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1.

Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome type 1

Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS), caused by defective lymphocyte homeostasis, is characterized by the following: Non-malignant lymphoproliferation (lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly with or without hypersplenism) that often improves with age. Autoimmune disease, mostly directed toward blood cells. Lifelong increased risk for both Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. In ALPS-FAS (the most common and best-characterized type of ALPS, associated with heterozygous germline pathogenic variants in FAS), non-malignant lymphoproliferation typically manifests in the first years of life, inexplicably waxes and wanes, and then often decreases without treatment in the second decade of life; in many affected individuals, however, neither splenomegaly nor the overall expansion of lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood decreases. Although autoimmunity is often not present at the time of diagnosis or at the time of the most extensive lymphoproliferation, autoantibodies can be detected before autoimmune disease manifests clinically. In ALPS-FAS caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous (biallelic) pathogenic variants in FAS, severe lymphoproliferation occurs before, at, or shortly after birth, and usually results in death at an early age. ALPS-sFAS, resulting from somatic FAS pathogenic variants in selected cell populations, notably the alpha/beta double-negative T cells (a/ß-DNT cells), appears to be similar to ALPS-FAS resulting from heterozygous germline pathogenic variants in FAS, although lower incidence of splenectomy and lower lymphocyte counts have been reported in ALPS-sFAS and no cases of lymphoma have yet been published. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
231300
Concept ID:
C1328840
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Gastrointestinal stromal tumor

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are mesenchymal tumors found in the gastrointestinal tract that originate from the interstitial cells of Cajal, the pacemaker cells that regulate peristalsis in the digestive tract. Approximately 70% of GISTs develop in the stomach, 20% in the small intestine, and less than 10% in the esophagus, colon, and rectum. GISTs are typically more cellular than other gastrointestinal sarcomas. They occur predominantly in patients who are 40 to 70 years old but in rare cases may occur in younger persons (Miettinen et al., 1999, 1999). GISTs are also seen as a feature in several syndromes, e.g., neurofibromatosis-1 (NF1; 162200) and GIST-plus syndrome (175510). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
116049
Concept ID:
C0238198
Neoplastic Process
3.

Nager syndrome

Nager syndrome is the prototype for a group of disorders collectively referred to as the acrofacial dysostoses (AFDs), which are characterized by malformation of the craniofacial skeleton and the limbs. The major facial features of Nager syndrome include downslanted palpebral fissures, midface retrusion, and micrognathia, the latter of which often requires the placement of a tracheostomy in early childhood. Limb defects typically involve the anterior (radial) elements of the upper limbs and manifest as small or absent thumbs, triphalangeal thumbs, radial hypoplasia or aplasia, and radioulnar synostosis. Phocomelia of the upper limbs and, occasionally, lower-limb defects have also been reported. The presence of anterior upper-limb defects and the typical lack of lower-limb involvement distinguishes Nager syndrome from Miller syndrome (263750), another rare AFD; however, distinguishing Nager syndrome from other AFDs, including Miller syndrome, can be challenging (summary by Bernier et al., 2012). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
120519
Concept ID:
C0265245
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Netherton syndrome

Netherton syndrome (NETH) is a rare and severe autosomal recessive skin disorder characterized by congenital erythroderma, a specific hair-shaft abnormality, and atopic manifestations with high IgE levels. Generalized scaly erythroderma is apparent at or soon after birth and usually persists. Scalp hair is sparse and brittle with a characteristic 'bamboo' shape under light microscopic examination due to invagination of the distal part of the hair shaft to its proximal part. Atopic manifestations include eczema-like rashes, atopic dermatitis, pruritus, hay fever, angioedema, urticaria, high levels of IgE in the serum, and hypereosinophilia. Life-threatening complications are frequent during the neonatal period, including hypernatremic dehydration, hypothermia, extreme weight loss, bronchopneumonia, and sepsis. During childhood, failure to thrive is common as a result of malnutrition, metabolic disorders, chronic erythroderma, persistent cutaneous infections, or enteropathy (summary by Bitoun et al., 2002). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1802991
Concept ID:
C5574950
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome 1

Cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes (CAPS) are a group of conditions that have overlapping signs and symptoms and the same genetic cause. The group includes three conditions known as familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome type 1 (FCAS1), Muckle-Wells syndrome (MWS), and neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disorder (NOMID). These conditions were once thought to be distinct disorders but are now considered to be part of the same condition spectrum. FCAS1 is the least severe form of CAPS, MWS is intermediate in severity, and NOMID is the most severe form.

The signs and symptoms of CAPS affect multiple body systems. Generally, CAPS are characterized by periodic episodes of skin rash, fever, and joint pain. These episodes can be triggered by exposure to cold temperatures, fatigue, other stressors, or they may arise spontaneously. Episodes can last from a few hours to several days. These episodes typically begin in infancy or early childhood and persist throughout life.

While the CAPS spectrum shares similar signs and symptoms, the individual conditions tend to have distinct patterns of features. People with FCAS1 are particularly sensitive to the cold, and exposure to cold temperatures can trigger a painful or burning rash. The rash usually affects the torso and limbs but may spread to the rest of the body. In addition to fever and joint pain, other possible symptoms include muscle aches, chills, drowsiness, eye redness, headache, and nausea.

Individuals with MWS develop the typical periodic episodes of skin rash, fever, and joint pain after cold exposure, although episodes may occur spontaneously or all the time. Additionally, they can develop progressive hearing loss in their teenage years. Other features of MWS include skin lesions or kidney damage from abnormal deposits of a protein called amyloid (amyloidosis).

In people with NOMID, the signs and symptoms of the condition are usually present from birth and persists throughout life. In addition to skin rash and fever, affected individuals may have joint inflammation, swelling, and joint deformities called contractures that may restrict movement. People with NOMID typically have headaches, seizures, and cognitive impairment resulting from chronic meningitis, which is inflammation of the tissue that covers and protects the brain and spinal cord (meninges). Other features of NOMID include eye problems, short stature, distinctive facial features, and kidney damage caused by amyloidosis. [from MedlinePlus Genetics]

MedGen UID:
1647324
Concept ID:
C4551895
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome 7

Most characteristically, Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) manifests as an early-onset encephalopathy that usually, but not always, results in severe intellectual and physical disability. A subgroup of infants with AGS present at birth with abnormal neurologic findings, hepatosplenomegaly, elevated liver enzymes, and thrombocytopenia, a picture highly suggestive of congenital infection. Otherwise, most affected infants present at variable times after the first few weeks of life, frequently after a period of apparently normal development. Typically, they demonstrate the subacute onset of a severe encephalopathy characterized by extreme irritability, intermittent sterile pyrexias, loss of skills, and slowing of head growth. Over time, as many as 40% develop chilblain skin lesions on the fingers, toes, and ears. It is becoming apparent that atypical, sometimes milder, cases of AGS exist, and thus the true extent of the phenotype associated with pathogenic variants in the AGS-related genes is not yet known. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
854829
Concept ID:
C3888244
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome type 2A

Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS), caused by defective lymphocyte homeostasis, is characterized by the following: Non-malignant lymphoproliferation (lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly with or without hypersplenism) that often improves with age. Autoimmune disease, mostly directed toward blood cells. Lifelong increased risk for both Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. In ALPS-FAS (the most common and best-characterized type of ALPS, associated with heterozygous germline pathogenic variants in FAS), non-malignant lymphoproliferation typically manifests in the first years of life, inexplicably waxes and wanes, and then often decreases without treatment in the second decade of life; in many affected individuals, however, neither splenomegaly nor the overall expansion of lymphocyte subsets in peripheral blood decreases. Although autoimmunity is often not present at the time of diagnosis or at the time of the most extensive lymphoproliferation, autoantibodies can be detected before autoimmune disease manifests clinically. In ALPS-FAS caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous (biallelic) pathogenic variants in FAS, severe lymphoproliferation occurs before, at, or shortly after birth, and usually results in death at an early age. ALPS-sFAS, resulting from somatic FAS pathogenic variants in selected cell populations, notably the alpha/beta double-negative T cells (a/ß-DNT cells), appears to be similar to ALPS-FAS resulting from heterozygous germline pathogenic variants in FAS, although lower incidence of splenectomy and lower lymphocyte counts have been reported in ALPS-sFAS and no cases of lymphoma have yet been published. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
349065
Concept ID:
C1858968
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Cutaneous mastocytosis

Mastocytosis, or mast cell disease, is a heterogeneous group of clinical disorders characterized by the abnormal accumulation of mast cells in various tissues, especially in the skin and hematopoietic organs. Mastocytosis usually appears in infancy or early adulthood. In most pediatric cases, the disease is limited to the skin, but it can be associated with systemic symptoms due to the release of mediators from mast cells, even when there is no systemic infiltration. It usually has a good prognosis, with substantial improvement or spontaneous resolution before puberty. In rare cases, the disease may remain active through adolescence as a systemic adult mastocytosis. Cutaneous mastocytosis is characterized by macules, papules, nodules, or diffuse infiltration of the skin, often associated with localized hyperpigmentation. Gentle rubbing of the lesions induces histamine release from mechanically activated mast cells, causing local wheals, erythema, and often pruritus, a phenomenon termed the 'Darier sign.' In contrast to childhood-onset mastocytosis, adult-onset mastocytosis often persists for the lifetime of the patient and is also more likely to be a severe and systemic disease involving numerous organs. In some cases, it is associated with a clonal hematologic non-mast-cell lineage disease, such as a myelodysplastic or myeloproliferative disorder. Adult-onset mastocytosis can also lead to the rare mast cell leukemia, which carries a high risk of mortality (summary by Bodemer et al., 2010 and Kambe et al., 2010). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
210143
Concept ID:
C1136033
Finding; Neoplastic Process
9.

Familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome 2

Familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome-2 (FCAS2) is an autosomal dominant autoinflammatory disorder characterized by episodic and recurrent rash, urticaria, arthralgia, myalgia, and headache. In most patients, these episodes are accompanied by fever and serologic evidence of inflammation. Most, but not all, patients report exposure to cold as a trigger for the episodes. Additional features may include abdominal pain, thoracic pain, and sensorineural deafness. The age at onset is variable, ranging from the first year of life to middle age, and the severity and clinical manifestations are heterogeneous (summary by Shen et al., 2017). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome, see FCAS1 (120100). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
435869
Concept ID:
C2673198
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome 4

A rare hereditary periodic fever syndrome with characteristics of infantile or childhood onset of episodes of fever and cold-induced urticaria-like rash and arthralgia. Ocular features such as conjunctivitis and uveitis may also be present. Presentation is typically mild and symptoms resolve without treatment in most cases. [from SNOMEDCT_US]

MedGen UID:
863713
Concept ID:
C4015276
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Periodic fever-infantile enterocolitis-autoinflammatory syndrome

Autoinflammation with infantile enterocolitis is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by onset of recurrent flares of autoinflammation in early infancy. Affected individuals tend to have poor overall growth and gastrointestinal symptoms in infancy associated with laboratory evidence of activated inflammation. This initial presentation is followed by recurrent febrile episodes with splenomegaly and sometimes hematologic disturbances, arthralgias, or myalgias. The disorder results from overactivation of an arm of the immune response system (Romberg et al., 2014; Canna et al., 2014). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
863504
Concept ID:
C4015067
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Hearing loss, autosomal dominant 34, with or without inflammation

DFNA34 is an autosomal dominant form of postlingual, slowly progressive sensorineural hearing loss with variable severity and variable additional features. Some patients have pure hearing loss without significant additional features, whereas some patients have features of an autoinflammatory disorder with systemic manifestations, including periodic fevers, arthralgias, and episodic urticaria. The disorder results from abnormally increased activation of the inflammatory pathway, and treatment with an IL1 receptor antagonist (see 147679) may be effective if started early (summary by Nakanishi et al., 2017). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1626346
Concept ID:
C4521680
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Immunodeficiency 73c with defective neutrophil chemotaxis and hypogammaglobulinemia

MedGen UID:
1734177
Concept ID:
C5436550
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Anaphylotoxin inactivator deficiency

An autosomal recessive condition caused by mutation(s) in the CPN1 gene, encoding carboxypeptidase N catalytic chain. It may be characterized by episodic angioedema, chronic urticaria, asthma and/or allergic hypersensitivity. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
98312
Concept ID:
C0398782
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Retinal dystrophy, optic nerve edema, splenomegaly, anhidrosis, and migraine headache syndrome

Retinal dystrophy, optic nerve edema, splenomegaly, anhidrosis, and migraine headache syndrome (ROSAH) is an autosomal dominant disorder in which affected individuals present in childhood with reduced vision associated with papilledema and low-grade ocular inflammation. Progressive deterioration of visual acuity results in counting fingers to no light perception by the third decade of life. Patients also show anhidrosis, as well as splenomegaly and mild pancytopenia, and most experience headaches that may be migraine-like in nature (Williams et al., 2019). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1662266
Concept ID:
C4749914
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Vibratory urticaria

Autosomal dominant vibratory urticaria is characterized by localized hives and systemic manifestations in response to dermal vibration, with coincident degranulation of mast cells and increased histamine levels in serum (Boyden et al., 2016). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
510413
Concept ID:
C0157743
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia-hypothyroidism-ciliary dyskinesia syndrome

A rare, genetic, ectodermal dysplasia syndrome characterized by the association of hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (manifesting with the triad of hypohidrosis, anodontia/hypodontia and hypotrichosis) with primary hypothyroidism and respiratory tract ciliary dyskinesia. Patients frequently present urticaria pigmentosa-like skin pigmentation, increased mast cells and melanin depositions in the dermis and severe, recurrent chest infections. There have been no further descriptions in the literature since 1986. [from ORDO]

MedGen UID:
384046
Concept ID:
C1857052
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Eosinophilopenia

Abnormally low level of eosinophils in the blood. [from NCI]

MedGen UID:
343610
Concept ID:
C1851586
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Autoinflammatory disease, systemic, with vasculitis

Systemic autoinflammatory disease with vasculitis (SAIDV) is an autosomal dominant disorder that manifests soon after birth with features such as purpuric skin rash, fever, hepatosplenomegaly, and elevated C-reactive protein (CRP; 123260). Laboratory studies may show leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, and autoantibodies. A subset of patients develop progressive liver involvement that may result in fibrosis. Other systemic features, such as periorbital edema, conjunctivitis, infections, abdominal pain, and arthralgia are usually observed. Mutations occur de novo. De Jesus et al. (2023) referred to this disorder as LAVLI (LYN kinase-associated vasculopathy and liver fibrosis). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1841161
Concept ID:
C5830525
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and dysmorphic facies

Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and dysmorphic facies (NEDHYDF) is characterized by global developmental delay and hypotonia apparent from birth. Affected individuals have variably impaired intellectual development, often with speech delay and delayed walking. Seizures are generally not observed, although some patients may have single seizures or late-onset epilepsy. Most patients have prominent dysmorphic facial features. Additional features may include congenital cardiac defects (without arrhythmia), nonspecific renal anomalies, joint contractures or joint hyperextensibility, dry skin, and cryptorchidism. There is significant phenotypic variability in both the neurologic and extraneurologic manifestations (summary by Tan et al., 2022). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
1794184
Concept ID:
C5561974
Disease or Syndrome
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