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Adult-onset autosomal dominant demyelinating leukodystrophy

LMNB1-related autosomal dominant leukodystrophy (ADLD) is a slowly progressive disorder of central nervous system white matter characterized by onset of autonomic dysfunction in the fourth to fifth decade, followed by pyramidal and cerebellar abnormalities resulting in spasticity, ataxia, and tremor. Autonomic dysfunction can include bladder dysfunction, constipation, postural hypotension, erectile dysfunction, and (less often) impaired sweating. Pyramidal signs are often more prominent in the lower extremities (e.g., spastic weakness, hypertonia, clonus, brisk deep tendon reflexes, and bilateral Babinski signs). Cerebellar signs typically appear at the same time as the pyramidal signs and include gait ataxia, dysdiadochokinesia, intention tremor, dysmetria, and nystagmus. Many individuals have sensory deficits starting in the lower limbs. Pseudobulbar palsy with dysarthria, dysphagia, and forced crying and laughing may appear in the seventh or eighth decade. Although cognitive function is usually preserved or only mildly impaired early in the disease course, dementia and psychiatric manifestations can occur as late manifestations. Affected individuals may survive for decades after onset. [from GeneReviews]

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Microcephaly 26, primary, autosomal dominant

Autosomal dominant primary microcephaly-26 (MCPH26) is characterized by progressive microcephaly beginning at birth and associated with global developmental delay with variably impaired intellectual development. Some patients may have only mild learning difficulties or speech delay, whereas other are more severely affected with the inability to walk or speak. Additional features may include short stature, spasticity, feeding difficulties requiring tube feeding, and nonspecific dysmorphic facial features. Brain imaging in some patients shows a simplified gyral pattern or dysgenesis of the corpus callosum, suggesting abnormal neuronal migration (summary by Cristofoli et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary microcephaly, see MCPH1 (251200). [from OMIM]

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