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Neurodevelopmental disorder with seizures and brain abnormalities(NEDSBA)

MedGen UID:
1794189
Concept ID:
C5561979
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: NEDSBA; NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DISORDER WITH SEIZURES AND BRAIN ABNORMALITIES
 
Gene (location): CLCN3 (4q33)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0859188
OMIM®: 619517

Definition

Neurodevelopmental disorder with seizures and brain abnormalities (NEDSBA) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by global developmental delay and onset of seizures in the first months of life associated with structural brain defects on brain imaging. Additional features may include pigmentary retinopathy with poor visual fixation and spasticity (summary by Duncan et al., 2021). [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Dilation of Virchow-Robin spaces
MedGen UID:
342926
Concept ID:
C1853618
Finding
Increased dimensions of the Virchow-Robin spaces (also known as perivascular spaces), which surround the walls of vessels as they course from the subarachnoid space through the brain parenchyma. Perivascular spaces are commonly microscopic, and not visible on conventional neuroimaging. This term refers to an increase of size of these spaces such that they are visible on neuroimaging (usually magnetic resonance imaging). The dilatations are regular cavities that always contain a patent artery.
Feeding difficulties
MedGen UID:
65429
Concept ID:
C0232466
Finding
Impaired ability to eat related to problems gathering food and getting ready to suck, chew, or swallow it.
Spasticity
MedGen UID:
7753
Concept ID:
C0026838
Sign or Symptom
A motor disorder characterized by a velocity-dependent increase in tonic stretch reflexes with increased muscle tone, exaggerated (hyperexcitable) tendon reflexes.
Delayed ability to walk
MedGen UID:
66034
Concept ID:
C0241726
Finding
A failure to achieve the ability to walk at an appropriate developmental stage. Most children learn to walk in a series of stages, and learn to walk short distances independently between 12 and 15 months.
Tonic seizure
MedGen UID:
82855
Concept ID:
C0270844
Disease or Syndrome
A tonic seizure is a type of motor seizure characterised by unilateral or bilateral limb stiffening or elevation, often with neck stiffening.
Partial agenesis of the corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
98127
Concept ID:
C0431368
Congenital Abnormality
A partial failure of the development of the corpus callosum.
Global developmental delay
MedGen UID:
107838
Concept ID:
C0557874
Finding
A delay in the achievement of motor or mental milestones in the domains of development of a child, including motor skills, speech and language, cognitive skills, and social and emotional skills. This term should only be used to describe children younger than five years of age.
Focal-onset seizure
MedGen UID:
199670
Concept ID:
C0751495
Disease or Syndrome
A focal-onset seizure is a type of seizure originating within networks limited to one hemisphere. They may be discretely localized or more widely distributed, and may originate in subcortical structures.
Autistic behavior
MedGen UID:
163547
Concept ID:
C0856975
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Persistent deficits in social interaction and communication and interaction as well as a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest as well as repetitive patterns of behavior.
Delayed gross motor development
MedGen UID:
332508
Concept ID:
C1837658
Finding
A type of motor delay characterized by a delay in acquiring the ability to control the large muscles of the body for walking, running, sitting, and crawling.
Absent speech
MedGen UID:
340737
Concept ID:
C1854882
Finding
Complete lack of development of speech and language abilities.
Lateral ventricle dilatation
MedGen UID:
383904
Concept ID:
C1856409
Pathologic Function
Restlessness
MedGen UID:
854457
Concept ID:
C3887611
Sign or Symptom
A state of unease is characterized by diffuse motor activity or motion, which is subject to limited control, nonproductive, or disorganized behavior.
Delayed CNS myelination
MedGen UID:
867393
Concept ID:
C4021758
Anatomical Abnormality
Delayed myelination in the central nervous system.
Abnormal dentate nucleus morphology
MedGen UID:
867758
Concept ID:
C4022148
Anatomical Abnormality
An abnormality of the dentate nucleus.
Delayed fine motor development
MedGen UID:
869257
Concept ID:
C4023681
Finding
A type of motor delay characterized by a delay in acquiring the ability to control the fingers and hands.
Myoclonic seizure
MedGen UID:
1385980
Concept ID:
C4317123
Sign or Symptom
A myoclonic seizure is a type of motor seizure characterised by sudden, brief (<100 ms) involuntary single or multiple contraction of muscles or muscle groups of variable topography (axial, proximal limb, distal). Myoclonus is less regularly repetitive and less sustained than is clonus.
Reduced amygdala volume
MedGen UID:
1373776
Concept ID:
C4476780
Anatomical Abnormality
A decrease in the volume (size) of the amygdyla.
Hypoplastic hippocampus
MedGen UID:
1388294
Concept ID:
C4476822
Congenital Abnormality
Underdevelopment of the hippocampus.
Thin corpus callosum
MedGen UID:
1785336
Concept ID:
C5441562
Anatomical Abnormality
An abnormally thin corpus callous, due to atrophy, hypoplasia or agenesis. This term is intended to be used in situations where it is not known if thinning of the corpus callosum (for instance, as visualized by magnetic resonance tomography) is due to abnormal development (e.g. a leukodystrophy) or atrophy following normal development (e.g. neurodegeneration).
Microcephaly
MedGen UID:
1644158
Concept ID:
C4551563
Finding
Head circumference below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender.
Tented upper lip vermilion
MedGen UID:
326574
Concept ID:
C1839767
Finding
Triangular appearance of the oral aperture with the apex in the midpoint of the upper vermilion and the lower vermilion forming the base.
Thin upper lip vermilion
MedGen UID:
355352
Concept ID:
C1865017
Finding
Height of the vermilion of the upper lip in the midline more than 2 SD below the mean. Alternatively, an apparently reduced height of the vermilion of the upper lip in the frontal view (subjective).
Nystagmus
MedGen UID:
45166
Concept ID:
C0028738
Disease or Syndrome
Rhythmic, involuntary oscillations of one or both eyes related to abnormality in fixation, conjugate gaze, or vestibular mechanisms.
Retinal pigment epithelial mottling
MedGen UID:
347513
Concept ID:
C1857644
Finding
Mottling (spots or blotches with different shades) of the retinal pigment epithelium, i.e., localized or generalized fundal pigment granularity associated with processes at the level of the retinal pigment epithelium.
Visual fixation instability
MedGen UID:
1372887
Concept ID:
C4476760
Finding
A deficit in the ability to fixate eye movements in order to stabilize images on the retina

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Curatolo P, Trivisano M, Specchio N
Semin Pediatr Neurol 2023 Oct;47:101086. Epub 2023 Sep 18 doi: 10.1016/j.spen.2023.101086. PMID: 37919037
Oppermann H, Marcos-Grañeda E, Weiss LA, Gurnett CA, Jelsig AM, Vineke SH, Isidor B, Mercier S, Magnussen K, Zacher P, Hashim M, Pagnamenta AT, Race S, Srivastava S, Frazier Z, Maiwald R, Pergande M, Milani D, Rinelli M, Levy J, Krey I, Fontana P, Lonardo F, Riley S, Kretzer J, Rankin J, Reis LM, Semina EV, Reuter MS, Scherer SW, Iascone M, Weis D, Fagerberg CR, Brasch-Andersen C, Hansen LK, Kuechler A, Noble N, Gardham A, Tenney J, Rathore G, Beck-Woedl S, Haack TB, Pavlidou DC, Atallah I, Vodopiutz J, Janecke AR, Hsieh TC, Lesmann H, Klinkhammer H, Krawitz PM, Lemke JR, Jamra RA, Nieto M, Tümer Z, Platzer K
Eur J Hum Genet 2023 Nov;31(11):1251-1260. Epub 2023 Aug 30 doi: 10.1038/s41431-023-01445-2. PMID: 37644171Free PMC Article
Wilmshurst JM, Gaillard WD, Vinayan KP, Tsuchida TN, Plouin P, Van Bogaert P, Carrizosa J, Elia M, Craiu D, Jovic NJ, Nordli D, Hirtz D, Wong V, Glauser T, Mizrahi EM, Cross JH
Epilepsia 2015 Aug;56(8):1185-97. Epub 2015 Jun 30 doi: 10.1111/epi.13057. PMID: 26122601

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Xian J, Parthasarathy S, Ruggiero SM, Balagura G, Fitch E, Helbig K, Gan J, Ganesan S, Kaufman MC, Ellis CA, Lewis-Smith D, Galer P, Cunningham K, O'Brien M, Cosico M, Baker K, Darling A, Veiga de Goes F, El Achkar CM, Doering JH, Furia F, García-Cazorla Á, Gardella E, Geertjens L, Klein C, Kolesnik-Taylor A, Lammertse H, Lee J, Mackie A, Misra-Isrie M, Olson H, Sexton E, Sheidley B, Smith L, Sotero L, Stamberger H, Syrbe S, Thalwitzer KM, van Berkel A, van Haelst M, Yuskaitis C, Weckhuysen S, Prosser B, Son Rigby C, Demarest S, Pierce S, Zhang Y, Møller RS, Bruining H, Poduri A, Zara F, Verhage M, Striano P, Helbig I
Brain 2022 Jun 3;145(5):1668-1683. doi: 10.1093/brain/awab327. PMID: 35190816Free PMC Article
Bar C, Kuchenbuch M, Barcia G, Schneider A, Jennesson M, Le Guyader G, Lesca G, Mignot C, Montomoli M, Parrini E, Isnard H, Rolland A, Keren B, Afenjar A, Dorison N, Sadleir LG, Breuillard D, Levy R, Rio M, Dupont S, Negrin S, Danieli A, Scalais E, De Saint Martin A, El Chehadeh S, Chelly J, Poisson A, Lebre AS, Nica A, Odent S, Sekhara T, Brankovic V, Goldenberg A, Vrielynck P, Lederer D, Maurey H, Terrone G, Besmond C, Hubert L, Berquin P, Billette de Villemeur T, Isidor B, Freeman JL, Mefford HC, Myers CT, Howell KB, Rodríguez-Sacristán Cascajo A, Meyer P, Genevieve D, Guët A, Doummar D, Durigneux J, van Dooren MF, de Wit MCY, Gerard M, Marey I, Munnich A, Guerrini R, Scheffer IE, Kabashi E, Nabbout R
Epilepsia 2020 Nov;61(11):2461-2473. Epub 2020 Sep 21 doi: 10.1111/epi.16679. PMID: 32954514
Vlaskamp DRM, Shaw BJ, Burgess R, Mei D, Montomoli M, Xie H, Myers CT, Bennett MF, XiangWei W, Williams D, Maas SM, Brooks AS, Mancini GMS, van de Laar IMBH, van Hagen JM, Ware TL, Webster RI, Malone S, Berkovic SF, Kalnins RM, Sicca F, Korenke GC, van Ravenswaaij-Arts CMA, Hildebrand MS, Mefford HC, Jiang Y, Guerrini R, Scheffer IE
Neurology 2019 Jan 8;92(2):e96-e107. Epub 2018 Dec 12 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000006729. PMID: 30541864Free PMC Article
Niturad CE, Lev D, Kalscheuer VM, Charzewska A, Schubert J, Lerman-Sagie T, Kroes HY, Oegema R, Traverso M, Specchio N, Lassota M, Chelly J, Bennett-Back O, Carmi N, Koffler-Brill T, Iacomino M, Trivisano M, Capovilla G, Striano P, Nawara M, Rzonca S, Fischer U, Bienek M, Jensen C, Hu H, Thiele H, Altmüller J, Krause R, May P, Becker F; EuroEPINOMICS Consortium, Balling R, Biskup S, Haas SA, Nürnberg P, van Gassen KLI, Lerche H, Zara F, Maljevic S, Leshinsky-Silver E
Brain 2017 Nov 1;140(11):2879-2894. doi: 10.1093/brain/awx236. PMID: 29053855
Cox DM, Butler MG
Int J Mol Sci 2015 Feb 13;16(2):4068-82. doi: 10.3390/ijms16024068. PMID: 25689425Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Oppermann H, Marcos-Grañeda E, Weiss LA, Gurnett CA, Jelsig AM, Vineke SH, Isidor B, Mercier S, Magnussen K, Zacher P, Hashim M, Pagnamenta AT, Race S, Srivastava S, Frazier Z, Maiwald R, Pergande M, Milani D, Rinelli M, Levy J, Krey I, Fontana P, Lonardo F, Riley S, Kretzer J, Rankin J, Reis LM, Semina EV, Reuter MS, Scherer SW, Iascone M, Weis D, Fagerberg CR, Brasch-Andersen C, Hansen LK, Kuechler A, Noble N, Gardham A, Tenney J, Rathore G, Beck-Woedl S, Haack TB, Pavlidou DC, Atallah I, Vodopiutz J, Janecke AR, Hsieh TC, Lesmann H, Klinkhammer H, Krawitz PM, Lemke JR, Jamra RA, Nieto M, Tümer Z, Platzer K
Eur J Hum Genet 2023 Nov;31(11):1251-1260. Epub 2023 Aug 30 doi: 10.1038/s41431-023-01445-2. PMID: 37644171Free PMC Article
Cousin MA, Creighton BA, Breau KA, Spillmann RC, Torti E, Dontu S, Tripathi S, Ajit D, Edwards RJ, Afriyie S, Bay JC, Harper KM, Beltran AA, Munoz LJ, Falcon Rodriguez L, Stankewich MC, Person RE, Si Y, Normand EA, Blevins A, May AS, Bier L, Aggarwal V, Mancini GMS, van Slegtenhorst MA, Cremer K, Becker J, Engels H, Aretz S, MacKenzie JJ, Brilstra E, van Gassen KLI, van Jaarsveld RH, Oegema R, Parsons GM, Mark P, Helbig I, McKeown SE, Stratton R, Cogne B, Isidor B, Cacheiro P, Smedley D, Firth HV, Bierhals T, Kloth K, Weiss D, Fairley C, Shieh JT, Kritzer A, Jayakar P, Kurtz-Nelson E, Bernier RA, Wang T, Eichler EE, van de Laar IMBH, McConkie-Rosell A, McDonald MT, Kemppainen J, Lanpher BC, Schultz-Rogers LE, Gunderson LB, Pichurin PN, Yoon G, Zech M, Jech R, Winkelmann J; Undiagnosed Diseases Network; Genomics England Research Consortium, Beltran AS, Zimmermann MT, Temple B, Moy SS, Klee EW, Tan QK, Lorenzo DN
Nat Genet 2021 Jul;53(7):1006-1021. Epub 2021 Jul 1 doi: 10.1038/s41588-021-00886-z. PMID: 34211179Free PMC Article
Glinton KE, Hurst ACE, Bowling KM, Cristian I, Haynes D, Adstamongkonkul D, Schnappauf O, Beck DB, Brewer C, Parikh AS, Shinde DN, Donaldson A, Brautbar A, Koene S, van Haeringen A, Piton A, Capri Y, Furlan M, Gardella E, Møller RS, van de Beek I, Zuurbier L, Lakeman P, Bayat A, Martinez J, Signer R, Torring PM, Engelund MB, Gripp KW, Amlie-Wolf L, Henderson LB, Midro AT, Tarasów E, Stasiewicz-Jarocka B, Moskal-Jasinska D, Vos P, Boschann F, Stoltenburg C, Puk O, Mero IL, Lossius K, Mignot C, Keren B, Acosta Guio JC, Briceño I, Gomez A, Yang Y, Stankiewicz P
Am J Med Genet A 2021 May;185(5):1366-1378. Epub 2021 Jan 31 doi: 10.1002/ajmg.a.62102. PMID: 33522091Free PMC Article
Rose S, Niyazov DM, Rossignol DA, Goldenthal M, Kahler SG, Frye RE
Mol Diagn Ther 2018 Oct;22(5):571-593. doi: 10.1007/s40291-018-0352-x. PMID: 30039193Free PMC Article
Margolis SS, Sell GL, Zbinden MA, Bird LM
Neurotherapeutics 2015 Jul;12(3):641-50. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0361-y. PMID: 26040994Free PMC Article

Therapy

Specchio N, Nabbout R, Aronica E, Auvin S, Benvenuto A, de Palma L, Feucht M, Jansen F, Kotulska K, Sarnat H, Lagae L, Jozwiak S, Curatolo P
Eur J Paediatr Neurol 2023 Nov;47:25-34. Epub 2023 Aug 30 doi: 10.1016/j.ejpn.2023.08.005. PMID: 37669572
Frank Y
Pediatr Neurol 2021 Sep;122:59-64. Epub 2021 Jun 16 doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2021.06.002. PMID: 34325981
Vlaskamp DRM, Shaw BJ, Burgess R, Mei D, Montomoli M, Xie H, Myers CT, Bennett MF, XiangWei W, Williams D, Maas SM, Brooks AS, Mancini GMS, van de Laar IMBH, van Hagen JM, Ware TL, Webster RI, Malone S, Berkovic SF, Kalnins RM, Sicca F, Korenke GC, van Ravenswaaij-Arts CMA, Hildebrand MS, Mefford HC, Jiang Y, Guerrini R, Scheffer IE
Neurology 2019 Jan 8;92(2):e96-e107. Epub 2018 Dec 12 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000006729. PMID: 30541864Free PMC Article
Margolis SS, Sell GL, Zbinden MA, Bird LM
Neurotherapeutics 2015 Jul;12(3):641-50. doi: 10.1007/s13311-015-0361-y. PMID: 26040994Free PMC Article
Hyde TM, Weinberger DR
Schizophr Bull 1997;23(4):611-22. doi: 10.1093/schbul/23.4.611. PMID: 9365998

Prognosis

Curatolo P, Trivisano M, Specchio N
Semin Pediatr Neurol 2023 Oct;47:101086. Epub 2023 Sep 18 doi: 10.1016/j.spen.2023.101086. PMID: 37919037
Oppermann H, Marcos-Grañeda E, Weiss LA, Gurnett CA, Jelsig AM, Vineke SH, Isidor B, Mercier S, Magnussen K, Zacher P, Hashim M, Pagnamenta AT, Race S, Srivastava S, Frazier Z, Maiwald R, Pergande M, Milani D, Rinelli M, Levy J, Krey I, Fontana P, Lonardo F, Riley S, Kretzer J, Rankin J, Reis LM, Semina EV, Reuter MS, Scherer SW, Iascone M, Weis D, Fagerberg CR, Brasch-Andersen C, Hansen LK, Kuechler A, Noble N, Gardham A, Tenney J, Rathore G, Beck-Woedl S, Haack TB, Pavlidou DC, Atallah I, Vodopiutz J, Janecke AR, Hsieh TC, Lesmann H, Klinkhammer H, Krawitz PM, Lemke JR, Jamra RA, Nieto M, Tümer Z, Platzer K
Eur J Hum Genet 2023 Nov;31(11):1251-1260. Epub 2023 Aug 30 doi: 10.1038/s41431-023-01445-2. PMID: 37644171Free PMC Article
McElreavey K, Pailhoux E, Bashamboo A
Sex Dev 2022;16(2-3):194-206. Epub 2022 Jul 14 doi: 10.1159/000522004. PMID: 35835064
Bar C, Kuchenbuch M, Barcia G, Schneider A, Jennesson M, Le Guyader G, Lesca G, Mignot C, Montomoli M, Parrini E, Isnard H, Rolland A, Keren B, Afenjar A, Dorison N, Sadleir LG, Breuillard D, Levy R, Rio M, Dupont S, Negrin S, Danieli A, Scalais E, De Saint Martin A, El Chehadeh S, Chelly J, Poisson A, Lebre AS, Nica A, Odent S, Sekhara T, Brankovic V, Goldenberg A, Vrielynck P, Lederer D, Maurey H, Terrone G, Besmond C, Hubert L, Berquin P, Billette de Villemeur T, Isidor B, Freeman JL, Mefford HC, Myers CT, Howell KB, Rodríguez-Sacristán Cascajo A, Meyer P, Genevieve D, Guët A, Doummar D, Durigneux J, van Dooren MF, de Wit MCY, Gerard M, Marey I, Munnich A, Guerrini R, Scheffer IE, Kabashi E, Nabbout R
Epilepsia 2020 Nov;61(11):2461-2473. Epub 2020 Sep 21 doi: 10.1111/epi.16679. PMID: 32954514
Hyde TM, Weinberger DR
Schizophr Bull 1997;23(4):611-22. doi: 10.1093/schbul/23.4.611. PMID: 9365998

Clinical prediction guides

Xian J, Parthasarathy S, Ruggiero SM, Balagura G, Fitch E, Helbig K, Gan J, Ganesan S, Kaufman MC, Ellis CA, Lewis-Smith D, Galer P, Cunningham K, O'Brien M, Cosico M, Baker K, Darling A, Veiga de Goes F, El Achkar CM, Doering JH, Furia F, García-Cazorla Á, Gardella E, Geertjens L, Klein C, Kolesnik-Taylor A, Lammertse H, Lee J, Mackie A, Misra-Isrie M, Olson H, Sexton E, Sheidley B, Smith L, Sotero L, Stamberger H, Syrbe S, Thalwitzer KM, van Berkel A, van Haelst M, Yuskaitis C, Weckhuysen S, Prosser B, Son Rigby C, Demarest S, Pierce S, Zhang Y, Møller RS, Bruining H, Poduri A, Zara F, Verhage M, Striano P, Helbig I
Brain 2022 Jun 3;145(5):1668-1683. doi: 10.1093/brain/awab327. PMID: 35190816Free PMC Article
Cousin MA, Creighton BA, Breau KA, Spillmann RC, Torti E, Dontu S, Tripathi S, Ajit D, Edwards RJ, Afriyie S, Bay JC, Harper KM, Beltran AA, Munoz LJ, Falcon Rodriguez L, Stankewich MC, Person RE, Si Y, Normand EA, Blevins A, May AS, Bier L, Aggarwal V, Mancini GMS, van Slegtenhorst MA, Cremer K, Becker J, Engels H, Aretz S, MacKenzie JJ, Brilstra E, van Gassen KLI, van Jaarsveld RH, Oegema R, Parsons GM, Mark P, Helbig I, McKeown SE, Stratton R, Cogne B, Isidor B, Cacheiro P, Smedley D, Firth HV, Bierhals T, Kloth K, Weiss D, Fairley C, Shieh JT, Kritzer A, Jayakar P, Kurtz-Nelson E, Bernier RA, Wang T, Eichler EE, van de Laar IMBH, McConkie-Rosell A, McDonald MT, Kemppainen J, Lanpher BC, Schultz-Rogers LE, Gunderson LB, Pichurin PN, Yoon G, Zech M, Jech R, Winkelmann J; Undiagnosed Diseases Network; Genomics England Research Consortium, Beltran AS, Zimmermann MT, Temple B, Moy SS, Klee EW, Tan QK, Lorenzo DN
Nat Genet 2021 Jul;53(7):1006-1021. Epub 2021 Jul 1 doi: 10.1038/s41588-021-00886-z. PMID: 34211179Free PMC Article
Vissers LELM, Kalvakuri S, de Boer E, Geuer S, Oud M, van Outersterp I, Kwint M, Witmond M, Kersten S, Polla DL, Weijers D, Begtrup A, McWalter K, Ruiz A, Gabau E, Morton JEV, Griffith C, Weiss K, Gamble C, Bartley J, Vernon HJ, Brunet K, Ruivenkamp C, Kant SG, Kruszka P, Larson A, Afenjar A, Billette de Villemeur T, Nugent K; DDD Study, Raymond FL, Venselaar H, Demurger F, Soler-Alfonso C, Li D, Bhoj E, Hayes I, Hamilton NP, Ahmad A, Fisher R, van den Born M, Willems M, Sorlin A, Delanne J, Moutton S, Christophe P, Mau-Them FT, Vitobello A, Goel H, Massingham L, Phornphutkul C, Schwab J, Keren B, Charles P, Vreeburg M, De Simone L, Hoganson G, Iascone M, Milani D, Evenepoel L, Revencu N, Ward DI, Burns K, Krantz I, Raible SE, Murrell JR, Wood K, Cho MT, van Bokhoven H, Muenke M, Kleefstra T, Bodmer R, de Brouwer APM
Am J Hum Genet 2020 Jul 2;107(1):164-172. Epub 2020 Jun 17 doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2020.05.017. PMID: 32553196Free PMC Article
Borlot F, Regan BM, Bassett AS, Stavropoulos DJ, Andrade DM
JAMA Neurol 2017 Nov 1;74(11):1301-1311. doi: 10.1001/jamaneurol.2017.1775. PMID: 28846756Free PMC Article
Cox DM, Butler MG
Int J Mol Sci 2015 Feb 13;16(2):4068-82. doi: 10.3390/ijms16024068. PMID: 25689425Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Swatzyna RJ, Arns M, Tarnow JD, Turner RP, Barr E, MacInerney EK, Hoffman AM, Boutros NN
Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2022 Apr;31(4):545-552. Epub 2020 Jul 14 doi: 10.1007/s00787-020-01597-2. PMID: 32666203
Smith SDW, Smith AB, Richardson MP, Pal DK
Epilepsia Open 2021 Jun;6(2):310-322. Epub 2021 Mar 2 doi: 10.1002/epi4.12468. PMID: 34033258Free PMC Article
Spagnoli C, Fusco C, Percesepe A, Leuzzi V, Pisani F
Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 18;22(8) doi: 10.3390/ijms22084202. PMID: 33919646Free PMC Article
Kolevzon A, Delaby E, Berry-Kravis E, Buxbaum JD, Betancur C
Mol Autism 2019;10:50. Epub 2019 Dec 24 doi: 10.1186/s13229-019-0291-3. PMID: 31879555Free PMC Article
Rossignol DA, Frye RE
Mol Psychiatry 2012 Mar;17(3):290-314. Epub 2011 Jan 25 doi: 10.1038/mp.2010.136. PMID: 21263444Free PMC Article

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