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MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Synonym: Arterial hypoxemia
SNOMED CT: Hypoxemia (389087006); Arterial hypoxemia (389087006)
HPO: HP:0012418


An abnormally low level of blood oxygen. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Hb SS disease
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is characterized by intermittent vaso-occlusive events and chronic hemolytic anemia. Vaso-occlusive events result in tissue ischemia leading to acute and chronic pain as well as organ damage that can affect any organ system, including the bones, spleen, liver, brain, lungs, kidneys, and joints. Dactylitis (pain and/or swelling of the hands or feet) is often the earliest manifestation of SCD. In children, the spleen can become engorged with blood cells in a "splenic sequestration." The spleen is particularly vulnerable to infarction and the majority of individuals with SCD who are not on hydroxyurea or transfusion therapy become functionally asplenic in early childhood, increasing their risk for certain types of bacterial infections, primarily encapsulated organisms. Acute chest syndrome (ACS) is a major cause of mortality in SCD. Chronic hemolysis can result in varying degrees of anemia, jaundice, cholelithiasis, and delayed growth and sexual maturation as well as activating pathways that contribute to the pathophysiology directly. Individuals with the highest rates of hemolysis are at higher risk for pulmonary artery hypertension, priapism, and leg ulcers and may be relatively protected from vaso-occlusive pain.
Hyper-IgM syndrome type 1
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked hyper IgM syndrome (HIGM1), a disorder of abnormal T- and B-cell function, is characterized by low serum concentrations of IgG, IgA, and IgE with normal or elevated serum concentrations of IgM. Mitogen proliferation may be normal, but NK- and T-cell cytotoxicity can be impaired. Antigen-specific responses are usually decreased or absent. Total numbers of B cells are normal but there is a marked reduction of class-switched memory B cells. Defective oxidative burst of both neutrophils and macrophages has been reported. The range of clinical findings varies, even within the same family. More than 50% of males with HIGM1 develop symptoms by age one year, and more than 90% are symptomatic by age four years. HIGM1 usually presents in infancy with recurrent upper- and lower-respiratory tract bacterial infections, opportunistic infections including Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, and recurrent or protracted diarrhea that can be infectious or noninfectious and is associated with failure to thrive. Neutropenia is common; thrombocytopenia and anemia are less commonly seen. Autoimmune and/or inflammatory disorders (such as sclerosing cholangitis) as well as increased risk for neoplasms have been reported as medical complications of this disorder. Significant neurologic complications, often the result of a CNS infection, are seen in 5%-15% of affected males. Liver disease, a serious complication of HIGM1 once observed in more than 80% of affected males by age 20 years, may be decreasing with adequate screening and treatment of Cryptosporidium infection.
Diffuse panbronchiolitis
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB) is a rare chronic inflammatory obstructive pulmonary disease primarily affecting the respiratory bronchioles. 'Diffuse' refers to the distribution of the lesions throughout both lungs, and 'pan-' refers to the involvement of inflammation in all layers of the respiratory bronchioles. Onset of the disorder occurs in the second to fifth decade of life, and is clinically manifest by chronic cough, exertional dyspnea, and sputum production. Most patients also have chronic paranasal sinusitis. If untreated, the disorder progresses to bronchiectasis, respiratory failure, and death (summary by Poletti et al., 2006).
Bailey-Bloch congenital myopathy
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
STAC3 disorder is characterized by congenital myopathy, musculoskeletal involvement of the trunk and extremities, feeding difficulties, and delayed motor milestones. Most affected individuals have weakness with myopathic facies, scoliosis, kyphosis or kyphoscoliosis, and contractures. Other common findings are ptosis, abnormalities of the palate (including cleft palate), and short stature. Risk for malignant hyperthermia susceptibility and restrictive lung disease are increased. Intellect is typically normal. Originally described in individuals from the Lumbee Native American tribe (an admixture of Cheraw Indian, English, and African American ancestry) in the state of North Carolina and reported as Native American myopathy, STAC3 disorder has now been identified in numerous other populations worldwide.
Brain-lung-thyroid syndrome
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
NKX2-1-related disorders range from benign hereditary chorea (BHC) to choreoathetosis, congenital hypothyroidism, and neonatal respiratory distress (also known as brain-lung-thyroid syndrome). Childhood-onset chorea, the hallmark of NKX2-1-related disorders, may or may not be associated with respiratory distress syndrome or congenital hypothyroidism. Chorea generally begins in early infancy or about age one year (most commonly) or in late childhood or adolescence, and progresses into the second decade after which it remains static or (rarely) remits. Pulmonary disease, the second most common manifestation, can include respiratory distress syndrome in neonates, interstitial lung disease in young children, and pulmonary fibrosis in older persons. The risk for pulmonary carcinoma is increased in young adults with an NKX2-1-related disorder. Thyroid dysfunction, the result of dysembryogenesis, can present as congenital hypothyroidism or compensated hypothyroidism. The risk for thyroid cancer is unknown and may not be increased. In one review, 50% of affected individuals had the full brain-lung-thyroid syndrome, 30% had involvement of brain and thyroid only, and 13% had isolated chorea only.
Interstitial lung disease due to ABCA3 deficiency
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of pulmonary surfactant metabolism dysfunction, see SMDP1 (265120).
Surfactant metabolism dysfunction, pulmonary, 2
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Pulmonary surfactant metabolism dysfunction-2 (SMDP2) is a rare autosomal dominant disease associated with progressive respiratory insufficiency and lung disease with a variable clinical course. The pathophysiology of the disorder is postulated to involve intracellular accumulation of a structurally defective SPC protein (Thomas et al., 2002). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of pulmonary surfactant metabolism dysfunction, see SMDP1 (265120).
Autoimmune pulmonary alveolar proteinosis
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is a pathologic entity characterized by intraalveolar surfactant accumulation. There are 3 clinically distinct forms: hereditary (usually congenital), secondary, and acquired. The acquired form of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is the most common form, accounting for approximately 90% of cases. The mean age at diagnosis is 39 years and it is associated with smoking in 72% of cases. The estimated incidence and prevalence are 0.36 and 3.70 cases per million, respectively (Trapnell et al., 2003; Seymour and Presneill, 2002). Secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis develops in association with conditions involving functional impairment or reduced numbers of alveolar macrophages. Such conditions include some hematologic cancers, pharmacologic immunosuppression, inhalation of inorganic dust or toxic fumes, and certain infections. Congenital pulmonary alveolar proteinosis is a rare, severe, often fatal disorder of newborns associated with pulmonary surfactant metabolism dysfunction caused by mutations in genes involved in surfactant metabolism (see, e.g., SMDP1, 265120) (Trapnell et al., 2003). See 300770 for information on congenital PAP due to CSF2RA (306250) deficiency.
Sarcoidosis, susceptibility to, 2
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Any sarcoidosis in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the BTNL2 gene.
Sarcoidosis, susceptibility to, 1
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Any sarcoidosis in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the HLA-DRB1 gene.
Severe early-onset pulmonary alveolar proteinosis due to MARS deficiency
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Interstitial lung and liver disease is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by onset of respiratory insufficiency and progressive liver disease in infancy or early childhood. Pathologic examination of lung lavage is consistent with pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (summary by Hadchouel et al., 2015).
Telangiectasia, hereditary hemorrhagic, type 1
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is characterized by the presence of multiple arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) that lack intervening capillaries and result in direct connections between arteries and veins. The most common clinical manifestation is spontaneous and recurrent nosebleeds (epistaxis) beginning on average at age 12 years. Telangiectases (small AVMs) are characteristically found on the lips, tongue, buccal and gastrointestinal (GI) mucosa, face, and fingers. The appearance of telangiectases is generally later than epistaxis but may be during childhood. Large AVMs occur most often in the lungs, liver, or brain; complications from bleeding or shunting may be sudden and catastrophic. A minority of individuals with HHT have GI bleeding, which is rarely seen before age 50 years.
Central hypoventilation syndrome, congenital, 1, with or without Hirschsprung disease
MedGen UID:
Concept ID:
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) represents the extreme manifestation of autonomic nervous system dysregulation (ANSD) with the hallmark of disordered respiratory control. The age of initial recognition of CCHS ranges from neonatal onset (i.e., in the first 30 days of life) to (less commonly) later onset (from 1 month to adulthood). Neonatal-onset CCHS is characterized by apparent hypoventilation with monotonous respiratory rates and shallow breathing either during sleep only or while awake as well as asleep; ANSD including decreased heart rate beat-to-beat variability and sinus pauses; altered temperature regulation; and altered pupillary response to light. Some children have altered development of neural crest-derived structures (i.e., Hirschsprung disease, altered esophageal motility/dysphagia, and severe constipation even in the absence of Hirschsprung disease) and/or tumors of neural crest origin (neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroma, and ganglioneuroblastoma). Neurocognitive delay is variable, and possibly influenced by cyanotic breath holding, prolonged sinus pauses, need for 24-hour/day artificial ventilation, and seizures. Later-onset CCHS is characterized by alveolar hypoventilation during sleep and attenuated manifestations of ANSD.

Professional guidelines


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Nacif LS, Andraus W, Pinheiro RS, Ducatti L, Haddad LB, D'Albuquerque LC
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Carson JL, Stanworth SJ, Guyatt G, Valentine S, Dennis J, Bakhtary S, Cohn CS, Dubon A, Grossman BJ, Gupta GK, Hess AS, Jacobson JL, Kaplan LJ, Lin Y, Metcalf RA, Murphy CH, Pavenski K, Prochaska MT, Raval JS, Salazar E, Saifee NH, Tobian AAR, So-Osman C, Waters J, Wood EM, Zantek ND, Pagano MB
JAMA 2023 Nov 21;330(19):1892-1902. doi: 10.1001/jama.2023.12914. PMID: 37824153
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Matthay MA, Ware LB, Zimmerman GA
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Poor HD
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JAMA 2018 Jun 5;319(21):2190-2201. doi: 10.1001/jama.2018.5725. PMID: 29872859Free PMC Article
Cartin-Ceba R, Swanson KL, Krowka MJ
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Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1994 Mar;149(3 Pt 1):818-24. doi: 10.1164/ajrccm.149.3.7509706. PMID: 7509706

Clinical prediction guides

Toups K, Hathaway A, Gordon D, Chung H, Raji C, Boyd A, Hill BD, Hausman-Cohen S, Attarha M, Chwa WJ, Jarrett M, Bredesen DE
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Am J Obstet Gynecol 2022 Apr;226(4):475-486. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2022.01.020. PMID: 35369904
Minowa H
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Lv Y, Han G, Fan D
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Recent systematic reviews

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Izcovich A, Ragusa MA, Tortosa F, Lavena Marzio MA, Agnoletti C, Bengolea A, Ceirano A, Espinosa F, Saavedra E, Sanguine V, Tassara A, Cid C, Catalano HN, Agarwal A, Foroutan F, Rada G
PLoS One 2020;15(11):e0241955. Epub 2020 Nov 17 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0241955. PMID: 33201896Free PMC Article
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