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Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 88(EIEE88; DEE88)

MedGen UID:
1712195
Concept ID:
C5394553
Disease or Syndrome
Synonym: EPILEPTIC ENCEPHALOPATHY, EARLY INFANTILE, 88
 
Gene (location): MDH1 (2p15)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0030072
OMIM®: 618959

Definition

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-88 (DEE88) is an autosomal recessive severe neurologic disorder characterized by global developmental delay, early-onset epilepsy, and progressive microcephaly. Brain MRI findings may include corpus callosum abnormalities, prominent ventricles, and mild hypoplasia of the inferior vermis and pons (Broeks et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, see 308350. [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Growth delay
MedGen UID:
99124
Concept ID:
C0456070
Pathologic Function
A deficiency or slowing down of growth pre- and postnatally.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterised by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Partial agenesis of the corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
98127
Concept ID:
C0431368
Congenital Abnormality
A partial failure of the development of the corpus callosum.
Epileptic encephalopathy
MedGen UID:
452596
Concept ID:
C0543888
Disease or Syndrome
A condition in which epileptiform abnormalities are believed to contribute to the progressive disturbance in cerebral function. Epileptic encephalaopathy is characterized by (1) electrographic EEG paroxysmal activity that is often aggressive, (2) seizures that are usually multiform and intractable, (3) cognitive, behavioral and neurological deficits that may be relentless, and (4) sometimes early death.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Hypsarrhythmia
MedGen UID:
195766
Concept ID:
C0684276
Finding
Hypsarrhythmia is abnormal interictal high amplitude waves and a background of irregular spikes. There is continuous (during wakefulness), high-amplitude (>200 Hz), generalized polymorphic slowing with no organized background and multifocal spikes demonstrated by electroencephalography (EEG).
Hypoplasia of the pons
MedGen UID:
341246
Concept ID:
C1848529
Finding
Underdevelopment of the pons.
Inferior cerebellar vermis hypoplasia
MedGen UID:
343328
Concept ID:
C1855350
Congenital Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the inferior portion of the vermis of cerebellum.
Hypertonia
MedGen UID:
10132
Concept ID:
C0026826
Finding
A condition in which there is increased muscle tone so that arms or legs, for example, are stiff and difficult to move.
Progressive microcephaly
MedGen UID:
340542
Concept ID:
C1850456
Anatomical Abnormality
Progressive microcephaly is diagnosed when the head circumference falls progressively behind age- and gender-dependent norms.
Axial hypotonia
MedGen UID:
342959
Concept ID:
C1853743
Finding
Muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone) affecting the musculature of the trunk.
Hyperglutamatemia
MedGen UID:
1671048
Concept ID:
C4732903
Finding
Concentration of glutamate in the blood circulation above the upper limit of normal.
High forehead
MedGen UID:
65991
Concept ID:
C0239676
Finding
An abnormally increased height of the forehead.
Depressed nasal bridge
MedGen UID:
373112
Concept ID:
C1836542
Finding
Posterior positioning of the nasal root in relation to the overall facial profile for age.
Everted lower lip vermilion
MedGen UID:
344003
Concept ID:
C1853246
Finding
An abnormal configuration of the lower lip such that it is turned outward i.e., everted, with the Inner aspect of the lower lip vermilion (normally opposing the teeth) being visible in a frontal view.
Infra-orbital crease
MedGen UID:
347408
Concept ID:
C1857280
Finding
Skin crease extending from below the inner canthus laterally along the malar process of the maxilla and zygoma.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Harvey S, Allen NM, King MD, Lynch B, Lynch SA, O'Regan M, O'Rourke D, Shahwan A, Webb D, Gorman KM; Irish Paediatric Neurology Group
Dev Med Child Neurol 2022 Jun;64(6):780-788. Epub 2022 Jan 29 doi: 10.1111/dmcn.15153. PMID: 35092693Free PMC Article
Nickels K, Kossoff EH, Eschbach K, Joshi C
Epilepsia 2021 Jan;62(1):120-127. Epub 2020 Nov 14 doi: 10.1111/epi.16752. PMID: 33190223
Guerrini R, Carrozzo R
Seizure 2002 Apr;11 Suppl A:532-43; quiz 544-7. PMID: 12185771

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Donnan AM, Schneider AL, Russ-Hall S, Churilov L, Scheffer IE
Neurology 2023 Apr 18;100(16):e1712-e1722. Epub 2023 Feb 7 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000207080. PMID: 36750385Free PMC Article
Hahn CD, Jiang Y, Villanueva V, Zolnowska M, Arkilo D, Hsiao S, Asgharnejad M, Dlugos D
Epilepsia 2022 Oct;63(10):2671-2683. Epub 2022 Aug 4 doi: 10.1111/epi.17367. PMID: 35841234Free PMC Article
Knight EMP, Amin S, Bahi-Buisson N, Benke TA, Cross JH, Demarest ST, Olson HE, Specchio N, Fleming TR, Aimetti AA, Gasior M, Devinsky O; Marigold Trial Group
Lancet Neurol 2022 May;21(5):417-427. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(22)00077-1. PMID: 35429480
Xian J, Parthasarathy S, Ruggiero SM, Balagura G, Fitch E, Helbig K, Gan J, Ganesan S, Kaufman MC, Ellis CA, Lewis-Smith D, Galer P, Cunningham K, O'Brien M, Cosico M, Baker K, Darling A, Veiga de Goes F, El Achkar CM, Doering JH, Furia F, García-Cazorla Á, Gardella E, Geertjens L, Klein C, Kolesnik-Taylor A, Lammertse H, Lee J, Mackie A, Misra-Isrie M, Olson H, Sexton E, Sheidley B, Smith L, Sotero L, Stamberger H, Syrbe S, Thalwitzer KM, van Berkel A, van Haelst M, Yuskaitis C, Weckhuysen S, Prosser B, Son Rigby C, Demarest S, Pierce S, Zhang Y, Møller RS, Bruining H, Poduri A, Zara F, Verhage M, Striano P, Helbig I
Brain 2022 Jun 3;145(5):1668-1683. doi: 10.1093/brain/awab327. PMID: 35190816Free PMC Article
Veroniki AA, Rios P, Cogo E, Straus SE, Finkelstein Y, Kealey R, Reynen E, Soobiah C, Thavorn K, Hutton B, Hemmelgarn BR, Yazdi F, D'Souza J, MacDonald H, Tricco AC
BMJ Open 2017 Jul 20;7(7):e017248. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017248. PMID: 28729328Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Donnan AM, Schneider AL, Russ-Hall S, Churilov L, Scheffer IE
Neurology 2023 Apr 18;100(16):e1712-e1722. Epub 2023 Feb 7 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000207080. PMID: 36750385Free PMC Article
Moreno-De-Luca A, Millan F, Pesacreta DR, Elloumi HZ, Oetjens MT, Teigen C, Wain KE, Scuffins J, Myers SM, Torene RI, Gainullin VG, Arvai K, Kirchner HL, Ledbetter DH, Retterer K, Martin CL
JAMA 2021 Feb 2;325(5):467-475. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.26148. PMID: 33528536Free PMC Article
Nickels K, Kossoff EH, Eschbach K, Joshi C
Epilepsia 2021 Jan;62(1):120-127. Epub 2020 Nov 14 doi: 10.1111/epi.16752. PMID: 33190223
Blumcke I, Spreafico R, Haaker G, Coras R, Kobow K, Bien CG, Pfäfflin M, Elger C, Widman G, Schramm J, Becker A, Braun KP, Leijten F, Baayen JC, Aronica E, Chassoux F, Hamer H, Stefan H, Rössler K, Thom M, Walker MC, Sisodiya SM, Duncan JS, McEvoy AW, Pieper T, Holthausen H, Kudernatsch M, Meencke HJ, Kahane P, Schulze-Bonhage A, Zentner J, Heiland DH, Urbach H, Steinhoff BJ, Bast T, Tassi L, Lo Russo G, Özkara C, Oz B, Krsek P, Vogelgesang S, Runge U, Lerche H, Weber Y, Honavar M, Pimentel J, Arzimanoglou A, Ulate-Campos A, Noachtar S, Hartl E, Schijns O, Guerrini R, Barba C, Jacques TS, Cross JH, Feucht M, Mühlebner A, Grunwald T, Trinka E, Winkler PA, Gil-Nagel A, Toledano Delgado R, Mayer T, Lutz M, Zountsas B, Garganis K, Rosenow F, Hermsen A, von Oertzen TJ, Diepgen TL, Avanzini G; EEBB Consortium
N Engl J Med 2017 Oct 26;377(17):1648-1656. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1703784. PMID: 29069555
Christensen J, Grønborg TK, Sørensen MJ, Schendel D, Parner ET, Pedersen LH, Vestergaard M
JAMA 2013 Apr 24;309(16):1696-703. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.2270. PMID: 23613074Free PMC Article

Therapy

Hahn CD, Jiang Y, Villanueva V, Zolnowska M, Arkilo D, Hsiao S, Asgharnejad M, Dlugos D
Epilepsia 2022 Oct;63(10):2671-2683. Epub 2022 Aug 4 doi: 10.1111/epi.17367. PMID: 35841234Free PMC Article
Knight EMP, Amin S, Bahi-Buisson N, Benke TA, Cross JH, Demarest ST, Olson HE, Specchio N, Fleming TR, Aimetti AA, Gasior M, Devinsky O; Marigold Trial Group
Lancet Neurol 2022 May;21(5):417-427. doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(22)00077-1. PMID: 35429480
Nickels K, Kossoff EH, Eschbach K, Joshi C
Epilepsia 2021 Jan;62(1):120-127. Epub 2020 Nov 14 doi: 10.1111/epi.16752. PMID: 33190223
Veroniki AA, Rios P, Cogo E, Straus SE, Finkelstein Y, Kealey R, Reynen E, Soobiah C, Thavorn K, Hutton B, Hemmelgarn BR, Yazdi F, D'Souza J, MacDonald H, Tricco AC
BMJ Open 2017 Jul 20;7(7):e017248. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017248. PMID: 28729328Free PMC Article
Christensen J, Grønborg TK, Sørensen MJ, Schendel D, Parner ET, Pedersen LH, Vestergaard M
JAMA 2013 Apr 24;309(16):1696-703. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.2270. PMID: 23613074Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Koh HY, Smith L, Wiltrout KN, Podury A, Chourasia N, D'Gama AM, Park M, Knight D, Sexton EL, Koh JJ, Oby B, Pinsky R, Shao DD, French CE, Shao W, Rockowitz S, Sliz P, Zhang B, Mahida S, Moufawad El Achkar C, Yuskaitis CJ, Olson HE, Sheidley BR, Poduri AH; BCH Neurology Referral and Phenotyping Group
JAMA Netw Open 2023 Jul 3;6(7):e2324380. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.24380. PMID: 37471090Free PMC Article
Räikkönen K, Gissler M, Tapiainen T, Kajantie E
JAMA Netw Open 2022 Aug 1;5(8):e2228518. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.28518. PMID: 36001315Free PMC Article
Bayat A, Kløvgaard M, Johannesen KM, Barakat TS, Kievit A, Montomoli M, Parrini E, Pietrafusa N, Schelhaas J, van Slegtenhorst M, Miya K, Guerrini R, Tranebjærg L, Tümer Z, Rubboli G, Møller RS
Epilepsy Res 2021 Feb;170:106530. Epub 2020 Dec 9 doi: 10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2020.106530. PMID: 33508693
Nickels K, Kossoff EH, Eschbach K, Joshi C
Epilepsia 2021 Jan;62(1):120-127. Epub 2020 Nov 14 doi: 10.1111/epi.16752. PMID: 33190223
Christensen J, Grønborg TK, Sørensen MJ, Schendel D, Parner ET, Pedersen LH, Vestergaard M
JAMA 2013 Apr 24;309(16):1696-703. doi: 10.1001/jama.2013.2270. PMID: 23613074Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Donnan AM, Schneider AL, Russ-Hall S, Churilov L, Scheffer IE
Neurology 2023 Apr 18;100(16):e1712-e1722. Epub 2023 Feb 7 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000207080. PMID: 36750385Free PMC Article
Knupp KG, Scheffer IE, Ceulemans B, Sullivan J, Nickels KC, Lagae L, Guerrini R, Zuberi SM, Nabbout R, Riney K, Agarwal A, Lock M, Dai D, Farfel GM, Galer BS, Gammaitoni AR, Polega S, Davis R, Gil-Nagel A
Epilepsia 2023 Jan;64(1):139-151. Epub 2022 Nov 9 doi: 10.1111/epi.17431. PMID: 36196777Free PMC Article
Hahn CD, Jiang Y, Villanueva V, Zolnowska M, Arkilo D, Hsiao S, Asgharnejad M, Dlugos D
Epilepsia 2022 Oct;63(10):2671-2683. Epub 2022 Aug 4 doi: 10.1111/epi.17367. PMID: 35841234Free PMC Article
Xian J, Parthasarathy S, Ruggiero SM, Balagura G, Fitch E, Helbig K, Gan J, Ganesan S, Kaufman MC, Ellis CA, Lewis-Smith D, Galer P, Cunningham K, O'Brien M, Cosico M, Baker K, Darling A, Veiga de Goes F, El Achkar CM, Doering JH, Furia F, García-Cazorla Á, Gardella E, Geertjens L, Klein C, Kolesnik-Taylor A, Lammertse H, Lee J, Mackie A, Misra-Isrie M, Olson H, Sexton E, Sheidley B, Smith L, Sotero L, Stamberger H, Syrbe S, Thalwitzer KM, van Berkel A, van Haelst M, Yuskaitis C, Weckhuysen S, Prosser B, Son Rigby C, Demarest S, Pierce S, Zhang Y, Møller RS, Bruining H, Poduri A, Zara F, Verhage M, Striano P, Helbig I
Brain 2022 Jun 3;145(5):1668-1683. doi: 10.1093/brain/awab327. PMID: 35190816Free PMC Article
Bayat A, Kløvgaard M, Johannesen KM, Barakat TS, Kievit A, Montomoli M, Parrini E, Pietrafusa N, Schelhaas J, van Slegtenhorst M, Miya K, Guerrini R, Tranebjærg L, Tümer Z, Rubboli G, Møller RS
Epilepsy Res 2021 Feb;170:106530. Epub 2020 Dec 9 doi: 10.1016/j.eplepsyres.2020.106530. PMID: 33508693

Recent systematic reviews

Sharawat IK, Panda PK, Kasinathan A, Panda P, Dawman L, Joshi K
Seizure 2021 Feb;85:119-126. Epub 2021 Jan 11 doi: 10.1016/j.seizure.2020.12.016. PMID: 33461030
Chang X, Wu Y, Zhou J, Meng H, Zhang W, Guo J
Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Jan;99(5):e18634. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000018634. PMID: 32000367Free PMC Article
Verche E, San Luis C, Hernández S
Epilepsy Behav 2018 Nov;88:15-20. Epub 2018 Sep 10 doi: 10.1016/j.yebeh.2018.08.008. PMID: 30212723
Veroniki AA, Rios P, Cogo E, Straus SE, Finkelstein Y, Kealey R, Reynen E, Soobiah C, Thavorn K, Hutton B, Hemmelgarn BR, Yazdi F, D'Souza J, MacDonald H, Tricco AC
BMJ Open 2017 Jul 20;7(7):e017248. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017248. PMID: 28729328Free PMC Article
Banach R, Boskovic R, Einarson T, Koren G
Drug Saf 2010 Jan 1;33(1):73-9. doi: 10.2165/11317640-000000000-00000. PMID: 20000869

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