel deformity. Rarely, structural brain abnormalities or a type of birth defect that occurs during the development of the brain and spinal cord (neural tube defect) can occur in people with Klippel-Feil syndrome.

In some cases, Klippel-Feil syndrome occurs as a feature of another disorder or syndrome, such as Wildervanck syndrome or hemifacial microsomia. In these instances, affected individuals have the signs and symptoms of both Klippel-Feil syndrome and the additional disorder. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
396196
Concept ID:
C1861689
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Cutis laxa, autosomal dominant 3

Autosomal dominant cutis laxa-3 is characterized by thin skin with visible veins and wrinkles, cataract or corneal clouding, clenched fingers, pre- and postnatal growth retardation, and moderate intellectual disability. In addition, patients exhibit a combination of muscular hypotonia with brisk muscle reflexes (Fischer-Zirnsak et al., 2015). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal dominant cutis laxa, see ARCL1 (123700). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
899774
Concept ID:
C4225268
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Diamond-Blackfan anemia 11

Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA) is characterized by a profound normochromic and usually macrocytic anemia with normal leukocytes and platelets, congenital malformations in up to 50%, and growth deficiency in 30% of affected individuals. The hematologic complications occur in 90% of affected individuals during the first year of life. The phenotypic spectrum ranges from a mild form (e.g., mild anemia or no anemia with only subtle erythroid abnormalities, physical malformations without anemia) to a severe form of fetal anemia resulting in nonimmune hydrops fetalis. DBA is associated with an increased risk for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and solid tumors including osteogenic sarcoma. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
766956
Concept ID:
C3554042
Disease or Syndrome
18.

BNAR syndrome

FREM1 autosomal recessive disorders include: Manitoba oculotrichoanal (MOTA) syndrome, bifid nose with or without anorectal and renal anomalies (BNAR syndrome), and isolated congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT). MOTA syndrome is characterized by an aberrant hairline (unilateral or bilateral wedge-shaped extension of the anterior hairline from the temple region to the ipsilateral eye) and anomalies of the eyes (widely spaced eyes, anophthalmia/microphthalmia and/or cryptophthalmos, colobomas of the upper eyelid, and corneopalpebral synechiae), nose (bifid or broad nasal tip), abdominal wall (omphalocele or umbilical hernia), and anus (stenosis and/or anterior displacement of the anal opening). The manifestations and degree of severity vary even among affected members of the same family. Growth and psychomotor development are normal. BNAR syndrome is characterized by a bifid or wide nasal tip, anorectal anomalies, and renal malformations (e.g., renal agenesis, renal dysplasia). Typically the eye manifestations of MOTA syndrome are absent. FREM1-CAKUT was identified in one individual with bilateral vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and a second individual with VUR and renal hypodysplasia. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
413305
Concept ID:
C2750433
Disease or Syndrome
19.

COG6-ongenital disorder of glycosylation

CDG2L is an autosomal recessive multisystem disorder apparent from birth or early infancy. It is characterized by poor growth, gastrointestinal and liver abnormalities, delayed psychomotor development, hypotonia, recurrent infections, hematologic abnormalities, increased bleeding tendency, and hyperhidrosis or hyperkeratosis. More variable features include nonspecific dysmorphic facial features and cardiac septal defects. The disorder often results in death in infancy or the first years of life (summary by Rymen et al., 2015). For a general discussion of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065) and CDG2A (212066). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
766144
Concept ID:
C3553230
Disease or Syndrome
20.

7q11.23 microduplication syndrome

7q11.23 duplication syndrome is characterized by delayed motor, speech, and social skills in early childhood; neurologic abnormalities (hypotonia, adventitious movements, and abnormal gait and station); speech sound disorders including motor speech disorders (childhood apraxia of speech and/or dysarthria) and phonologic disorders; behavior problems including anxiety disorders (especially social anxiety disorder [social phobia]), selective mutism, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, oppositional disorders, physical aggression, and autism spectrum disorder; and intellectual disability in some individuals. Distinctive facial features are common. Cardiovascular disease includes dilatation of the ascending aorta. Approximately 30% of individuals have one or more congenital anomalies. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
347562
Concept ID:
C1857844
Disease or Syndrome
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