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Epileptic encephalopathy, infantile or early childhood, 2(IECEE2; DEE92)

MedGen UID:
1638319
Concept ID:
C4693362
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 92
 
Gene (location): GABRB2 (5q34)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0020631
OMIM®: 617829

Definition

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-92 (DEE92) is characterized in most patients by onset of seizures in infancy or childhood and associated with global developmental delay and variable impairment of intellectual development. The seizure type and severity varies, and seizures may be intractable in some patients. Some patients are severely affected, unable to walk or speak, whereas others show some development. Additional neurologic features, including cortical blindness, dystonia, and spasticity, may occur. Mutations occur de novo (summary by Hamdan et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350. [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Feeding difficulties
MedGen UID:
65429
Concept ID:
C0232466
Finding
Impaired ability to eat related to problems gathering food and getting ready to suck, chew, or swallow it.
Cerebellar ataxia
MedGen UID:
849
Concept ID:
C0007758
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebellar ataxia refers to ataxia due to dysfunction of the cerebellum. This causes a variety of elementary neurological deficits including asynergy (lack of coordination between muscles, limbs and joints), dysmetria (lack of ability to judge distances that can lead to under- or overshoot in grasping movements), and dysdiadochokinesia (inability to perform rapid movements requiring antagonizing muscle groups to be switched on and off repeatedly).
Dyskinesia
MedGen UID:
8514
Concept ID:
C0013384
Disease or Syndrome
A movement disorder which consists of effects including diminished voluntary movements and the presence of involuntary movements.
Dystonic disorder
MedGen UID:
3940
Concept ID:
C0013421
Sign or Symptom
An abnormally increased muscular tone that causes fixed abnormal postures. There is a slow, intermittent twisting motion that leads to exaggerated turning and posture of the extremities and trunk.
Lethargy
MedGen UID:
7310
Concept ID:
C0023380
Sign or Symptom
A state of disinterest, listlessness, and indifference, resulting in difficulty performing simple tasks or concentrating.
Spasticity
MedGen UID:
7753
Concept ID:
C0026838
Sign or Symptom
A motor disorder characterized by a velocity-dependent increase in tonic stretch reflexes with increased muscle tone, exaggerated (hyperexcitable) tendon reflexes.
Myoclonus
MedGen UID:
10234
Concept ID:
C0027066
Finding
Very brief, involuntary random muscular contractions occurring at rest, in response to sensory stimuli, or accompanying voluntary movements.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterised by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
EEG abnormality
MedGen UID:
56235
Concept ID:
C0151611
Finding
Abnormality observed by electroencephalogram (EEG), which is used to record of the brain's spontaneous electrical activity from multiple electrodes placed on the scalp.
Epileptic encephalopathy
MedGen UID:
452596
Concept ID:
C0543888
Disease or Syndrome
A condition in which epileptiform abnormalities are believed to contribute to the progressive disturbance in cerebral function. Epileptic encephalaopathy is characterized by (1) electrographic EEG paroxysmal activity that is often aggressive, (2) seizures that are usually multiform and intractable, (3) cognitive, behavioral and neurological deficits that may be relentless, and (4) sometimes early death.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Inability to walk
MedGen UID:
107860
Concept ID:
C0560046
Finding
Incapability to ambulate.
Absent speech
MedGen UID:
340737
Concept ID:
C1854882
Finding
Complete lack of development of speech and language abilities.
Intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
811461
Concept ID:
C3714756
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability, previously referred to as mental retardation, is characterized by subnormal intellectual functioning that occurs during the developmental period. It is defined by an IQ score below 70.
Difficulty walking
MedGen UID:
86319
Concept ID:
C0311394
Finding
Reduced ability to walk (ambulate).
Secondary microcephaly
MedGen UID:
608952
Concept ID:
C0431352
Finding
Head circumference which falls below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender because of insufficient head growth after birth.
Cerebral visual impairment
MedGen UID:
890568
Concept ID:
C4048268
Pathologic Function
A form of loss of vision caused by damage to the visual cortex rather than a defect in the eye.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Zuberi SM, Wirrell E, Yozawitz E, Wilmshurst JM, Specchio N, Riney K, Pressler R, Auvin S, Samia P, Hirsch E, Galicchio S, Triki C, Snead OC, Wiebe S, Cross JH, Tinuper P, Scheffer IE, Perucca E, Moshé SL, Nabbout R
Epilepsia 2022 Jun;63(6):1349-1397. Epub 2022 May 3 doi: 10.1111/epi.17239. PMID: 35503712
Leonard H, Downs J, Benke TA, Swanson L, Olson H, Demarest S
Lancet Neurol 2022 Jun;21(6):563-576. Epub 2022 Apr 25 doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(22)00035-7. PMID: 35483386Free PMC Article
Styne DM, Arslanian SA, Connor EL, Farooqi IS, Murad MH, Silverstein JH, Yanovski JA
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017 Mar 1;102(3):709-757. doi: 10.1210/jc.2016-2573. PMID: 28359099Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Zuberi SM, Wirrell E, Yozawitz E, Wilmshurst JM, Specchio N, Riney K, Pressler R, Auvin S, Samia P, Hirsch E, Galicchio S, Triki C, Snead OC, Wiebe S, Cross JH, Tinuper P, Scheffer IE, Perucca E, Moshé SL, Nabbout R
Epilepsia 2022 Jun;63(6):1349-1397. Epub 2022 May 3 doi: 10.1111/epi.17239. PMID: 35503712
Wirrell EC, Hood V, Knupp KG, Meskis MA, Nabbout R, Scheffer IE, Wilmshurst J, Sullivan J
Epilepsia 2022 Jul;63(7):1761-1777. Epub 2022 May 12 doi: 10.1111/epi.17274. PMID: 35490361Free PMC Article
Reynolds C, King MD, Gorman KM
Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2020 Jan;24:117-122. Epub 2019 Dec 12 doi: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2019.12.016. PMID: 31924505
Vlaskamp DRM, Shaw BJ, Burgess R, Mei D, Montomoli M, Xie H, Myers CT, Bennett MF, XiangWei W, Williams D, Maas SM, Brooks AS, Mancini GMS, van de Laar IMBH, van Hagen JM, Ware TL, Webster RI, Malone S, Berkovic SF, Kalnins RM, Sicca F, Korenke GC, van Ravenswaaij-Arts CMA, Hildebrand MS, Mefford HC, Jiang Y, Guerrini R, Scheffer IE
Neurology 2019 Jan 8;92(2):e96-e107. Epub 2018 Dec 12 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000006729. PMID: 30541864Free PMC Article
Epi4K Consortium; Epilepsy Phenome/Genome Project, Allen AS, Berkovic SF, Cossette P, Delanty N, Dlugos D, Eichler EE, Epstein MP, Glauser T, Goldstein DB, Han Y, Heinzen EL, Hitomi Y, Howell KB, Johnson MR, Kuzniecky R, Lowenstein DH, Lu YF, Madou MR, Marson AG, Mefford HC, Esmaeeli Nieh S, O'Brien TJ, Ottman R, Petrovski S, Poduri A, Ruzzo EK, Scheffer IE, Sherr EH, Yuskaitis CJ, Abou-Khalil B, Alldredge BK, Bautista JF, Berkovic SF, Boro A, Cascino GD, Consalvo D, Crumrine P, Devinsky O, Dlugos D, Epstein MP, Fiol M, Fountain NB, French J, Friedman D, Geller EB, Glauser T, Glynn S, Haut SR, Hayward J, Helmers SL, Joshi S, Kanner A, Kirsch HE, Knowlton RC, Kossoff EH, Kuperman R, Kuzniecky R, Lowenstein DH, McGuire SM, Motika PV, Novotny EJ, Ottman R, Paolicchi JM, Parent JM, Park K, Poduri A, Scheffer IE, Shellhaas RA, Sherr EH, Shih JJ, Singh R, Sirven J, Smith MC, Sullivan J, Lin Thio L, Venkat A, Vining EP, Von Allmen GK, Weisenberg JL, Widdess-Walsh P, Winawer MR
Nature 2013 Sep 12;501(7466):217-21. Epub 2013 Aug 11 doi: 10.1038/nature12439. PMID: 23934111Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Zuberi SM, Wirrell E, Yozawitz E, Wilmshurst JM, Specchio N, Riney K, Pressler R, Auvin S, Samia P, Hirsch E, Galicchio S, Triki C, Snead OC, Wiebe S, Cross JH, Tinuper P, Scheffer IE, Perucca E, Moshé SL, Nabbout R
Epilepsia 2022 Jun;63(6):1349-1397. Epub 2022 May 3 doi: 10.1111/epi.17239. PMID: 35503712
Wirrell EC, Hood V, Knupp KG, Meskis MA, Nabbout R, Scheffer IE, Wilmshurst J, Sullivan J
Epilepsia 2022 Jul;63(7):1761-1777. Epub 2022 May 12 doi: 10.1111/epi.17274. PMID: 35490361Free PMC Article
Leonard H, Downs J, Benke TA, Swanson L, Olson H, Demarest S
Lancet Neurol 2022 Jun;21(6):563-576. Epub 2022 Apr 25 doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(22)00035-7. PMID: 35483386Free PMC Article
Myers KA
Continuum (Minneap Minn) 2022 Apr 1;28(2):339-362. doi: 10.1212/CON.0000000000001077. PMID: 35393962
Katyayan A, Diaz-Medina G
Neurol Clin 2021 Aug;39(3):779-795. doi: 10.1016/j.ncl.2021.04.002. PMID: 34215386

Therapy

Aronica E, Specchio N, Luinenburg MJ, Curatolo P
Brain 2023 Jul 3;146(7):2694-2710. doi: 10.1093/brain/awad048. PMID: 36806388Free PMC Article
Elkommos S, Mula M
Expert Opin Pharmacother 2022 Dec;23(18):2023-2034. Epub 2022 Sep 27 doi: 10.1080/14656566.2022.2128670. PMID: 36154780
Zuberi SM, Wirrell E, Yozawitz E, Wilmshurst JM, Specchio N, Riney K, Pressler R, Auvin S, Samia P, Hirsch E, Galicchio S, Triki C, Snead OC, Wiebe S, Cross JH, Tinuper P, Scheffer IE, Perucca E, Moshé SL, Nabbout R
Epilepsia 2022 Jun;63(6):1349-1397. Epub 2022 May 3 doi: 10.1111/epi.17239. PMID: 35503712
Johannesen KM, Liu Y, Koko M, Gjerulfsen CE, Sonnenberg L, Schubert J, Fenger CD, Eltokhi A, Rannap M, Koch NA, Lauxmann S, Krüger J, Kegele J, Canafoglia L, Franceschetti S, Mayer T, Rebstock J, Zacher P, Ruf S, Alber M, Sterbova K, Lassuthová P, Vlckova M, Lemke JR, Platzer K, Krey I, Heine C, Wieczorek D, Kroell-Seger J, Lund C, Klein KM, Au PYB, Rho JM, Ho AW, Masnada S, Veggiotti P, Giordano L, Accorsi P, Hoei-Hansen CE, Striano P, Zara F, Verhelst H, Verhoeven JS, Braakman HMH, van der Zwaag B, Harder AVE, Brilstra E, Pendziwiat M, Lebon S, Vaccarezza M, Le NM, Christensen J, Grønborg S, Scherer SW, Howe J, Fazeli W, Howell KB, Leventer R, Stutterd C, Walsh S, Gerard M, Gerard B, Matricardi S, Bonardi CM, Sartori S, Berger A, Hoffman-Zacharska D, Mastrangelo M, Darra F, Vøllo A, Motazacker MM, Lakeman P, Nizon M, Betzler C, Altuzarra C, Caume R, Roubertie A, Gélisse P, Marini C, Guerrini R, Bilan F, Tibussek D, Koch-Hogrebe M, Perry MS, Ichikawa S, Dadali E, Sharkov A, Mishina I, Abramov M, Kanivets I, Korostelev S, Kutsev S, Wain KE, Eisenhauer N, Wagner M, Savatt JM, Müller-Schlüter K, Bassan H, Borovikov A, Nassogne MC, Destrée A, Schoonjans AS, Meuwissen M, Buzatu M, Jansen A, Scalais E, Srivastava S, Tan WH, Olson HE, Loddenkemper T, Poduri A, Helbig KL, Helbig I, Fitzgerald MP, Goldberg EM, Roser T, Borggraefe I, Brünger T, May P, Lal D, Lederer D, Rubboli G, Heyne HO, Lesca G, Hedrich UBS, Benda J, Gardella E, Lerche H, Møller RS
Brain 2022 Sep 14;145(9):2991-3009. doi: 10.1093/brain/awab321. PMID: 34431999Free PMC Article
Vlaskamp DRM, Shaw BJ, Burgess R, Mei D, Montomoli M, Xie H, Myers CT, Bennett MF, XiangWei W, Williams D, Maas SM, Brooks AS, Mancini GMS, van de Laar IMBH, van Hagen JM, Ware TL, Webster RI, Malone S, Berkovic SF, Kalnins RM, Sicca F, Korenke GC, van Ravenswaaij-Arts CMA, Hildebrand MS, Mefford HC, Jiang Y, Guerrini R, Scheffer IE
Neurology 2019 Jan 8;92(2):e96-e107. Epub 2018 Dec 12 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000006729. PMID: 30541864Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Zuberi SM, Wirrell E, Yozawitz E, Wilmshurst JM, Specchio N, Riney K, Pressler R, Auvin S, Samia P, Hirsch E, Galicchio S, Triki C, Snead OC, Wiebe S, Cross JH, Tinuper P, Scheffer IE, Perucca E, Moshé SL, Nabbout R
Epilepsia 2022 Jun;63(6):1349-1397. Epub 2022 May 3 doi: 10.1111/epi.17239. PMID: 35503712
Myers KA
Continuum (Minneap Minn) 2022 Apr 1;28(2):339-362. doi: 10.1212/CON.0000000000001077. PMID: 35393962
Katyayan A, Diaz-Medina G
Neurol Clin 2021 Aug;39(3):779-795. doi: 10.1016/j.ncl.2021.04.002. PMID: 34215386
Pavone P, Polizzi A, Marino SD, Corsello G, Falsaperla R, Marino S, Ruggieri M
Neurol Sci 2020 Dec;41(12):3547-3562. Epub 2020 Aug 22 doi: 10.1007/s10072-020-04600-5. PMID: 32827285Free PMC Article
Reynolds C, King MD, Gorman KM
Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2020 Jan;24:117-122. Epub 2019 Dec 12 doi: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2019.12.016. PMID: 31924505

Clinical prediction guides

Xian J, Parthasarathy S, Ruggiero SM, Balagura G, Fitch E, Helbig K, Gan J, Ganesan S, Kaufman MC, Ellis CA, Lewis-Smith D, Galer P, Cunningham K, O'Brien M, Cosico M, Baker K, Darling A, Veiga de Goes F, El Achkar CM, Doering JH, Furia F, García-Cazorla Á, Gardella E, Geertjens L, Klein C, Kolesnik-Taylor A, Lammertse H, Lee J, Mackie A, Misra-Isrie M, Olson H, Sexton E, Sheidley B, Smith L, Sotero L, Stamberger H, Syrbe S, Thalwitzer KM, van Berkel A, van Haelst M, Yuskaitis C, Weckhuysen S, Prosser B, Son Rigby C, Demarest S, Pierce S, Zhang Y, Møller RS, Bruining H, Poduri A, Zara F, Verhage M, Striano P, Helbig I
Brain 2022 Jun 3;145(5):1668-1683. doi: 10.1093/brain/awab327. PMID: 35190816Free PMC Article
Lattanzi S, Leitinger M, Rocchi C, Salvemini S, Matricardi S, Brigo F, Meletti S, Trinka E
Eur J Neurol 2022 Feb;29(2):626-647. Epub 2021 Nov 2 doi: 10.1111/ene.15149. PMID: 34661330Free PMC Article
Reynolds C, King MD, Gorman KM
Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2020 Jan;24:117-122. Epub 2019 Dec 12 doi: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2019.12.016. PMID: 31924505
Hamdan FF, Myers CT, Cossette P, Lemay P, Spiegelman D, Laporte AD, Nassif C, Diallo O, Monlong J, Cadieux-Dion M, Dobrzeniecka S, Meloche C, Retterer K, Cho MT, Rosenfeld JA, Bi W, Massicotte C, Miguet M, Brunga L, Regan BM, Mo K, Tam C, Schneider A, Hollingsworth G; Deciphering Developmental Disorders Study, FitzPatrick DR, Donaldson A, Canham N, Blair E, Kerr B, Fry AE, Thomas RH, Shelagh J, Hurst JA, Brittain H, Blyth M, Lebel RR, Gerkes EH, Davis-Keppen L, Stein Q, Chung WK, Dorison SJ, Benke PJ, Fassi E, Corsten-Janssen N, Kamsteeg EJ, Mau-Them FT, Bruel AL, Verloes A, Õunap K, Wojcik MH, Albert DVF, Venkateswaran S, Ware T, Jones D, Liu YC, Mohammad SS, Bizargity P, Bacino CA, Leuzzi V, Martinelli S, Dallapiccola B, Tartaglia M, Blumkin L, Wierenga KJ, Purcarin G, O'Byrne JJ, Stockler S, Lehman A, Keren B, Nougues MC, Mignot C, Auvin S, Nava C, Hiatt SM, Bebin M, Shao Y, Scaglia F, Lalani SR, Frye RE, Jarjour IT, Jacques S, Boucher RM, Riou E, Srour M, Carmant L, Lortie A, Major P, Diadori P, Dubeau F, D'Anjou G, Bourque G, Berkovic SF, Sadleir LG, Campeau PM, Kibar Z, Lafrenière RG, Girard SL, Mercimek-Mahmutoglu S, Boelman C, Rouleau GA, Scheffer IE, Mefford HC, Andrade DM, Rossignol E, Minassian BA, Michaud JL
Am J Hum Genet 2017 Nov 2;101(5):664-685. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2017.09.008. PMID: 29100083Free PMC Article
Epi4K Consortium; Epilepsy Phenome/Genome Project, Allen AS, Berkovic SF, Cossette P, Delanty N, Dlugos D, Eichler EE, Epstein MP, Glauser T, Goldstein DB, Han Y, Heinzen EL, Hitomi Y, Howell KB, Johnson MR, Kuzniecky R, Lowenstein DH, Lu YF, Madou MR, Marson AG, Mefford HC, Esmaeeli Nieh S, O'Brien TJ, Ottman R, Petrovski S, Poduri A, Ruzzo EK, Scheffer IE, Sherr EH, Yuskaitis CJ, Abou-Khalil B, Alldredge BK, Bautista JF, Berkovic SF, Boro A, Cascino GD, Consalvo D, Crumrine P, Devinsky O, Dlugos D, Epstein MP, Fiol M, Fountain NB, French J, Friedman D, Geller EB, Glauser T, Glynn S, Haut SR, Hayward J, Helmers SL, Joshi S, Kanner A, Kirsch HE, Knowlton RC, Kossoff EH, Kuperman R, Kuzniecky R, Lowenstein DH, McGuire SM, Motika PV, Novotny EJ, Ottman R, Paolicchi JM, Parent JM, Park K, Poduri A, Scheffer IE, Shellhaas RA, Sherr EH, Shih JJ, Singh R, Sirven J, Smith MC, Sullivan J, Lin Thio L, Venkat A, Vining EP, Von Allmen GK, Weisenberg JL, Widdess-Walsh P, Winawer MR
Nature 2013 Sep 12;501(7466):217-21. Epub 2013 Aug 11 doi: 10.1038/nature12439. PMID: 23934111Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

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Braz J Psychiatry 2021 May-Jun;43(3):314-323. doi: 10.1590/1516-4446-2020-1099. PMID: 32997075Free PMC Article
LeMoult J, Humphreys KL, Tracy A, Hoffmeister JA, Ip E, Gotlib IH
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2020 Jul;59(7):842-855. Epub 2019 Oct 30 doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2019.10.011. PMID: 31676392
Xiao J, Alkhers N, Kopycka-Kedzierawski DT, Billings RJ, Wu TT, Castillo DA, Rasubala L, Malmstrom H, Ren Y, Eliav E
Caries Res 2019;53(4):411-421. Epub 2019 Jan 10 doi: 10.1159/000495187. PMID: 30630167Free PMC Article

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