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Delayed ability to walk

MedGen UID:
66034
Concept ID:
C0241726
Finding
Synonyms: Delayed walking; Walking delay
 
HPO: HP:0031936

Definition

A failure to achieve the ability to walk at an appropriate developmental stage. Most children learn to walk in a series of stages, and learn to walk short distances independently between 12 and 15 months. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • Delayed ability to walk

Conditions with this feature

Mucopolysaccharidosis, MPS-IV-A
MedGen UID:
43375
Concept ID:
C0086651
Disease or Syndrome
The phenotypic spectrum of mucopolysaccharidosis IVA (MPS IVA) is a continuum that ranges from a severe and rapidly progressive early-onset form to a slowly progressive later-onset form. Children with MPS IVA typically have no distinctive clinical findings at birth. The severe form is usually apparent between ages one and three years, often first manifesting as kyphoscoliosis, genu valgum (knock-knee), and pectus carinatum; the slowly progressive form may not become evident until late childhood or adolescence, often first manifesting as hip problems (pain, stiffness, and Legg Perthes disease). Progressive bone and joint involvement leads to short stature, and eventually to disabling pain and arthritis. Involvement of other organ systems can lead to significant morbidity, including respiratory compromise, obstructive sleep apnea, valvular heart disease, hearing impairment, visual impairment from corneal clouding, dental abnormalities, and hepatomegaly. Compression of the spinal cord is a common complication that results in neurologic impairment. Children with MPS IVA have normal intellectual abilities at the outset of the disease.
Angelman syndrome
MedGen UID:
58144
Concept ID:
C0162635
Disease or Syndrome
Angelman syndrome (AS) is characterized by severe developmental delay or intellectual disability, severe speech impairment, gait ataxia and/or tremulousness of the limbs, and unique behavior with an apparent happy demeanor that includes frequent laughing, smiling, and excitability. Microcephaly and seizures are also common. Developmental delays are first noted at around age six months; however, the unique clinical features of AS do not become manifest until after age one year.
Marshall-Smith syndrome
MedGen UID:
75551
Concept ID:
C0265211
Disease or Syndrome
The Marshall-Smith syndrome (MRSHSS) is a malformation syndrome characterized by accelerated skeletal maturation, relative failure to thrive, respiratory difficulties, mental retardation, and unusual facies, including prominent forehead, shallow orbits, blue sclerae, depressed nasal bridge, and micrognathia (Adam et al., 2005).
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, kyphoscoliotic type 1
MedGen UID:
75672
Concept ID:
C0268342
Disease or Syndrome
PLOD1-related kyphoscoliotic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (kEDS) is an autosomal recessive generalized connective tissue disorder characterized by hypotonia, early-onset kyphoscoliosis, and generalized joint hypermobility in association with skin fragility and ocular abnormality. Intelligence is normal. Life span may be normal, but affected individuals are at risk for rupture of medium-sized arteries. Adults with severe kyphoscoliosis are at risk for complications from restrictive lung disease, recurrent pneumonia, and cardiac failure.
Amelocerebrohypohidrotic syndrome
MedGen UID:
98036
Concept ID:
C0406740
Disease or Syndrome
Kohlschutter-Tonz syndrome (KTZS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe global developmental delay, early-onset intractable seizures, spasticity, and amelogenesis imperfecta affecting both primary and secondary teeth and causing yellow or brown discoloration of the teeth. Although the phenotype is consistent, there is variability. Impaired intellectual development is related to the severity of seizures, and the disorder can thus be considered an epileptic encephalopathy. Some infants show normal development until seizure onset, whereas others are delayed from birth. The most severely affected individuals have profound mental retardation, never acquire speech, and become bedridden early in life (summary by Schossig et al., 2012 and Mory et al., 2012). See also Kohlschutter-Tonz syndrome-like (KTZSL; 619229), caused by heterozygous mutation in the SATB1 gene (602075) on chromosome 3p23.
Eichsfeld type congenital muscular dystrophy
MedGen UID:
98047
Concept ID:
C0410180
Disease or Syndrome
Rigid spine muscular dystrophy (RSMD) is a form of congenital muscular dystrophy. Disorders in this group cause muscle weakness and wasting (atrophy) beginning very early in life. In particular, RSMD involves weakness of the muscles of the torso and neck (axial muscles). Other characteristic features include spine stiffness and serious breathing problems.\n\nIn RSMD, muscle weakness is often apparent at birth or within the first few months of life. Affected infants can have poor head control and weak muscle tone (hypotonia), which may delay the development of motor skills such as crawling or walking. Over time, muscles surrounding the spine atrophy, and the joints of the spine develop deformities called contractures that restrict movement. The neck and back become stiff and rigid, and affected children have limited ability to move their heads up and down or side to side. Affected children eventually develop an abnormal curvature of the spine (scoliosis). In some people with RSMD, muscles in the inner thighs also atrophy, although it does not impair the ability to walk.\n\nA characteristic feature of RSMD is breathing difficulty (respiratory insufficiency) due to restricted movement of the torso and weakness of the diaphragm, which is the muscle that separates the abdomen from the chest cavity. The breathing problems, which tend to occur only at night, can be life-threatening. Many affected individuals require a machine to help them breathe (mechanical ventilation) during sleep.\n\nThe combination of features characteristic of RSMD, particularly axial muscle weakness, spine rigidity, and respiratory insufficiency, is sometimes referred to as rigid spine syndrome. While these features occur on their own in RSMD, they can also occur along with additional signs and symptoms in other muscle disorders. The features of rigid spine syndrome typically appear at a younger age in people with RSMD than in those with other muscle disorders.
Floating-Harbor syndrome
MedGen UID:
152667
Concept ID:
C0729582
Disease or Syndrome
Floating-Harbor syndrome (FHS) is characterized by typical craniofacial features; low birth weight, normal head circumference, and short stature; bone age delay that normalizes between ages six and 12 years; skeletal anomalies (brachydactyly, clubbing, clinodactyly, short thumbs, prominent joints, clavicular abnormalities); severe receptive and expressive language impairment; hypernasality and high-pitched voice; and intellectual disability that is typically mild to moderate. Difficulties with temperament and behavior that are present in many children tend to improve in adulthood. Other features can include hyperopia and/or strabismus, conductive hearing loss, seizures, gastroesophageal reflux, renal anomalies (e.g., hydronephrosis / renal pelviectasis, cysts, and/or agenesis), and genital anomalies (e.g., hypospadias and/or undescended testes).
Central core myopathy
MedGen UID:
199773
Concept ID:
C0751951
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myopathy-1A (CMYP1A) with susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia is an autosomal dominant disorder of skeletal muscle characterized by muscle weakness primarily affecting the proximal muscles of the lower limbs beginning in infancy or early childhood, although later onset of symptoms has been reported. There is significant phenotypic variability, even within families, and the wide clinical diversity most likely depends on the severity of the RYR1 mutation. The disorder is static or slowly progressive; affected individuals typically show delayed motor development and usually achieve independent walking, although many have difficulty running or climbing stairs. Additional features often include mild facial weakness, joint laxity, shoulder girdle weakness, and skeletal manifestations, such as dislocation of the hips, foot deformities, scoliosis, and Achilles tendon contractures. Some patients present with orthopedic deformities. Serum creatine kinase is usually not elevated. Respiratory involvement is rare and there is no central nervous system or cardiac involvement. Patients with dominant mutations in the RYR1 gene are at risk for malignant hyperthermia and both disorders may segregate in the same family. Historically, patients with congenital myopathy due to RYR1 mutations were diagnosed based on the finding of pathologic central cores (central core disease; CCD) on muscle biopsy, which represent areas that lack oxidative enzymes and mitochondrial activity in type 1 muscle fibers. However, additional pathologic findings may also be observed, including cores and rods, central nuclei, fiber type disproportion, multiminicores, and uniform type 1 fibers. These histopathologic features are not always specific to RYR1 myopathy and often change over time (Quinlivan et al., 2003; Jungbluth et al., 2007; Klein et al., 2012; Ogasawara and Nishino, 2021). Some patients with RYR1 mutations have pathologic findings on muscle biopsy, but are clinically asymptomatic (Shuaib et al., 1987; Quane et al., 1993). Rare patients with a more severe phenotype have been found to carry a heterozygous mutation in the RYR1 gene inherited from an unaffected parent. However, in these cases, there is a possibility of recessive inheritance (CMYP1B; 255320) with either a missed second RYR1 mutation in trans or a genomic rearrangement on the other allele that is undetectable on routine genomic sequencing, since the RYR1 gene is very large and genetic analysis may be difficult (Klein et al., 2012). Genetic Heterogeneity of Congenital Myopathy See also CMYP1B (255320), caused by mutation in the RYR1 gene (180901) on chromosome 19q13; CMYP2A (161800), CMYP2B (620265), and CMYP2C (620278), caused by mutation in the ACTA1 gene (102610) on chromosome 1q42; CMYP3 (602771), caused by mutation in the SELENON gene (606210) on chromosome 1p36; CMYP4A (255310) and CMYP4B (609284), caused by mutation in the TPM3 gene (191030) on chromosome 1q21; CMYP5 (611705), caused by mutation in the TTN gene (188840) on chromosome 2q31; CMYP6 (605637), caused by mutation in the MYH2 gene (160740) on chromosome 17p13; CMYP7A (608358) and CMYP7B (255160), caused by mutation in the MYH7 gene (160760) on chromosome 14q11; CMYP8 (618654), caused by mutation in the ACTN2 gene (102573) on chromosome 1q43; CMYP9A (618822) and CMYP9B (618823), caused by mutation in the FXR1 gene (600819) on chromosome 3q28; CMYP10A (614399) and CMYP10B (620249), caused by mutation in the MEGF10 gene (612453) on chromosome 5q23; CMYP11 (619967), caused by mutation in the HACD1 gene (610467) on chromosome 10p12; CMYP12 (612540), caused by mutation in the CNTN1 gene (600016) on chromosome 12q12; CMYP13 (255995), caused by mutation in the STAC3 gene (615521) on chromosome 12q13; CMYP14 (618414), caused by mutation in the MYL1 gene (160780) on chromosome 2q34; CMYP15 (620161), caused by mutation in the TNNC2 gene (191039) on chromosome 20q13; CMYP16 (618524), caused by mutation in the MYBPC1 gene (160794) on chromosome 12q23; CMYP17 (618975), caused by mutation in the MYOD1 gene (159970) on chromosome 11p15; CMYP18 (620246), caused by mutation in the CACNA1S gene (114208) on chromosome 1q32; CMYP19 (618578), caused by mutation in the PAX7 gene (167410) on chromosome 1p36; CMYP20 (620310), caused by mutation in the RYR3 gene (180903) on chromosome 15q13; CMYP21 (620326), caused by mutation in the DNAJB4 gene (611327) on chromosome 1p31; CMYP22A (620351) and CMYP22B (620369), both caused by mutation in the SCN4A gene (603967) on chromosome 17q23; CMYP23 (609285), caused by mutation in the TPM2 gene (190990) on chromosome 9p13; and CMYP24 (617336), caused by mutation in the MYPN gene (608517) on chromosome 10q21.
X-linked intellectual disability-psychosis-macroorchidism syndrome
MedGen UID:
163232
Concept ID:
C0796222
Disease or Syndrome
The spectrum of MECP2-related phenotypes in females ranges from classic Rett syndrome to variant Rett syndrome with a broader clinical phenotype (either milder or more severe than classic Rett syndrome) to mild learning disabilities; the spectrum in males ranges from severe neonatal encephalopathy to pyramidal signs, parkinsonism, and macroorchidism (PPM-X) syndrome to severe syndromic/nonsyndromic intellectual disability. Females: Classic Rett syndrome, a progressive neurodevelopmental disorder primarily affecting girls, is characterized by apparently normal psychomotor development during the first six to 18 months of life, followed by a short period of developmental stagnation, then rapid regression in language and motor skills, followed by long-term stability. During the phase of rapid regression, repetitive, stereotypic hand movements replace purposeful hand use. Additional findings include fits of screaming and inconsolable crying, autistic features, panic-like attacks, bruxism, episodic apnea and/or hyperpnea, gait ataxia and apraxia, tremors, seizures, and acquired microcephaly. Males: Severe neonatal-onset encephalopathy, the most common phenotype in affected males, is characterized by a relentless clinical course that follows a metabolic-degenerative type of pattern, abnormal tone, involuntary movements, severe seizures, and breathing abnormalities. Death often occurs before age two years.
Intellectual disability, X-linked 30
MedGen UID:
163235
Concept ID:
C0796237
Disease or Syndrome
Any non-syndromic X-linked intellectual disability in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the PAK3 gene.
Pettigrew syndrome
MedGen UID:
162924
Concept ID:
C0796254
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked Dandy-Walker malformation with intellectual disability, basal ganglia disease and seizures (XDIBS), or Pettigrew syndrome is a central nervous system malformation characterized by severe intellectual deficit, early hypotonia with progression to spasticity and contractures, choreoathetosis, seizures, dysmorphic face (long face with prominent forehead), and brain imaging abnormalities such as Dandy-Walker malformation, and iron deposition. (From Mondo:0010574)
Neuropathy, congenital, with arthrogryposis multiplex
MedGen UID:
320286
Concept ID:
C1834206
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant childhood-onset proximal spinal muscular atrophy without contractures
MedGen UID:
322470
Concept ID:
C1834690
Disease or Syndrome
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a hereditary neuromuscular disorder characterized by degeneration of spinal cord motor neurons resulting in muscle weakness. SMALED shows autosomal dominant inheritance with muscle weakness predominantly affecting the proximal lower extremities (Harms et al., 2010). The most common form of SMA (see, e.g., SMA1, 253300) shows autosomal recessive inheritance and is due to mutation in the SMN1 gene (600354) on chromosome 5q. Genetic Heterogeneity of Lower Extremity-Predominant Spinal Muscular Atrophy See also SMALED2A (615290) and SMALED2B (618291), both of which are caused by mutation in the BICD2 gene (609797) on chromosome 9q22. SMALED2A and SMALED2B differ in age at onset and severity, with SMALED2B being more severe.
Autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2K
MedGen UID:
332193
Concept ID:
C1836373
Disease or Syndrome
Limb-girdle muscular dystrophies resulting from defective glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan (DAG1; 128239) represent the mildest end of the phenotypic spectrum of muscular dystrophies collectively known as dystroglycanopathies. The limb-girdle phenotype is characterized by onset of muscular weakness apparent after ambulation is achieved; mental retardation and mild brain anomalies are variable (Balci et al., 2005; review by Godfrey et al., 2007). The most severe end of the phenotypic spectrum of dystroglycanopathies is represented by congenital muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy with brain and eye anomalies (type A; see MDDGA1, 236670), previously designated Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) or muscle-eye-brain disease (MEB), and the intermediate range of the spectrum is represented by congenital muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy with or without mental retardation (type B; see MDDGB1, 613155). Genetic Heterogeneity of Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy-Dystroglycanopathy (Type C) Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy due to defective glycosylation of DAG1 is genetically heterogeneous. See also MDDGC2 (613158), caused by mutation in the POMT2 gene (607439); MDDGC3 (613157), caused by mutation in the POMGNT1 gene (606822); MDDGC4 (611588), caused by mutation in the FKTN gene (607440); MDDGC5 (607155), caused by mutation in the FKRP gene (606596); MDDGC7 (616052), caused by mutation in the ISPD gene (CRPPA; 614631); MDDGC8 (618135), caused by mutation in the POMGNT2 gene (614828); MDDGC9 (613818) caused by mutation in the DAG1 gene (128239); MDDGC12 (616094), caused by mutation in the POMK gene (615247); MDDGC14 (615352) caused by mutation in the GMPPB gene (615320); and MDDGC15 (612937), caused by mutation in the DPM3 gene (605951).
Posterior column ataxia-retinitis pigmentosa syndrome
MedGen UID:
324636
Concept ID:
C1836916
Disease or Syndrome
Posterior column ataxia with retinitis pigmentosa is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by childhood-onset retinitis pigmentosa and later onset of gait ataxia due to sensory loss (summary by Ishiura et al., 2011).
Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy type B6
MedGen UID:
373284
Concept ID:
C1837229
Disease or Syndrome
MDDGB6 is an autosomal recessive congenital muscular dystrophy with impaired intellectual development and structural brain abnormalities (Longman et al., 2003). It is part of a group of similar disorders resulting from defective glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan (DAG1; 128239), collectively known as 'dystroglycanopathies' (Mercuri et al., 2009). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy type B, see MDDGB1 (613155).
Joubert syndrome 3
MedGen UID:
332931
Concept ID:
C1837713
Disease or Syndrome
Classic Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by three primary findings: A distinctive cerebellar and brain stem malformation called the molar tooth sign (MTS). Hypotonia. Developmental delays. Often these findings are accompanied by episodic tachypnea or apnea and/or atypical eye movements. In general, the breathing abnormalities improve with age, truncal ataxia develops over time, and acquisition of gross motor milestones is delayed. Cognitive abilities are variable, ranging from severe intellectual disability to normal. Additional findings can include retinal dystrophy, renal disease, ocular colobomas, occipital encephalocele, hepatic fibrosis, polydactyly, oral hamartomas, and endocrine abnormalities. Both intra- and interfamilial variation are seen.
King Denborough syndrome
MedGen UID:
327082
Concept ID:
C1840365
Disease or Syndrome
King-Denborough syndrome (KDS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the triad of congenital myopathy, dysmorphic features, and susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia (summary by Dowling et al., 2011).
Autosomal dominant limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 1F
MedGen UID:
333983
Concept ID:
C1842062
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant limb-girdle muscular dystrophy-2 (LGMDD2) is a myopathy characterized by proximal muscle weakness primarily affecting the lower limbs, but also affecting the upper limbs in most patients. Affected individuals also have distal muscle weakness of the hands and lower leg muscles. There is variability in presentation and progression. Some patients present in early childhood with mildly delayed walking and difficulty running and jumping, whereas others present as adults with mainly pelvic-girdle weakness. Patients with early onset tend to have a more severe disorder, and may develop contractures, loss of independent ambulation, and respiratory insufficiency. Muscle biopsy shows dystrophic changes with abnormal nuclei, rimmed vacuoles, and filamentous inclusions (summary by Melia et al., 2013). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal dominant limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, see LGMDD1 (603511).
Intellectual disability, autosomal recessive 2
MedGen UID:
334541
Concept ID:
C1843942
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Any autosomal recessive non-syndromic intellectual disability in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the CRBN gene.
X-linked intellectual disability-cerebellar hypoplasia syndrome
MedGen UID:
336920
Concept ID:
C1845366
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked intellectual deficit-cerebellar hypoplasia, also known as OPHN1 syndrome, is a rare syndromic form of cerebellar dysgenesis characterized by moderate to severe intellectual deficit and cerebellar abnormalities.
Syndromic X-linked intellectual disability Lubs type
MedGen UID:
337496
Concept ID:
C1846058
Disease or Syndrome
MECP2 duplication syndrome is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by early-onset hypotonia, feeding difficulty, gastrointestinal manifestations including gastroesophageal reflux and constipation, delayed psychomotor development leading to severe intellectual disability, poor speech development, progressive spasticity, recurrent respiratory infections (in ~75% of affected individuals), and seizures (in ~50%). MECP2 duplication syndrome is 100% penetrant in males. Occasionally females have been described with a MECP2 duplication and a range of findings from mild intellectual disability to a phenotype similar to that seen in males. In addition to the core features, autistic behaviors, nonspecific neuroradiologic findings on brain MRI, mottled skin, and urogenital anomalies have been observed in several affected boys.
Hypotonia-cystinuria syndrome
MedGen UID:
341133
Concept ID:
C1848030
Disease or Syndrome
A rare, genetic disorder of amino acid absorption and transport, characterized by generalized hypotonia at birth, neonatal/infantile failure to thrive (followed by hyperphagia and rapid weight gain in late childhood), cystinuria type 1, nephrolithiasis, growth retardation due to growth hormone deficiency, and minor facial dysmorphism. Dysmorphic features mainly include dolichocephaly and ptosis. Nephrolithiasis occurs at variable ages.
Neutral lipid storage myopathy
MedGen UID:
339913
Concept ID:
C1853136
Disease or Syndrome
Neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy (NLSDM) is an autosomal recessive muscle disorder characterized by adult onset of slowly progressive proximal muscle weakness affecting the upper and lower limbs and associated with increased serum creatine kinase; distal muscle weakness may also occur. About half of patients develop cardiomyopathy later in the disease course. Other variable features include diabetes mellitus, hepatic steatosis, hypertriglyceridemia, and possibly sensorineural hearing loss. Leukocytes and muscle cells show cytoplasmic accumulation of triglycerides (summary by Reilich et al., 2011). Neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy belongs to a group of disorders termed neutral lipid storage disorders (NLSDs). These disorders are characterized by the presence of triglyceride-containing cytoplasmic droplets in leukocytes and in other tissues, including bone marrow, skin, and muscle. Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome (CDS; 275630) is defined as NLSD with ichthyosis (NLSDI). Patients with NLSDM present with myopathy but without ichthyosis (summary by Fischer et al., 2007).
Nemaline myopathy 7
MedGen UID:
343979
Concept ID:
C1853154
Disease or Syndrome
Nemaline myopathy-7 is an autosomal recessive congenital myopathy characterized by very early onset of hypotonia and delayed motor development. Affected individuals have difficulty walking and running due to proximal muscle weakness. The disorder is slowly progressive, and patients may lose independent ambulation. Muscle biopsy shows nemaline rods and may later show minicores, abnormal protein aggregates, and dystrophic changes (summary by Ockeloen et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nemaline myopathy, see 161800.
Intellectual disability, short stature, facial anomalies, and joint dislocations
MedGen UID:
342897
Concept ID:
C1853507
Disease or Syndrome
Autism, susceptibility to, 5
MedGen UID:
340048
Concept ID:
C1853755
Disease or Syndrome
IDDAS is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by varying degrees of intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, and language deficits (Deriziotis et al., 2014; den Hoed et al., 2018).
Metaphyseal chondrodysplasia-retinitis pigmentosa syndrome
MedGen UID:
381579
Concept ID:
C1855188
Disease or Syndrome
Brachydactyly-short stature-retinitis pigmentosa syndrome is a rare, genetic, congenital limb malformation syndrome characterized by mild to severe short stature, brachydactyly, and retinal degeneration (usually retinitis pigmentosa), associated with variable intellectual disability, developmental delays, and craniofacial anomalies.
Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia 2
MedGen UID:
349134
Concept ID:
C1859298
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia-2 is an neurologic disorder characterized by onset of impaired motor development and ataxic gait in early childhood. Additional features often include loss of fine motor skills, dysarthria, nystagmus, cerebellar signs, and delayed cognitive development with intellectual disability. Brain imaging shows cerebellar atrophy. Overall, the disorder is non- or slowly progressive, with survival into adulthood (summary by Jobling et al., 2015).
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 29
MedGen UID:
350085
Concept ID:
C1861732
Disease or Syndrome
Spinocerebellar ataxia-29 (SCA29) is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized by onset in infancy of delayed motor development and mild cognitive delay. Affected individuals develop a very slowly progressive or nonprogressive gait and limb ataxia associated with cerebellar atrophy on brain imaging. Additional variable features include nystagmus, dysarthria, and tremor (summary by Huang et al., 2012). For a general discussion of autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia, see SCA1 (164400).
Hypomyelination and Congenital Cataract
MedGen UID:
501134
Concept ID:
C1864663
Congenital Abnormality
Hypomyelination and congenital cataract (HCC) is usually characterized by bilateral congenital cataracts and normal psychomotor or only mildly delayed development in the first year of life, followed by slowly progressive neurologic impairment manifest as ataxia, spasticity (brisk tendon reflexes and bilateral extensor plantar responses), and mild-to-moderate cognitive impairment. Dysarthria and truncal hypotonia are observed. Cerebellar signs (truncal titubation and intention tremor) and peripheral neuropathy (muscle weakness and wasting of the legs) are present in the majority of affected individuals. Seizures can occur. Cataracts may be absent in some individuals.
Mucolipidosis type II
MedGen UID:
435914
Concept ID:
C2673377
Disease or Syndrome
GNPTAB-related disorders comprise the phenotypes mucolipidosis II (ML II) and mucolipidosis IIIa/ß (ML IIIa/ß), and phenotypes intermediate between ML II and ML IIIa/ß. ML II is evident at birth and slowly progressive; death most often occurs in early childhood. Orthopedic abnormalities present at birth may include thoracic deformity, kyphosis, clubfeet, deformed long bones, and/or dislocation of the hip(s). Growth often ceases in the second year of life; contractures develop in all large joints. The skin is thickened, facial features are coarse, and gingiva are hypertrophic. All children have cardiac involvement, most commonly thickening and insufficiency of the mitral valve and, less frequently, the aortic valve. Progressive mucosal thickening narrows the airways, and gradual stiffening of the thoracic cage contributes to respiratory insufficiency, the most common cause of death. ML IIIa/ß becomes evident at about age three years with slow growth rate and short stature; joint stiffness and pain initially in the shoulders, hips, and fingers; gradual mild coarsening of facial features; and normal to mildly impaired cognitive development. Pain from osteoporosis becomes more severe during adolescence. Cardiorespiratory complications (restrictive lung disease, thickening and insufficiency of the mitral and aortic valves, left and/or right ventricular hypertrophy) are common causes of death, typically in early to middle adulthood. Phenotypes intermediate between ML II and ML IIIa/ß are characterized by physical growth in infancy that resembles that of ML II and neuromotor and speech development that resemble that of ML IIIa/ß.
Joubert syndrome 8
MedGen UID:
436772
Concept ID:
C2676771
Disease or Syndrome
Classic Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by three primary findings: A distinctive cerebellar and brain stem malformation called the molar tooth sign (MTS). Hypotonia. Developmental delays. Often these findings are accompanied by episodic tachypnea or apnea and/or atypical eye movements. In general, the breathing abnormalities improve with age, truncal ataxia develops over time, and acquisition of gross motor milestones is delayed. Cognitive abilities are variable, ranging from severe intellectual disability to normal. Additional findings can include retinal dystrophy, renal disease, ocular colobomas, occipital encephalocele, hepatic fibrosis, polydactyly, oral hamartomas, and endocrine abnormalities. Both intra- and interfamilial variation are seen.
Syndromic X-linked intellectual disability Najm type
MedGen UID:
437070
Concept ID:
C2677903
Disease or Syndrome
CASK disorders include a spectrum of phenotypes in both females and males. Two main types of clinical presentation are seen: Microcephaly with pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia (MICPCH), generally associated with pathogenic loss-of-function variants in CASK. X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) with or without nystagmus, generally associated with hypomorphic CASK pathogenic variants. MICPCH is typically seen in females with moderate-to-severe intellectual disability, progressive microcephaly with or without ophthalmologic anomalies, and sensorineural hearing loss. Most are able to sit independently; 20%-25% attain the ability to walk; language is nearly absent in most. Neurologic features may include axial hypotonia, hypertonia/spasticity of the extremities, and dystonia or other movement disorders. Nearly 40% have seizures by age ten years. Behaviors may include sleep disturbances, hand stereotypies, and self biting. MICPCH in males may occur with or without severe epileptic encephalopathy in addition to severe-to-profound developmental delay. When seizures are present they occur early and may be intractable. In individuals and families with milder (i.e., hypomorphic) pathogenic variants, the clinical phenotype is usually that of XLID with or without nystagmus and additional clinical features. Males have mild-to-severe intellectual disability, with or without nystagmus and other ocular features. Females typically have normal intelligence with some displaying mild-to-severe intellectual disability with or without ocular features.
Intellectual disability, X-linked syndromic, Turner type
MedGen UID:
394425
Concept ID:
C2678046
Disease or Syndrome
Turner-type X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder (MRXST) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with a highly variable phenotype. Some affected families show X-linked recessive inheritance, with only males being affected and carrier females having no abnormal findings. In other affected families, males are severely affected, and female mutation carriers show milder cognitive abnormalities or dysmorphic features. In addition, there are female patients with de novo mutations who show the full phenotype, despite skewed X-chromosome inactivation. Affected individuals show global developmental delay from infancy, with variably impaired intellectual development and poor or absent speech, often with delayed walking. Dysmorphic features are common and can include macrocephaly, microcephaly, deep-set eyes, hypotelorism, small palpebral fissures, dysplastic, large, or low-set ears, long face, bitemporal narrowing, high-arched palate, thin upper lip, and scoliosis or mild distal skeletal anomalies, such as brachydactyly or tapered fingers. Males tend to have cryptorchidism. Other features, such as hypotonia, seizures, and delayed bone age, are more variable (summary by Moortgat et al., 2018).
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 18
MedGen UID:
442343
Concept ID:
C2749936
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia-18B (SPG18B) is a severe autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset in early childhood of progressive spastic paraplegia resulting in motor disability. Most affected individuals have severe psychomotor retardation. Some may develop significant joint contractures (summary by Alazami et al., 2011 and Yildirim et al., 2011).
Cerebellar ataxia, intellectual disability, and dysequilibrium syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
412914
Concept ID:
C2750234
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebellar ataxia, impaired intellectual development, and dysequilibrium syndrome (CAMRQ) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by congenital cerebellar ataxia and intellectual disability (summary by Gulsuner et al., 2011). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CAMRQ, see CAMRQ1 (224050).
Intellectual disability, autosomal recessive 13
MedGen UID:
442564
Concept ID:
C2750791
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Any autosomal recessive non-syndromic intellectual disability in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the TRAPPC9 gene.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 39
MedGen UID:
414492
Concept ID:
C2751855
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-39 with leukodystrophy (DEE39) is an autosomal recessive neurologic syndrome characterized clinically by global developmental delay apparent in early infancy, early-onset seizures, hypotonia with poor motor function, and hypomyelination on brain imaging. Other features include absent speech and inability to walk; spasticity and hyperreflexia has also been reported. Although there is significant hypomyelination on brain imaging, the disorder was not classified as a primary leukodystrophy. The myelination defect was thought to stem from primary neuronal dysfunction due to impaired mitochondrial transport activity (summary by Wibom et al., 2009 and Falk et al., 2014). However, serial brain imaging in a patient with DEE39 by Kavanaugh et al. (2019) suggested that the mechanism of disease is consistent with a leukoaxonopathy type of leukodystrophy. For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
COG1 congenital disorder of glycosylation
MedGen UID:
443957
Concept ID:
C2931011
Disease or Syndrome
An extremely rare form of carbohydrate deficient glycoprotein syndrome with, in the few cases reported to date, variable signs including microcephaly, growth retardation, psychomotor retardation and facial dysmorphism.
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 20
MedGen UID:
462050
Concept ID:
C3150700
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, stereotypic hand movements, and impaired language (NEDHSIL) is characterized by global developmental delay with hypotonia, poor motor development with limited walking, impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech, and behavioral abnormalities. Almost all affected individuals demonstrate repetitive stereotypic hand movements that can be categorized as hyperkinetic and resembling those of Rett syndrome (RTT; 312750). About 80% of patients develop various types of seizures that may be refractory to treatment. Additional features may include dysmorphic facial features, particularly dysplastic ears, poor eye contact, episodic hyperventilation, tendency to infection, and abnormalities on brain imaging, such as enlarged ventricles, thin corpus callosum, and delayed myelination (summary by Vrecar et al., 2017, Paciorkowski et al., 2013).
Rett syndrome, congenital variant
MedGen UID:
462055
Concept ID:
C3150705
Disease or Syndrome
The congenital variant of Rett syndrome is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder with features of classic Rett syndrome (RTT; 312750), but earlier onset in the first months of life. Classic Rett syndrome shows later onset and is caused by mutation in the MECP2 gene (300005).
Spastic ataxia 4
MedGen UID:
462275
Concept ID:
C3150925
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic autosomal recessive spastic ataxia disease with characteristics of the onset in early childhood of spastic paraparesis, cerebellar ataxia, dysarthria and optic atrophy. Caused by homozygous mutation in the MTPAP gene on chromosome 10p11.
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 51
MedGen UID:
462406
Concept ID:
C3151056
Disease or Syndrome
AP-4-associated hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), also known as AP-4 deficiency syndrome, is a group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by a progressive, complex spastic paraplegia with onset typically in infancy or early childhood. Early-onset hypotonia evolves into progressive lower-extremity spasticity. The majority of children become nonambulatory and usually wheelchair bound. Over time spasticity progresses to involve the upper extremities, resulting in a spastic tetraplegia. Associated complications include dysphagia, contractures, foot deformities, dysregulation of bladder and bowel function, and a pseudobulbar affect. About 50% of affected individuals have seizures. Postnatal microcephaly (usually in the -2SD to -3SD range) is common. All have developmental delay. Speech development is significantly impaired and many affected individuals remain nonverbal. Intellectual disability in older children is usually moderate to severe.
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 47
MedGen UID:
481368
Concept ID:
C3279738
Disease or Syndrome
AP-4-associated hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), also known as AP-4 deficiency syndrome, is a group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by a progressive, complex spastic paraplegia with onset typically in infancy or early childhood. Early-onset hypotonia evolves into progressive lower-extremity spasticity. The majority of children become nonambulatory and usually wheelchair bound. Over time spasticity progresses to involve the upper extremities, resulting in a spastic tetraplegia. Associated complications include dysphagia, contractures, foot deformities, dysregulation of bladder and bowel function, and a pseudobulbar affect. About 50% of affected individuals have seizures. Postnatal microcephaly (usually in the -2SD to -3SD range) is common. All have developmental delay. Speech development is significantly impaired and many affected individuals remain nonverbal. Intellectual disability in older children is usually moderate to severe.
Spastic paraplegia 52, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
481373
Concept ID:
C3279743
Disease or Syndrome
AP-4-associated hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), also known as AP-4 deficiency syndrome, is a group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by a progressive, complex spastic paraplegia with onset typically in infancy or early childhood. Early-onset hypotonia evolves into progressive lower-extremity spasticity. The majority of children become nonambulatory and usually wheelchair bound. Over time spasticity progresses to involve the upper extremities, resulting in a spastic tetraplegia. Associated complications include dysphagia, contractures, foot deformities, dysregulation of bladder and bowel function, and a pseudobulbar affect. About 50% of affected individuals have seizures. Postnatal microcephaly (usually in the -2SD to -3SD range) is common. All have developmental delay. Speech development is significantly impaired and many affected individuals remain nonverbal. Intellectual disability in older children is usually moderate to severe.
Congenital disorder of glycosylation type Ir
MedGen UID:
482714
Concept ID:
C3281084
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorder of glycosylation type Ir (CDG1R) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by developmental delay, failure to thrive, feeding difficulties, hypotonia, and strabismus. Transferrin analysis demonstrates underglycosylation (summary by Pi et al., 2022). For a discussion of the classification of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065).
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, kyphoscoliotic and deafness type
MedGen UID:
482790
Concept ID:
C3281160
Disease or Syndrome
FKBP14 kyphoscoliotic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (FKBP14-kEDS) is characterized by congenital muscle hypotonia and weakness (typically improving during childhood), progressive scoliosis, joint hypermobility, hyperelastic skin, gross motor developmental delay, myopathy, and hearing impairment. Most affected children achieve independent walking between ages two and four years. A decline of motor function in adulthood may be seen, but affected individuals are likely to be able to participate in activities of daily living in adulthood and maintain independent walking. Occasional features underlying systemic connective tissue involvement include aortic rupture and arterial dissection, subdural hygroma, insufficiency of cardiac valves, bluish sclerae, bladder diverticula, inguinal or umbilical herniae, and premature rupture of membranes during pregnancy. Rarer findings may include bifid uvula with submucous or frank cleft palate, speech/language delay without true cognitive impairment, and rectal prolapse.
Coffin-Siris syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
482831
Concept ID:
C3281201
Disease or Syndrome
Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS) is classically characterized by aplasia or hypoplasia of the distal phalanx or nail of the fifth and additional digits, developmental or cognitive delay of varying degree, distinctive facial features, hypotonia, hirsutism/hypertrichosis, and sparse scalp hair. Congenital anomalies can include malformations of the cardiac, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and/or central nervous systems. Other findings commonly include feeding difficulties, slow growth, ophthalmologic abnormalities, and hearing impairment.
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 56
MedGen UID:
761343
Concept ID:
C3539507
Disease or Syndrome
Spastic paraplegia-56 with or without pseudoxanthoma elasticum (SPG56) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by early-onset progressive lower-limb spasticity resulting in walking difficulties. Upper limbs are often also affected, and some patients may have a subclinical axonal neuropathy (summary by Tesson et al., 2012). Some patients also have pseudoxanthoma elasticum (Legrand et al., 2021). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia, see 270800.
Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation 5
MedGen UID:
763887
Concept ID:
C3550973
Disease or Syndrome
Beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration (BPAN) is typically characterized by early-onset seizures, infantile-onset developmental delay, intellectual disability, absent-to-limited expressive language, motor dysfunction (ataxia), and abnormal behaviors often similar to autism spectrum disorder. Seizure types including generalized (absence, tonic, atonic, tonic-clonic and myoclonic), focal with impaired consciousness, and epileptic spasms, as well as epileptic syndromes (West syndrome and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome) can be seen. With age seizures tend to resolve or become less prominent, whereas cognitive decline and movement disorders (progressive parkinsonism and dystonia) emerge as characteristic findings.
Hyperphosphatasia with intellectual disability syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
766551
Concept ID:
C3553637
Disease or Syndrome
Hyperphosphatasia with impaired intellectual development syndrome-2 (HPMRS2) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by moderately to severely delayed psychomotor development, facial dysmorphism, brachytelephalangy, and increased serum alkaline phosphatase (hyperphosphatasia). Some patients may have additional features, such as cardiac septal defects or seizures (summary by Krawitz et al., 2012). The disorder is caused by a defect in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hyperphosphatasia with impaired intellectual development syndrome, see HPMRS1 (239300). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 8
MedGen UID:
767123
Concept ID:
C3554209
Disease or Syndrome
Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 8 is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe psychomotor retardation, abnormal movements, hypotonia, spasticity, and variable visual defects. Brain MRI shows pontocerebellar hypoplasia, decreased cerebral white matter, and a thin corpus callosum (summary by Mochida et al., 2012). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PCH, see PCH1 (607596).
MEGF8-related Carpenter syndrome
MedGen UID:
767161
Concept ID:
C3554247
Disease or Syndrome
Carpenter syndrome-2 (CRPT2) is an autosomal recessive multiple congenital malformation disorder characterized by multisuture craniosynostosis and polysyndactyly of the hands and feet, in association with abnormal left-right patterning and other features, most commonly obesity, umbilical hernia, cryptorchidism, and congenital heart disease (summary by Twigg et al., 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Carpenter syndrome, see 201000.
Severe intellectual disability-progressive spastic diplegia syndrome
MedGen UID:
767363
Concept ID:
C3554449
Disease or Syndrome
CTNNB1 neurodevelopmental disorder (CTNNB1-NDD) is characterized in all individuals by mild-to-profound cognitive impairment and in up to 39% of reported individuals by exudative vitreoretinopathy, an ophthalmologic finding consistent with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR). Other common findings include truncal hypotonia, peripheral spasticity, dystonia, behavior problems, microcephaly, and refractive errors and strabismus. Less common features include intrauterine growth restriction, feeding difficulties, and scoliosis.
Meckel syndrome, type 1
MedGen UID:
811346
Concept ID:
C3714506
Disease or Syndrome
Meckel syndrome, also known as Meckel-Gruber syndrome, is a severe pleiotropic autosomal recessive developmental disorder caused by dysfunction of primary cilia during early embryogenesis. There is extensive clinical variability and controversy as to the minimum diagnostic criteria. Early reports, including that of Opitz and Howe (1969) and Wright et al. (1994), stated that the classic triad of Meckel syndrome comprises (1) cystic renal disease; (2) a central nervous system malformation, most commonly occipital encephalocele; and (3) polydactyly, most often postaxial. However, based on a study of 67 patients, Salonen (1984) concluded that the minimum diagnostic criteria are (1) cystic renal disease; (2) CNS malformation, and (3) hepatic abnormalities, including portal fibrosis or ductal proliferation. In a review of Meckel syndrome, Logan et al. (2011) stated that the classic triad first described by Meckel (1822) included occipital encephalocele, cystic kidneys, and fibrotic changes to the liver. Genetic Heterogeneity of Meckel Syndrome See also MKS2 (603194), caused by mutation in the TMEM216 gene (613277) on chromosome 11q12; MKS3 (607361), caused by mutation in the TMEM67 gene (609884) on chromosome 8q; MKS4 (611134), caused by mutation in the CEP290 gene (610142) on chromosome 12q; MKS5 (611561), caused by mutation in the RPGRIP1L gene (610937) on chromosome 16q12; MKS6 (612284), caused by mutation in the CC2D2A gene (612013) on chromosome 4p15; MKS7 (267010), caused by mutation in the NPHP3 (608002) gene on chromosome 3q22; MKS8 (613885), caused by mutation in the TCTN2 gene (613846) on chromosome 12q24; MKS9 (614209), caused by mutation in the B9D1 gene (614144) on chromosome 17p11; MKS10 (614175), caused by mutation in the B9D2 gene (611951) on chromosome 19q13; MKS11 (615397), caused by mutation in the TMEM231 gene (614949) on chromosome 16q23; MKS12 (616258), caused by mutation in the KIF14 gene (611279) on chromosome 1q32; MKS13 (617562), caused by mutation in the TMEM107 gene (616183) on chromosome 17p13; and MKS14 (619879), caused by mutation in the TXNDC15 gene (617778) on chromosome 5q31.
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 57
MedGen UID:
811490
Concept ID:
C3714897
Disease or Syndrome
An extremely rare, complex type of hereditary spastic paraplegia, with onset in infancy of pronounced leg spasticity (leading to the inability to walk independently), reduced visual acuity due to optic atrophy and distal wasting of the hands and feet due to an axonal demyelinating sensorimotor neuropathy. Caused by mutations in the TFG gene (3q12.2) encoding protein TFG, which is thought to play a role in ER microtubular architecture and function.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2R
MedGen UID:
815985
Concept ID:
C3809655
Disease or Syndrome
A rare subtype of axonal hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy characterised by early-onset axial hypotonia, generalised muscle weakness, absent deep tendon reflexes and decreased muscle mass. Electromyography reveals decreased motor nerve conduction velocities with markedly reduced sensory and motor amplitudes. There is evidence the disease is caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutation in the TRIM2 gene on chromosome 4q.
Developmental delay with autism spectrum disorder and gait instability
MedGen UID:
816083
Concept ID:
C3809753
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay with autism spectrum disorder and gait instability is a rare, genetic, neurological disorder characterized by infant hypotonia and feeding difficulties, global development delay, mild to moderated intellectual disability, delayed independent ambulation, broad-based gait with arms upheld and flexed at the elbow with brisk walking or running, and limited language skills. Behavior patterns are highly variable and range from sociable and affectionate to autistic behavior.
Severe intellectual disability-short stature-behavioral abnormalities-facial dysmorphism syndrome
MedGen UID:
816183
Concept ID:
C3809853
Disease or Syndrome
Severe intellectual disability-short stature-behavioral abnormalities-facial dysmorphism syndrome is a rare, genetic, syndromic intellectual disability disorder characterized by severe intellectual disability with limited or absent speech and language, short stature, acquired microcephaly, kyphoscoliosis or scoliosis, and behavioral disturbances that include hyperactivity, stereotypy and aggressiveness. Facial dysmorphism, that typically includes sloping forehead, mild synophrys, deep-set eyes, strabismus, anteverted large ears, prominent nose and dental malposition, is also characteristic.
Hereditary spastic paraplegia 63
MedGen UID:
816625
Concept ID:
C3810295
Disease or Syndrome
An extremely rare and complex form of hereditary spastic paraplegia with characteristics of onset in infancy of spastic paraplegia (presenting with delayed walking and a scissors gait) associated with short stature and normal cognition. Periventricular deep white matter changes in the corpus callosum are noted on brain imaging. SPG63 is caused by a homozygous mutation in the AMPD2 gene (1p13.3) encoding AMP deaminase 2.
Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia 15
MedGen UID:
816656
Concept ID:
C3810326
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia-15 (SCAR15) is characterized by early-onset ataxia, cognitive impairment, dysarthria, and developmental delay. Variable features include seizures, nystagmus, and abnormal reflexes (Seidahmed et al., 2020).
Intellectual disability-facial dysmorphism syndrome due to SETD5 haploinsufficiency
MedGen UID:
816736
Concept ID:
C3810406
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual disability-facial dysmorphism syndrome due to SETD5 haploinsufficiency is a rare, syndromic intellectual disability characterized by intellectual disability of various severity, hypotonia, feeding difficulties, dysmorphic features, autism and behavioral issues. Growth retardation, congenital heart anomalies, gastrointestinal and genitourinary defects have been rarely associated.
Bardet-Biedl syndrome 19
MedGen UID:
855173
Concept ID:
C3889475
Disease or Syndrome
Bardet-Biedl syndrome-19 (BBS19) is an autosomal recessive ciliopathy characterized by obesity, impaired intellectual development, polydactyly, renal failure, retinitis pigmentosa, and hypogonadism (Aldahmesh et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bardet-Biedl syndrome, see BBS1 (209900).
Intellectual disability-severe speech delay-mild dysmorphism syndrome
MedGen UID:
862201
Concept ID:
C4013764
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Intellectual developmental disorder with language impairment and with or without autistic features is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay with moderate to severe speech delay that particularly affects expressive speech. Most patients have articulation defects, but frank verbal dyspraxia is not observed. Common dysmorphic features include broad forehead, downslanting palpebral fissures, short nose with broad tip, relative macrocephaly, frontal hair upsweep, and prominent digit pads. Gross motor skills are also delayed. Some patients have autistic features and/or behavioral problems. All reported cases have occurred de novo (review by Le Fevre et al., 2013).
Desbuquois dysplasia 2
MedGen UID:
862731
Concept ID:
C4014294
Disease or Syndrome
Desbuquois dysplasia, which belongs to the multiple dislocation group of disorders, is characterized by dislocations of large joints, severe pre- and postnatal growth retardation, joint laxity, and flat face with prominent eyes. Radiologic features include short long bones with an exaggerated trochanter that gives a 'monkey wrench' appearance to the proximal femur, and advanced carpal and tarsal ossification (summary by Bui et al., 2014). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Desbuquois dysplasia, see DBQD1 (251450).
Intellectual disability, autosomal recessive 42
MedGen UID:
862780
Concept ID:
C4014343
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with dysmorphic features, spasticity, and brain abnormalities (NEDDSBA) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severely delayed global development, with hypotonia, impaired intellectual development, and poor or absent speech. Most patients have spasticity with limb hypertonia and brisk tendon reflexes. Additional features include nonspecific dysmorphic facial features, structural brain abnormalities, and cortical visual impairment (summary by Bosch et al., 2015). Novarino et al. (2014) labeled the disorder 'spastic paraplegia-67' (SPG67). The disorder is caused by a defect in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293).
Intellectual disability, autosomal recessive 43
MedGen UID:
862823
Concept ID:
C4014386
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Autosomal recessive intellectual developmental disorder-43 (MRT43) is characterized by impaired intellectual development, poor language skills, short stature, and dysmorphic features. Some patients may have significant motor delays (summary by Gangfuss et al., 2022).
Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy due to POMK deficiency
MedGen UID:
863621
Concept ID:
C4015184
Disease or Syndrome
A form of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy presenting in infancy with muscle weakness and delayed motor development (eventually learning to walk at 18 months of age) followed by progressive proximal weakness, pseudohypertrophy of calf muscles, mild facial weakness and borderline intelligence.
Al-Raqad syndrome
MedGen UID:
897610
Concept ID:
C4085595
Disease or Syndrome
PMP22-RAI1 contiguous gene duplication syndrome
MedGen UID:
894862
Concept ID:
C4225255
Disease or Syndrome
Yuan-Harel-Lupski syndrome is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay and early-onset peripheral neuropathy. The disorder comprises features of both demyelinating Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A; 118220), which results from duplication of the PMP22 gene on 17p12, and Potocki-Lupski syndrome (PTLS; 610883), which results from duplication of a slightly proximal region on 17p11.2 that includes the RAI1 gene. These 2 loci are about 2.5 Mb apart. The resultant YUHAL phenotype may be more severe in comparison to the individual contributions of each gene, with particularly early onset of peripheral neuropathy and features of both central and peripheral nervous system involvement (summary by Yuan et al., 2015).
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 39
MedGen UID:
909304
Concept ID:
C4225296
Disease or Syndrome
An autosomal dominant condition caused by mutation(s) in the MYT1L gene, encoding myelin transcription factor 1-like protein. It is characterized by intellectual disability and mild dysmorphic facial features.
Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy 11
MedGen UID:
897960
Concept ID:
C4225305
Disease or Syndrome
POLR3-related leukodystrophy, a hypomyelinating leukodystrophy with specific features on brain MRI, is characterized by varying combinations of four major clinical findings: Neurologic dysfunction, typically predominated by motor dysfunction (progressive cerebellar dysfunction, and to a lesser extent extrapyramidal [i.e., dystonia], pyramidal [i.e., spasticity] and cognitive dysfunctions). Abnormal dentition (delayed dentition, hypodontia, oligodontia, and abnormally placed or shaped teeth). Endocrine abnormalities such as short stature (in ~50% of individuals) with or without growth hormone deficiency, and more commonly, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism manifesting as delayed, arrested, or absent puberty. Ocular abnormality in the form of myopia, typically progressing over several years and becoming severe. POLR3-related leukodystrophy and 4H leukodystrophy are the two recognized terms for five previously described overlapping clinical phenotypes (initially described as distinct entities before their molecular basis was known). These include: Hypomyelination, hypodontia, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (4H syndrome); Ataxia, delayed dentition, and hypomyelination (ADDH); Tremor-ataxia with central hypomyelination (TACH); Leukodystrophy with oligodontia (LO); Hypomyelination with cerebellar atrophy and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum (HCAHC). Age of onset is typically in early childhood but later-onset cases have also been reported. An infant with Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch syndrome (neonatal progeroid syndrome) was recently reported to have pathogenic variants in POLR3A on exome sequencing. Confirmation of this as a very severe form of POLR3-related leukodystrophy awaits replication in other individuals with a clinical diagnosis of Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch syndrome.
Bethlem myopathy 2
MedGen UID:
907426
Concept ID:
C4225313
Disease or Syndrome
Bethlem myopathy-2 (BTHLM2) is characterized by congenital hypotonia and myopathy. Motor development is delayed, but muscle strength improves with age, and patients are able to achieve ambulation. Proximal joint contractures that improve over time, as well as joint hyperlaxity, are also present. Muscle biopsy shows mild variability in fiber diameter, without degeneration or regeneration (Zou et al., 2014; Hicks et al., 2014). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bethlem myopathy, see BTHLM1 (158810).
Congenital myasthenic syndrome 18
MedGen UID:
906793
Concept ID:
C4225364
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myasthenic syndrome-18 (CMS18) is an autosomal dominant presynaptic neuromuscular disorder characterized by early-onset muscle weakness and easy fatigability associated with delayed psychomotor development and ataxia (summary by Shen et al., 2014). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462).
Congenital myasthenic syndrome 2A
MedGen UID:
908185
Concept ID:
C4225374
Disease or Syndrome
Slow-channel congenital myasthenic syndrome (SCCMS) is a disorder of the postsynaptic neuromuscular junction (NMJ) characterized by early-onset progressive muscle weakness. The disorder results from kinetic abnormalities of the acetylcholine receptor channel, specifically from prolonged opening and activity of the channel, which causes prolonged synaptic currents resulting in a depolarization block. This is associated with calcium overload, which may contribute to subsequent degeneration of the endplate and postsynaptic membrane. Treatment with quinine, quinidine, or fluoxetine may be helpful; cholinesterase inhibitors and amifampridine should be avoided (summary by Engel et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462).
Lichtenstein-Knorr syndrome
MedGen UID:
898996
Concept ID:
C4225383
Disease or Syndrome
Lichtenstein-Knorr syndrome is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by postnatal onset of severe progressive sensorineural hearing loss and progressive cerebellar ataxia. Features usually develop in childhood or young adulthood (summary by Guissart et al., 2015). Some patients with SLC9A1 mutations may not have deafness (Iwama et al., 2018)
Autosomal dominant intellectual disability-craniofacial anomalies-cardiac defects syndrome
MedGen UID:
903767
Concept ID:
C4225396
Disease or Syndrome
Arboleda-Tham syndrome (ARTHS) is an autosomal dominant disorder with the core features of impaired intellectual development, speech delay, microcephaly, cardiac anomalies, and gastrointestinal complications (summary by Kennedy et al., 2019).
Syndromic X-linked intellectual disability 34
MedGen UID:
902184
Concept ID:
C4225417
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder-34 (MRXS34) is an X-linked recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability with poor speech, dysmorphic facial features, and mild structural brain abnormalities, including thickening of the corpus callosum (summary by Mircsof et al., 2015).
Ritscher-Schinzel syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
897005
Concept ID:
C4225419
Disease or Syndrome
Ritscher-Schinzel syndrome (RSS) is a clinically recognizable condition that includes the cardinal findings of craniofacial features, cerebellar defects, and cardiovascular malformations resulting in the alternate diagnostic name of 3C syndrome. Dysmorphic facial features may include brachycephaly, hypotonic face with protruding tongue, flat appearance of the face on profile view, short midface, widely spaced eyes, downslanted palpebral fissures, low-set ears with overfolding of the upper helix, smooth or short philtrum, and high or cleft palate. Affected individuals also typically have a characteristic metacarpal phalangeal profile showing a consistent wavy pattern on hand radiographs. RSS is associated with variable degrees of developmental delay and intellectual disability. Eye anomalies and hypercholesterolemia may be variably present.
Fanconi anemia complementation group R
MedGen UID:
924579
Concept ID:
C4284093
Disease or Syndrome
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and/or lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA.
Intellectual developmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and ptosis
MedGen UID:
934584
Concept ID:
C4310617
Disease or Syndrome
Intellectual developmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and ptosis (IDDDFP) is an autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability, delayed language, and dysmorphic facial features, most notably ptosis/blepharophimosis. Additional features may include poor growth, hypotonia, and seizures (summary by Mattioli et al., 2017). See also chromosome 3p deletion syndrome (613792).
Hypotonia, ataxia, and delayed development syndrome
MedGen UID:
934585
Concept ID:
C4310618
Disease or Syndrome
EBF3 neurodevelopmental disorder (EBF3-NDD) is associated with developmental delay (DD) / intellectual disability (ID), speech delay, gait or truncal ataxia, hypotonia, behavioral problems, and facial dysmorphism. Variability between individuals with EBF3-NDD is significant. Although all affected children have DD noted in early infancy, intellect generally ranges from mild to severe ID, with two individuals functioning in the low normal range. Less common issues can include genitourinary abnormalities and gastrointestinal and/or musculoskeletal involvement. To date, 42 symptomatic individuals from 39 families have been reported.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 48
MedGen UID:
934604
Concept ID:
C4310637
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-48 (DEE48) is a severe autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by global developmental delay with intellectual disability and absent speech; poor, if any, motor development; and onset of seizures usually in the first year of life, although later onset has been reported. Affected individuals have poor eye contact and may develop microcephaly and abnormal movements (summary by Assoum et al., 2016). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, seizures, and absent language
MedGen UID:
934610
Concept ID:
C4310643
Disease or Syndrome
Global developmental delay, absent or hypoplastic corpus callosum, and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
934611
Concept ID:
C4310644
Disease or Syndrome
GDACCF is an intellectual disability syndrome apparent soon after birth with neonatal hypotonia, poor feeding, and respiratory insufficiency followed by delayed psychomotor development and intellectual disability with poor speech. Brain imaging shows aplasia or hypoplasia of the corpus callosum. Affected individuals have variable dysmorphic facial features, and some may have dysplastic, cystic kidneys or mild cardiac defects (summary by Stevens et al., 2016).
Lissencephaly 8
MedGen UID:
934613
Concept ID:
C4310646
Disease or Syndrome
Lissencephaly-8 (LIS8) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, intellectual disability with poor or absent speech, early-onset refractory seizures, and hypotonia. Brain imaging shows variable features, including cortical gyral abnormalities and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, brainstem, and cerebellum (Jerber et al., 2016). For a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity lissencephaly, see LIS1 (607432).
Intellectual disability, autosomal recessive 57
MedGen UID:
934640
Concept ID:
C4310673
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Any autosomal recessive non-syndromic intellectual disability in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the MBOAT7 gene.
Short stature-brachydactyly-obesity-global developmental delay syndrome
MedGen UID:
934656
Concept ID:
C4310689
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic, multiple congenital anomalies syndrome characterized by short stature, hand brachydactyly with hypoplastic distal phalanges, global development delay, intellectual disability, and more variably seizures, obesity, and craniofacial dysmorphism that includes microcephaly, high forehead, flat face, hypertelorism, deep set eyes, flat nasal bridge, averted nostrils, long philtrum, thin lip vermilion, and short neck.
Arthrogryposis, distal, with impaired proprioception and touch
MedGen UID:
934659
Concept ID:
C4310692
Disease or Syndrome
Distal arthrogryposis with impaired proprioception and touch is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by loss of certain mechanosensation modalities resulting in ataxia, difficulty walking, dysmetria, muscle weakness and atrophy, and progressive skeletal contractures. Patients have onset of symptoms in early childhood (summary by Chesler et al., 2016 and Delle Vedove et al., 2016).
Congenital myasthenic syndrome 20
MedGen UID:
934661
Concept ID:
C4310694
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myasthenic syndrome-20 is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder characterized by severe hypotonia associated with episodic apnea soon after birth. Patients have muscle weakness resulting in delayed walking, ptosis, poor sucking and swallowing, and generalized limb fatigability and weakness. EMG studies usually show a decremental response to repetitive nerve stimulation, and some patients may show a good response to AChE inhibitors (summary by Bauche et al., 2016). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462).
ZTTK syndrome
MedGen UID:
934663
Concept ID:
C4310696
Disease or Syndrome
ZTTK syndrome (ZTTKS) is a severe multisystem developmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development and intellectual disability. Affected individuals have characteristic dysmorphic facial features, hypotonia, poor feeding, poor overall growth, and eye or visual abnormalities. Most patients also have musculoskeletal abnormalities, and some have congenital defects of the heart and urogenital system. Brain imaging usually shows developmental abnormalities such as gyral changes, cortical and/or cerebellar atrophy, and thin corpus callosum (summary by Kim et al., 2016).
Okur-Chung neurodevelopmental syndrome
MedGen UID:
934706
Concept ID:
C4310739
Disease or Syndrome
Individuals with Okur-Chung neurodevelopmental syndrome (OCNDS) frequently have nonspecific clinical features, delayed language development, motor delay, intellectual disability (typically in the mild-to-moderate range), generalized hypotonia starting in infancy, difficulty feeding, and nonspecific dysmorphic facial features. Developmental delay affects all areas of development, but language is more impaired than gross motor skills in most individuals. Intellectual disability has been reported in about three quarters of individuals. Less common findings may include kyphoscoliosis, postnatal short stature, disrupted circadian rhythm leading to sleep disturbance, seizures, and poor coordination.
Micrognathia-recurrent infections-behavioral abnormalities-mild intellectual disability syndrome
MedGen UID:
934707
Concept ID:
C4310740
Disease or Syndrome
TRIO-related intellectual disability (ID) is characterized by delay in acquisition of motor and language skills, mild to borderline intellectual disability, and neurobehavioral problems (including autistic traits or autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and/or aggression). Neonatal or infantile feeding difficulties including poor suck, impaired bottle feeding, and failure to thrive are common and are often the presenting finding. Other findings can include microcephaly, variable hand and dental abnormalities, and suggestive facial features. Only ten of the 20 individuals with a TRIO pathogenic variant reported to date had sufficient information to make preliminary generalizations about clinical manifestations; it is anticipated that the phenotype of this newly described disorder will continue to evolve.
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 43
MedGen UID:
934738
Concept ID:
C4310771
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
HIVEP2-related intellectual disability is a neurological disorder characterized by moderate to severe developmental delay and intellectual disability and mild physical abnormalities (dysmorphic features). Early symptoms of the condition include weak muscle tone (hypotonia) and delayed development of motor skills, such as sitting, standing, and walking. After learning to walk, many affected individuals continue to have difficulty with this activity; their walking style (gait) is often unbalanced and wide-based. Speech is also delayed, and some people with this condition never learn to talk. Most people with HIVEP2-related intellectual disability also have unusual physical features, such as widely spaced eyes (hypertelorism), a broad nasal bridge, or fingers with tapered ends, although there is no characteristic pattern of such features among affected individuals. Many people with the condition exhibit neurodevelopmental disorders, such as hyperactivity, attention deficit disorder, aggression, anxiety, and autism spectrum disorder, which is a group of developmental disorders characterized by impaired communication and social interaction.\n\nOther features of HIVEP2-related intellectual disability include mild abnormalities in the structure of the brain and an abnormally small brain and head size (microcephaly). Less common health problems include seizures; recurrent ear infections; and eye disorders, such as eyes that do not look in the same direction (strabismus), "lazy eye" (amblyopia), and farsightedness (hyperopia). Some people with HIVEP2-related intellectual disability have gastrointestinal problems, which can include backflow of acidic stomach contents into the esophagus (gastroesophageal reflux) and constipation.
Intellectual disability, X-linked 104
MedGen UID:
934784
Concept ID:
C4310817
Disease or Syndrome
Any non-syndromic X-linked intellectual disability in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the FRMPD4 gene.
Intellectual disability, X-linked 103
MedGen UID:
934785
Concept ID:
C4310818
Disease or Syndrome
Any non-syndromic X-linked intellectual disability in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the KLHL15 gene.
Dias-Logan syndrome
MedGen UID:
934800
Concept ID:
C4310833
Disease or Syndrome
BCL11A-related intellectual disability (BCL11A-ID) is characterized by developmental delay / intellectual disability of variable degree, neonatal hypotonia, microcephaly, distinctive but variable facial characteristics, behavior problems, and asymptomatic persistence of fetal hemoglobin. Growth delay, seizures, and autism spectrum disorder have also been reported in some affected individuals.
Intellectual disability, X-linked, syndromic, 35
MedGen UID:
1392054
Concept ID:
C4478383
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome-like disorder with loose anagen hair 1
MedGen UID:
1379805
Concept ID:
C4478716
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome-like disorder with loose anagen hair is characterized by facial features similar to those observed in Noonan syndrome (163950), including hypertelorism, ptosis, downslanting palpebral fissures, low-set posteriorly angulated ears, and overfolded pinnae. In addition, patients display short stature, frequently with growth hormone (GH; see 139250) deficiency; cognitive deficits; relative macrocephaly; small posterior fossa resulting in Chiari I malformation; hypernasal voice; cardiac defects, especially dysplasia of the mitral valve and septal defects; and ectodermal abnormalities, in which the most characteristic feature is the hair anomaly, including easily pluckable, sparse, thin, slow-growing hair (summary by Bertola et al., 2017). Reviews Komatsuzaki et al. (2010) reviewed the clinical manifestations of patients with Noonan syndrome, Costello syndrome (218040), and cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (CFC; see 115150) compared to patients with mutations in the SHOC2 gene. They noted that although there is phenotypic overlap among the disorders, loose anagen/easily pluckable hair had not been reported in mutation-positive patients with Noonan, CFC, or Costello syndrome, and appeared to be a distinctive feature of SHOC2 mutation-positive patients. Genetic Heterogeneity of Noonan Syndrome-Like Disorder with Loose Anagen Hair NSLH2 (617506) is caused by mutation in the PPP1CB gene (600590) on chromosome 2p23.
Congenital heart defects, dysmorphic facial features, and intellectual developmental disorder
MedGen UID:
1385307
Concept ID:
C4479246
Disease or Syndrome
CDK13-related disorder, reported in 43 individuals to date, is characterized in all individuals by developmental delay / intellectual disability (DD/ID); nearly all individuals older than age one year display impaired verbal language skills (either absent or restricted speech). Other common findings are recognizable facial features in some individuals, behavioral problems (autism spectrum disorder or autistic traits/stereotypies, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder), feeding difficulties in infancy, structural cardiac defects, and seizures.
Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation 6
MedGen UID:
1387791
Concept ID:
C4517377
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation refers to a group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by progressive motor and cognitive dysfunction beginning in childhood or young adulthood. Patients show extrapyramidal motor signs, such as spasticity, dystonia, and parkinsonism. Brain imaging shows iron accumulation in the basal ganglia (summary by Dusi et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of NBIA, see NBIA1 (234200).
Intellectual disability, X-linked, syndromic, Houge type
MedGen UID:
1624740
Concept ID:
C4538788
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
The Houge type of X-linked syndromic intellectual developmental disorder (MRXSHG) is characterized by delayed development, intellectual disability, speech and language delay, and early-onset seizures. EEG tends to show continuous spike-wave activity or centrotemporal spikes. Some patients may have remission of seizures by adolescence. Carrier females may be mildly affected (summary by Damiano et al., 2017).
Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 25
MedGen UID:
1618081
Concept ID:
C4539808
Disease or Syndrome
Skraban-Deardorff syndrome
MedGen UID:
1627555
Concept ID:
C4539927
Disease or Syndrome
WDR26-related intellectual disability (ID) is characterized by developmental delay / intellectual disability, characteristic facial features, hypotonia, epilepsy, and infant feeding difficulties. To date 15 individuals, ages 24 months to 34 years, have been reported. Developmental delay is present in all individuals and ranges from mild to severe. All individuals have delayed speech. Although some begin to develop speech in the second year, others have remained nonverbal. Seizures, present in all affected individuals reported to date, can be febrile or non-febrile (tonic-clonic, absence, rolandic seizures); most seizures are self limited or respond well to standard treatment. Affected individuals are generally described as happy and socially engaging; several have stereotypies / autistic features (repetitive or rocking behavior, abnormal hand movements or posturing, and at times self-stimulation).
3-methylglutaconic aciduria type 9
MedGen UID:
1622927
Concept ID:
C4540171
Disease or Syndrome
3-Methylglutaconic aciduria type IX (MGCA9) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by early-onset seizures, severely delayed psychomotor development and intellectual disability. Patients have hypotonia or spasticity, and laboratory investigations show increased serum lactate and 3-methylglutaconic aciduria, suggestive of a mitochondrial defect (summary by Shahrour et al., 2017). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of 3-methylglutaconic aciduria, see MGCA type I (250950).
Intellectual disability, autosomal recessive 61
MedGen UID:
1622296
Concept ID:
C4540424
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
MRT61 is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, moderate to severe intellectual disability, and variable dysmorphic facial features. More severely affected patients may develop refractory seizures and have brain abnormalities, including hypoplasia of the corpus callosum (summary by Alwadei et al., 2016).
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 53
MedGen UID:
1623344
Concept ID:
C4540481
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Neurodevelopmental disorder with severe motor impairment and absent language
MedGen UID:
1622162
Concept ID:
C4540496
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
NEDMIAL is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development and hypotonia apparent from early infancy, resulting in feeding difficulties, ataxic gait or inability to walk, delayed or absent speech development, and impaired intellectual development, sometimes with behavioral abnormalities, such as hand-flapping. Additional common features may include sleep disorder, nonspecific dysmorphic facial features, and joint hyperlaxity (summary by Lessel et al., 2017 and Mannucci et al., 2021).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with ataxic gait, absent speech, and decreased cortical white matter
MedGen UID:
1621102
Concept ID:
C4540498
Disease or Syndrome
NDAGSCW is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severely delayed psychomotor development apparent from infancy. Affected individuals have delayed and difficulty walking, intellectual disability, absent speech, and variable additional features, including hip dysplasia, tapering fingers, and seizures. Brain imaging shows decreased cortical white matter, often with decreased cerebellar white matter, thin corpus callosum, and thin brainstem (summary by Lamers et al., 2017).
Glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis defect 16
MedGen UID:
1628197
Concept ID:
C4540521
Disease or Syndrome
Cerebellar ataxia, intellectual disability, and dysequilibrium syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1639436
Concept ID:
C4551552
Disease or Syndrome
VLDLR cerebellar hypoplasia (VLDLR-CH) is characterized by non-progressive congenital ataxia that is predominantly truncal and results in delayed ambulation, moderate-to-profound intellectual disability, dysarthria, strabismus, and seizures. Children either learn to walk very late (often after age 6 years) or never achieve independent ambulation. Brain MRI findings include hypoplasia of the inferior portion of the cerebellar vermis and hemispheres, simplified gyration of the cerebral hemispheres, and small brain stem – particularly the pons.
Joubert syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1644883
Concept ID:
C4551568
Disease or Syndrome
Classic Joubert syndrome (JS) is characterized by three primary findings: A distinctive cerebellar and brain stem malformation called the molar tooth sign (MTS). Hypotonia. Developmental delays. Often these findings are accompanied by episodic tachypnea or apnea and/or atypical eye movements. In general, the breathing abnormalities improve with age, truncal ataxia develops over time, and acquisition of gross motor milestones is delayed. Cognitive abilities are variable, ranging from severe intellectual disability to normal. Additional findings can include retinal dystrophy, renal disease, ocular colobomas, occipital encephalocele, hepatic fibrosis, polydactyly, oral hamartomas, and endocrine abnormalities. Both intra- and interfamilial variation are seen.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with or without seizures and gait abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1645968
Concept ID:
C4693391
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with or without seizures and gait abnormalities (NEDSGA) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy or early childhood, resulting in variably impaired intellectual development that can range from profound with absent speech to mild with an ability to attend special schools. Most affected individuals show irritability, stiffness, and hypertonia early in life, which progresses to spasticity and impaired gait later. Some patients may develop seizures of variable severity early in life (summary by Martin et al., 2017).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with movement abnormalities, abnormal gait, and autistic features
MedGen UID:
1647077
Concept ID:
C4693405
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with movement abnormalities, abnormal gait, and autistic features (NEDMAGA) is characterized by infantile-onset global developmental delay with severe to profound intellectual disability, mildly delayed walking with broad-based and unsteady gait, and absence of meaningful language. Patients have features of autism, with repetitive behaviors and poor communication, but usually are socially reactive and have a happy demeanor. More variable neurologic features include mild seizures, spasticity, and peripheral neuropathy (summary by Palmer et al., 2017).
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 35
MedGen UID:
1639653
Concept ID:
C4693466
Disease or Syndrome
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-35 (COXPD35) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized mainly by global developmental delay with intellectual disability, microcephaly, and early-onset myoclonic and other types of seizures. Affected individuals have variable deficiencies of mitochondrial respiratory enzyme complexes resulting from a defect in mitochondrial metabolism (summary by Kernohan et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060).
Leukodystrophy, hypomyelinating, 16
MedGen UID:
1631337
Concept ID:
C4693779
Disease or Syndrome
Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy-16 is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized by onset of hypotonia, nystagmus, and mildly delayed motor development in infancy. Affected individuals have motor disabilities, including ataxic or broad-based gait, hyperreflexia, intention tremor, dysmetria, and a mild pyramidal syndrome. Some patients have cognitive impairment, whereas others may have normal cognition or mild intellectual disability with speech difficulties. Brain imaging typically shows hypomyelination, leukodystrophy, and thin corpus callosum (summary by Simons et al., 2017). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hypomyelinating leukodystrophy, see 312080.
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 63
MedGen UID:
1646846
Concept ID:
C4693810
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-63 (DEE63) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by early-onset refractory infantile spasms and myoclonic seizures in the first months to years of life. Affected individuals have severe to profound developmental delay, often with hypotonia and inability to sit or speak (summary by Redler et al., 2017). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Epileptic encephalopathy, infantile or early childhood, 3
MedGen UID:
1642888
Concept ID:
C4693934
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy (DEE93) is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized by delayed psychomotor development, early-onset refractory seizures, and impaired intellectual development. The severity of the phenotype is highly variable: some patients may be nonverbal and nonambulatory with spastic quadriparesis and poor eye contact, whereas others have moderate intellectual disability (summary by Fassio et al., 2018). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Neuropathy, congenital hypomyelinating, 2
MedGen UID:
1648446
Concept ID:
C4722277
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital hypomyelinating neuropathy-2 is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized by early-onset hypotonia, severely delayed motor development, muscle weakness with areflexia, and severely decreased nerve conduction velocities (NCV) resulting from improper myelination of axons. The severity is variable: some patients may present at birth with contractures and respiratory insufficiency, whereas others may achieve walking (summary by Warner et al., 1996). CHN shows significant phenotypic overlap with Dejerine-Sottas syndrome (DSS; 145900), which is also a neuropathy with early onset. Some classify the disorders differently, noting that CHN is characterized by hypo- or amyelination resulting from a congenital defect in myelin formation, whereas DSS has features of continuous myelin breakdown, with demyelination and remyelination (summary by Smit et al., 2008). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CHN, see CHN1 (605253).
Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 12
MedGen UID:
1648278
Concept ID:
C4746984
Disease or Syndrome
Regressive spondylometaphyseal dysplasia
MedGen UID:
1648288
Concept ID:
C4747922
Disease or Syndrome
Rhizomelic skeletal dysplasia with or without Pelger-Huet anomaly (SKPHA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by rhizomelic skeletal dysplasia of variable severity with or without abnormal nuclear shape and chromatin organization in blood granulocytes (Hoffmann et al., 2002; Borovik et al., 2013; Collins et al., 2020). Initial skeletal features may improve with age (Sobreira et al., 2014).
Coffin-Siris syndrome 7
MedGen UID:
1648281
Concept ID:
C4747954
Disease or Syndrome
Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS) is classically characterized by aplasia or hypoplasia of the distal phalanx or nail of the fifth and additional digits, developmental or cognitive delay of varying degree, distinctive facial features, hypotonia, hirsutism/hypertrichosis, and sparse scalp hair. Congenital anomalies can include malformations of the cardiac, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and/or central nervous systems. Other findings commonly include feeding difficulties, slow growth, ophthalmologic abnormalities, and hearing impairment.
Parkinsonism-dystonia, infantile, 2
MedGen UID:
1648382
Concept ID:
C4747991
Disease or Syndrome
Infantile-onset parkinsonism-dystonia-2 (PKDYS2) is an autosomal recessive complex infantile-onset neurologic disorder characterized by abnormal movements, including parkinsonism, dystonia, and poor fine motor skills, as well as autonomic dysfunction, including abnormal sweating, cold extremities, and poor sleep. Some patients have variable degrees of developmental delay. Features of the disorder are consistent with decreased levels of monoamine neurotransmitters, although levels of these in the spinal fluid are normal (summary by Rilstone et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of PKDYS, see 613135.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with cerebellar atrophy and with or without seizures
MedGen UID:
1648373
Concept ID:
C4748032
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with cerebellar atrophy and with or without seizures (NEDCAS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by intellectual disability associated with ataxia (summary by Engel et al., 2023).
Intellectual developmental disorder with or without epilepsy or cerebellar ataxia
MedGen UID:
1648354
Concept ID:
C4748041
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 66
MedGen UID:
1648486
Concept ID:
C4748070
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-66 (DEE66) is a neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of various types of seizures in the first days or weeks of life. Most seizures have focal origins; secondary generalization is common. Seizure control is difficult at first, but may become easier with time. Affected individuals show global developmental delay with hypotonia, behavioral abnormalities, and dysmorphic features or ophthalmologic defects. Brain imaging often shows cerebellar dysgenesis. A subset of patients have extraneurologic manifestations, including hematologic and distal limb abnormalities (summary by Olson et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Intellectual developmental disorder with dysmorphic facies and behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1648498
Concept ID:
C4748135
Disease or Syndrome
Intellectual developmental disorder with speech delay, dysmorphic facies, and t-cell abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1648327
Concept ID:
C4748152
Disease or Syndrome
Any BAFopathy in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the BCL11B gene.
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 58
MedGen UID:
1648488
Concept ID:
C4748195
Disease or Syndrome
Intellectual disability, autosomal recessive 65
MedGen UID:
1648401
Concept ID:
C4748219
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Peripheral neuropathy, autosomal recessive, with or without impaired intellectual development
MedGen UID:
1648480
Concept ID:
C4748283
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive peripheral neuropathy with or without impaired intellectual development is an early childhood-onset neurologic disorder characterized by slowly progressive distal motor impairment resulting in gait difficulties, often with loss of ambulation, and difficulties using the hands in most patients. Most affected individuals also have impaired intellectual development, although some have normal cognition. Electrophysiologic testing and sural nerve biopsy are most compatible with an axonal motor neuropathy; some patients may show signs of demyelination. Additional features may include eye movement abnormalities, claw hands, foot deformities, and scoliosis (summary by Ylikallio et al., 2017).
Muscular dystrophy, limb-girdle, autosomal recessive 23
MedGen UID:
1648462
Concept ID:
C4748327
Disease or Syndrome
The clinical manifestations of LAMA2 muscular dystrophy (LAMA2-MD) comprise a continuous spectrum ranging from severe congenital muscular dystrophy type 1A (MDC1A) to milder late-onset LAMA2-MD. MDC1A is typically characterized by neonatal profound hypotonia, poor spontaneous movements, and respiratory failure. Failure to thrive, gastroesophageal reflux, aspiration, and recurrent chest infections necessitating frequent hospitalizations are common. As disease progresses, facial muscle weakness, temporomandibular joint contractures, and macroglossia may further impair feeding and can affect speech. In late-onset LAMA2-MD onset of manifestations range from early childhood to adulthood. Affected individuals may show muscle hypertrophy and develop a rigid spine syndrome with joint contractures, usually most prominent in the elbows. Progressive respiratory insufficiency, scoliosis, and cardiomyopathy can occur.
Intellectual developmental disorder with macrocephaly, seizures, and speech delay
MedGen UID:
1648339
Concept ID:
C4748428
Disease or Syndrome
IDDMSSD is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired intellectual development, poor speech, postnatal macrocephaly, and seizures (Harms et al., 2018).
Myasthenic syndrome, congenital, 23, presynaptic
MedGen UID:
1648392
Concept ID:
C4748678
Disease or Syndrome
Myasthenic syndrome, congenital, 24, presynaptic
MedGen UID:
1648337
Concept ID:
C4748684
Disease or Syndrome
Snijders Blok-Campeau syndrome
MedGen UID:
1648495
Concept ID:
C4748701
Disease or Syndrome
Snijders Blok-Campeau syndrome (SNIBCPS) is an autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development and delayed speech acquisition. Affected individuals tend to have expressive language deficits, with speech apraxia and dysarthria. Other features include macrocephaly and characteristic facial features, such as prominent forehead and hypertelorism, hypotonia, and joint laxity. The severity of the neurologic deficits and presence of nonneurologic features is variable (summary by Snijders Blok et al., 2018).
Infantile hypotonia-oculomotor anomalies-hyperkinetic movements-developmental delay syndrome
MedGen UID:
1648431
Concept ID:
C4748715
Disease or Syndrome
Baker-Gordon syndrome (BAGOS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by infantile hypotonia, ophthalmic abnormalities, moderate to profound global developmental delay, poor or absent speech, behavioral abnormalities, hyperkinetic movements, and EEG abnormalities in the absence of overt seizures (summary by Baker et al., 2018).
Mitochondrial complex 1 deficiency, nuclear type 23
MedGen UID:
1648408
Concept ID:
C4748799
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex I deficiency nuclear type 23 (MC1DN23) is an autosomal recessive nuclear-encoded mitochondrial disease with clinical presentations ranging from movement disorder phenotypes (dystonia and/or spasticity) to isolated optic atrophy. MRI findings may include basal ganglia abnormalities or optic atrophy (summary by Magrinelli et al., 2022).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with impaired intellectual development, hypotonia, and ataxia
MedGen UID:
1648291
Concept ID:
C4749014
Disease or Syndrome
Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal recessive 67
MedGen UID:
1648350
Concept ID:
C4749019
Disease or Syndrome
Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal recessive 68
MedGen UID:
1648490
Concept ID:
C4749033
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia type 70
MedGen UID:
1655287
Concept ID:
C4749431
Disease or Syndrome
A very rare complex subtype of hereditary spastic paraplegia that presents in infancy with delayed motor development (crawling, walking) and has characteristics of lower limb spasticity, increased deep tendon reflexes, extensor plantar responses, impaired vibratory sensation at ankles, amyotrophy and borderline intellectual disability. Additional signs may include gait disturbances, Achilles tendon contractures, and scoliosis and cerebellar abnormalities.
Severe feeding difficulties-failure to thrive-microcephaly due to ASXL3 deficiency syndrome
MedGen UID:
1656239
Concept ID:
C4750837
Disease or Syndrome
ASXL3-related disorder is characterized by developmental delay or intellectual disability, typically in the moderate to severe range, with speech and language delay and/or absent speech. Affected individuals may also display autistic features. There may be issues with feeding. While dysmorphic facial features have been described, they are typically nonspecific. Affected individuals may also have hypotonia that can transition to spasticity resulting in unusual posture with flexion contractions of the elbows, wrists, and fingers. Other findings may include poor postnatal growth, strabismus, seizures, sleep disturbance, and dental anomalies.
Coffin-Siris syndrome 10
MedGen UID:
1683634
Concept ID:
C4760583
Disease or Syndrome
Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS) is classically characterized by aplasia or hypoplasia of the distal phalanx or nail of the fifth and additional digits, developmental or cognitive delay of varying degree, distinctive facial features, hypotonia, hirsutism/hypertrichosis, and sparse scalp hair. Congenital anomalies can include malformations of the cardiac, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and/or central nervous systems. Other findings commonly include feeding difficulties, slow growth, ophthalmologic abnormalities, and hearing impairment.
Mullegama-Klein-Martinez syndrome
MedGen UID:
1683985
Concept ID:
C5193008
Disease or Syndrome
Mullegama-Klein-Martinez syndrome (MKMS) is an X-linked recessive disorder with features of microcephaly, microtia, hearing loss, developmental delay, dysmorphic features, congenital heart defect, and digit abnormalities. Females are generally affected more severely than males (Mullegama et al., 2019).
Intellectual developmental disorder, X-linked 108
MedGen UID:
1680544
Concept ID:
C5193009
Disease or Syndrome
X-linked intellectual developmental disorder-108 (MRX108) is characterized by early hypotonia, global developmental delay, and moderately to severely impaired intellectual development. Brisk tendon reflexes, variable facial dysmorphism, and fifth finger clinodactyly may be present (Khayat et al., 2019).
Paganini-Miozzo syndrome
MedGen UID:
1683361
Concept ID:
C5193010
Disease or Syndrome
Paganini-Miozzo syndrome (MRXSPM) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay, impaired intellectual development, high myopia, and mild dysmorphic facial features (summary by Paganini et al., 2019)
Intellectual developmental disorder with cardiac defects and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
1675627
Concept ID:
C5193024
Disease or Syndrome
IDDCDF is an autosomal recessive syndromic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by globally impaired development with intellectual disability and speech delay, congenital cardiac malformations, and dysmorphic facial features. Additional features, such as distal skeletal anomalies, may also be observed (Stephen et al., 2018).
Lissencephaly 9 with complex brainstem malformation
MedGen UID:
1681109
Concept ID:
C5193029
Disease or Syndrome
Lissencephaly-9 with complex brainstem malformation (LIS9) is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent since infancy, impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech, and sometimes abnormal or involuntary movements associated with abnormal brain imaging that typically shows pachygyria, lissencephaly, and malformation of the brainstem consistent with a neuronal migration defect (summary by Dobyns et al., 2018). For a general description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of lissencephaly, see LIS1 (607432).
Menke-Hennekam syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1675629
Concept ID:
C5193034
Disease or Syndrome
Menke-Hennekam syndrome-1 (MKHK1) is a congenital disorder characterized by variable impairment of intellectual development and facial dysmorphisms. Feeding difficulties, autistic behavior, recurrent upper airway infections, hearing impairment, short stature, and microcephaly are also frequently seen. Although mutations in the same gene cause Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome-1 (RSTS1; 180849), patients with MKHK1 do not resemble the striking phenotype of RSTS1. Genetic Heterogeneity of Menke-Hennekam Syndrome Menke-Hennekam syndrome-2 (MKHK2; 618333) is caused by heterozygous mutation in exons 30 or 31 of the EP300 gene (602700). Mutation elsewhere in that gene results in RSTS2 (613684).
Menke-Hennekam syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
1676668
Concept ID:
C5193035
Disease or Syndrome
Menke-Hennekam syndrome-2 (MKHK2) is a congenital disorder characterized by variable impairment of intellectual development and facial dysmorphisms. Feeding difficulties, autistic behavior, recurrent upper airway infections, and hearing impairment are also frequently seen. Although mutations in the same gene cause Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome-2 (RSTS2; 613684), patients with MKHK1 do not resemble the striking phenotype of RSTS2. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Menke-Hennekam syndrome, see MKHK1 (618332).
Intellectual developmental disorder with abnormal behavior, microcephaly, and short stature
MedGen UID:
1675423
Concept ID:
C5193039
Disease or Syndrome
Polymicrogyria with or without vascular-type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
MedGen UID:
1675672
Concept ID:
C5193040
Disease or Syndrome
Polymicrogyria with or without vascular-type Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder with a highly variable phenotype. Although all patients have polymicrogyria and other variable structural brain anomalies on imaging, only some show developmental delay and/or seizures. Similarly, only some patients have connective tissue defects that particularly affect the vascular system and can result in early death (summary by Vandervore et al., 2017).
Galloway-Mowat syndrome 6
MedGen UID:
1674560
Concept ID:
C5193043
Disease or Syndrome
Galloway-Mowat syndrome is a phenotypically heterogeneous disorder characterized by neurodevelopmental defects combined with renal-glomerular disease manifest as nephrotic syndrome and proteinuria. Most patients with GAMOS6 also have growth deficiency with variable microcephaly, and the renal disease may be age-dependent. Additional variable endocrine abnormalities have also been reported (summary by Braun et al., 2018). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GAMOS, see GAMOS1 (251300).
Neurodevelopmental disorder and language delay with or without structural brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1677130
Concept ID:
C5193048
Disease or Syndrome
Houge-Janssens syndrome-3 (HJS3) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy. The phenotype is highly variable: patients may have hypotonia, behavioral abnormalities, and abnormalities on brain imaging, including enlarged ventricles, thin corpus callosum, and sometimes small brainstem. Many develop seizures, sometimes refractory, and some may have nonspecific dysmorphic features. Intellectual impairment can vary from mild to profound, and some patients may benefit from special education and respond well to speech therapy (summary by Reynhout et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HJS, see HJS1 (616355).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with central and peripheral motor dysfunction
MedGen UID:
1674767
Concept ID:
C5193049
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with central and peripheral motor dysfunction (NEDCPMD) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder with a highly variable phenotype. At the severe end of the spectrum, patients may have hypotonia apparent from birth, necessitating mechanical respiration and tube-feeding, and global developmental delay with absence of reaction to touch and no eye contact. At the mild end of the spectrum, patients may present with infantile-onset progressive ataxia and demyelinating peripheral neuropathy. The disorder is caused by mutation in the NFASC gene, which has several neuronal- and glial-specific transcripts. The variable clinical phenotype may be caused by several factors, including the severity of the mutation, the selective involvement of distinct isoforms by pathogenic variants, and the presence of genetic modifiers (summary by Monfrini et al., 2019).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 72
MedGen UID:
1681879
Concept ID:
C5193063
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-72 (DEE72) is neurologic disorder characterized by the onset of infantile spasms around 5 months of age. The seizures tend to be refractory to treatment. EEG may show hypsarrhythmia, consistent with a clinical diagnosis of West syndrome. Affected individuals show severely delayed psychomotor development with impaired or absent walking and language skills. Additional more variable features include hyperkinetic movements and cortical visual impairment (summary by Sega et al., 2019). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 38
MedGen UID:
1682102
Concept ID:
C5193064
Disease or Syndrome
Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal recessive 69
MedGen UID:
1676539
Concept ID:
C5193067
Disease or Syndrome
Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with joint laxity, type 3
MedGen UID:
1677378
Concept ID:
C5193073
Disease or Syndrome
Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with joint laxity-3 (SEMDJL3) is characterized by multiple joint dislocations at birth, severe joint laxity, scoliosis, gracile metacarpals and metatarsals, delayed bone age, and poorly ossified carpal and tarsal bones (Girisha et al., 2016). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of SEMD with joint laxity, see SEMDJL1 (271640).
Metabolic crises, recurrent, with variable encephalomyopathic features and neurologic regression
MedGen UID:
1681269
Concept ID:
C5193083
Disease or Syndrome
Recurrent metabolic crises with variable encephalomyopathic features and neurologic regression (MECREN) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder with a highly variable phenotype. Most affected individuals present in the first years of life with episodic lactic acidosis associated with illness or stress, resulting in transient or permanent neurologic dysfunction. Some patients may recover, whereas others show subsequent variable developmental regression of motor and cognitive skills. Other features may include dystonia, hypotonia with inability to sit or walk, seizures, and abnormal signals in the basal ganglia. There is significant phenotypic heterogeneity, even among patients with the same mutation (summary by Almannai et al., 2018).
Developmental delay with variable intellectual impairment and behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1676192
Concept ID:
C5193092
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay with variable intellectual impairment and behavioral abnormalities (DDVIBA) is an autosomal dominant neurodevelopmental disorder. Most patients have impaired intellectual development with speech difficulties, and many have behavioral abnormalities, most commonly autism spectrum disorder (ASD), defects in attention, and/or hyperactivity. Many patients have dysmorphic features, although there is not a consistent gestalt. Additional more variable features may include hypotonia, somatic overgrowth with macrocephaly, mild distal skeletal anomalies, sleep disturbances, movement disorders, and gastrointestinal issues, such as constipation. The phenotype is highly variable (summary by Vetrini et al., 2019 and Torti et al., 2019).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with or without variable brain abnormalities; NEDBA
MedGen UID:
1675664
Concept ID:
C5193102
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with or without variable brain abnormalities (NEDBA) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy or early childhood, resulting in mildly delayed walking, variably impaired intellectual development, and poor or absent speech. Additional features may include hypotonia, spasticity, or ataxia. About half of patients have abnormal findings on brain imaging, including cerebral or cerebellar atrophy, loss of white matter volume, thin corpus callosum, and perisylvian polymicrogyria. Seizures are not a prominent finding, and although some patients may have nonspecific dysmorphic facial features, there is no common or consistent gestalt (summary by Platzer et al., 2019).
Developmental delay with or without dysmorphic facies and autism
MedGen UID:
1679263
Concept ID:
C5193106
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay with or without dysmorphic facies and autism (DEDDFA) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder apparent from infancy or early childhood and associated with variably impaired intellectual development. Some patients may be severely affected with no speech and inability to walk, whereas others may be able to attend special schools or have normal intellectual function associated with autism spectrum disorder and mild speech delay. Genetic analysis has suggested that the phenotype can be broadly categorized into 2 main groups. Patients with TRRAP mutations affecting residues 1031-1159 have a more severe disorder, often with multisystem involvement, including renal, cardiac, and genitourinary systems, as well as structural brain abnormalities. Patients with mutations outside of that region tend to have a less severe phenotype with a higher incidence of autism and usually no systemic involvement. Patients in both groups usually have somewhat similar dysmorphic facial features, such as upslanting palpebral fissures, hypertelorism, low-set ears, and broad or depressed nasal bridge, although these features are highly variable (summary by Cogne et al., 2019).
Khan-Khan-Katsanis syndrome
MedGen UID:
1682553
Concept ID:
C5193110
Disease or Syndrome
Khan-Khan-Katsanis syndrome (3KS) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder with variable involvement of the ocular, renal, skeletal, and sometimes cardiac systems. Affected individuals present at birth with multiple congenital anomalies, defects in urogenital and limb morphogenesis, poor overall growth with microcephaly, and global developmental delay (summary by Khan et al., 2019).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with seizures and speech and walking impairment
MedGen UID:
1672912
Concept ID:
C5193119
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with seizures and speech and walking impairment (NEDSSWI) is an autosomal recessive disorder with onset in infancy. Patients show global developmental delay, particularly of speech acquisition, as well as walking difficulties due to hypotonia, hypertonia, spasticity, or poor coordination. Other features include seizures, mild dysmorphic features, and variable short stature. The pregnancies tend to be complicated by hyper- or hypotension (summary by Ganapathi et al., 2019).
Arthrogryposis multiplex congenita 3, myogenic type
MedGen UID:
1680655
Concept ID:
C5193121
Disease or Syndrome
Myogenic-type arthrogryposis multiplex congenita-3 (AMC3) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by decreased fetal movements, hypotonia, variable skeletal defects, including clubfoot and scoliosis, and delayed motor milestones with difficulty walking (summary by Baumann et al., 2017).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly and structural brain anomalies
MedGen UID:
1677276
Concept ID:
C5193123
Disease or Syndrome
Hypotonia, hypoventilation, impaired intellectual development, dysautonomia, epilepsy, and eye abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1672905
Concept ID:
C5193124
Disease or Syndrome
Hypotonia, hypoventilation, impaired intellectual development, dysautonomia, epilepsy, and eye abnormalities (HIDEA) is an autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental syndrome characterized by global developmental delay, poor or absent speech, hypotonia, variable ocular movement and visual abnormalities, and respiratory difficulties, including hypoventilation, and sleep apnea. Patients may have significant breathing problems during respiratory infections that may lead to early death (summary by Rahikkala et al., 2019).
Noonan syndrome 11
MedGen UID:
1681177
Concept ID:
C5193130
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome (NS) is characterized by characteristic facies, short stature, congenital heart defect, and developmental delay of variable degree. Other findings can include broad or webbed neck, unusual chest shape with superior pectus carinatum and inferior pectus excavatum, cryptorchidism, varied coagulation defects, lymphatic dysplasias, and ocular abnormalities. Although birth length is usually normal, final adult height approaches the lower limit of normal. Congenital heart disease occurs in 50%-80% of individuals. Pulmonary valve stenosis, often with dysplasia, is the most common heart defect and is found in 20%-50% of individuals. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, found in 20%-30% of individuals, may be present at birth or develop in infancy or childhood. Other structural defects include atrial and ventricular septal defects, branch pulmonary artery stenosis, and tetralogy of Fallot. Up to one fourth of affected individuals have mild intellectual disability, and language impairments in general are more common in NS than in the general population.
O'Donnell-Luria-Rodan syndrome
MedGen UID:
1677602
Concept ID:
C5193138
Disease or Syndrome
O'Donnell-Luria-Rodan syndrome (ODLURO) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay, speech delay, variably delayed intellectual development, and subtle dysmorphic features. Some patients may have autism, seizures, hypotonia, and/or feeding difficulties (summary by O'Donnell-Luria et al., 2019).
Basilicata-Akhtar syndrome
MedGen UID:
1684820
Concept ID:
C5231394
Disease or Syndrome
Basilicata-Akhtar syndrome (MRXSBA) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy, feeding difficulties, hypotonia, and poor or absent speech. Most patients are able to walk, although they may have an unsteady gait or spasticity. Additional findings include dysmorphic facial features and mild distal skeletal anomalies. Males and females are similarly affected (summary by Basilicata et al., 2018).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with visual defects and brain anomalies
MedGen UID:
1684774
Concept ID:
C5231404
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with visual defects and brain anomalies (NEDVIBA) is characterized by global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development and speech delay, variable visual defects, including retinitis pigmentosa and optic atrophy, hypotonia or hypertonia, and variable structural brain abnormalities. Other nonspecific features may be found (summary by Okur et al., 2019).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and variable intellectual and behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1684818
Concept ID:
C5231423
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia and variable intellectual and behavioral abnormalities (NEDHIB) is characterized by early-onset hypotonia, delayed walking, poor speech, and impaired intellectual development. Additional features may include feeding difficulties, dysmorphic features, and visual defects. Brain imaging tends to show delayed myelination, thin corpus callosum, and/or enlarged ventricles. The severity of the disorder is highly variable; initial evidence suggests that the severity may depend on the type of mutation (summary by Haijes et al., 2019).
Siddiqi syndrome
MedGen UID:
1684813
Concept ID:
C5231435
Disease or Syndrome
Siddiqi syndrome (SIDDIS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay, early-onset progressive sensorineural hearing impairment, regression of motor skills, dystonia, poor overall growth, and low body mass index (BMI). More variable features may include ichthyosis-like skin abnormalities or sensory neuropathy (summary by Zazo Seco et al., 2017).
Myopathy, congenital, with structured cores and z-line abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1684705
Concept ID:
C5231445
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myopathy-8 (CMYP8) is an autosomal dominant disorder of the skeletal muscle characterized by hypotonia and delayed motor development apparent from infancy or childhood, resulting in difficulties walking or loss of ambulation within the first few decades. Affected individuals show respiratory insufficiency, high-arched palate, and scoliosis; external ophthalmoplegia may also be present. Skeletal muscle biopsy shows cores and myofibrillar disorganization (Lornage et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000).
Intellectual developmental disorder with speech delay, autism, and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
1684848
Concept ID:
C5231456
Disease or Syndrome
Intellectual developmental disorder with short stature and behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1684812
Concept ID:
C5231462
Disease or Syndrome
Leukodystrophy, hypomyelinating, 19, transient infantile
MedGen UID:
1684698
Concept ID:
C5231463
Disease or Syndrome
Transient infantile hypomyelinating leukodystrophy-19 (HLD19) is a disorder characterized by onset of transient neurologic abnormalities in early infancy, with resolution within the first or second decades. Affected individuals typically present in the newborn period or in early infancy with nystagmus and motor deficits associated with marked hypomyelination on brain imaging. Both neurologic impairment and abnormal brain imaging spontaneously resolve during childhood. Most patients have normal cognition and can attend regular schools, although some may have persistent neurologic deficits, such as gait ataxia, speech pronunciation defects, and/or mild cognitive impairment (summary by Yan et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HLD, see 312080.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with absent language and variable seizures
MedGen UID:
1684803
Concept ID:
C5231469
Disease or Syndrome
Poirier-Bienvenu neurodevelopmental syndrome
MedGen UID:
1684718
Concept ID:
C5231482
Disease or Syndrome
Poirier-Bienvenu neurodevelopmental syndrome (POBINDS) is a neurologic disorder characterized in most cases by early-onset seizures and variably impaired intellectual development (ID). The severity of neurologic impairment is highly variable: some patients may have refractory seizures and be bedridden with no meaningful speech, whereas others may have treatment-responsive seizures and achieve normal psychomotor development (summary by Li et al., 2019).
Coffin-Siris syndrome 11
MedGen UID:
1717402
Concept ID:
C5241442
Disease or Syndrome
Coffin-Siris syndrome-11 (CSS11) is a syndromic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay and impaired intellectual development associated with hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and variable dysmorphic features. Most patients have distal anomalies, such as small hands and feet and hypoplastic fifth toenails (summary by Nixon et al., 2019). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Coffin-Siris syndrome, see CSS1 (135900).
Wieacker-Wolff syndrome, female-restricted
MedGen UID:
1715791
Concept ID:
C5393303
Disease or Syndrome
Female-restricted Wieacker-Wolff syndrome (WRWFFR) is an X-linked dominant syndromic form of neurogenic arthrogryposis multiplex congenita (AMC) with central and peripheral nervous system involvement. Affected individuals have decreased fetal movements causing the development of contractures in utero and resulting in AMC and diffuse contractures involving the large and small joints apparent at birth. There is global developmental delay with difficulty walking or inability to walk, hypotonia that often evolves to spasticity, and variably impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech and language. Dysmorphic facial features, including hypotonic facies, ptosis, microretrognathia, and small mouth, are seen in most patients. Seizures are uncommon; some patients have evidence of a peripheral motor neuropathy with distal muscle weakness. The level of X inactivation in lymphocytes and fibroblasts is often skewed, but may not predict the severity of the phenotype. Most cases occur sporadically; rare X-linked dominant inheritance has been reported in families (summary by Frints et al., 2019).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 85, with or without midline brain defects
MedGen UID:
1708832
Concept ID:
C5393312
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-85 with or without midline brain defects (DEE85) is an X-linked neurologic disorder characterized by onset of severe refractory seizures in the first year of life, global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development and poor or absent speech, and dysmorphic facial features. The seizures tend to show a cyclic pattern with clustering. Many patients have midline brain defects on brain imaging, including thin corpus callosum and/or variable forms of holoprosencephaly (HPE). The severity and clinical manifestations are variable. Almost all reported patients are females with de novo mutations predicted to result in a loss of function (LOF). However, some patients may show skewed X inactivation, and the pathogenic mechanism may be due to a dominant-negative effect. The SMC1A protein is part of the multiprotein cohesin complex involved in chromatid cohesion during DNA replication and transcriptional regulation; DEE85 can thus be classified as a 'cohesinopathy' (summary by Symonds et al., 2017 and Kruszka et al., 2019). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Spastic paraplegia 82, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
1710411
Concept ID:
C5394037
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia-82 (SPG82) is a progressive neurologic disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy, significant motor impairment, and progressive spasticity mainly affecting the lower limbs. Some patients never achieve walking, whereas others lose the ability to walk or walk with an unsteady gait. Additional features include variably impaired intellectual development with language difficulties, ocular anomalies, such as nystagmus and visual impairment, and seizures. Brain imaging shows progressive cerebral and cerebellar atrophy, as well as white matter hyperintensities. Based on the additional abnormalities, the disorder can be classified as a type of complicated SPG (summary by Vaz et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive spastic paraplegia, see SPG5A (270800).
Intellectual developmental disorder with poor growth and with or without seizures or ataxia
MedGen UID:
1711370
Concept ID:
C5394135
Disease or Syndrome
Intellectual developmental disorder with poor growth and with or without seizures or ataxia (IDPOGSA) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy, hypotonia, and poor overall growth, sometimes with borderline microcephaly. The phenotype is highly variable: some patients may show ataxia and some may have seizures (summary by Hu et al., 2019).
Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal dominant 63, with macrocephaly
MedGen UID:
1716581
Concept ID:
C5394205
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
1719418
Concept ID:
C5394218
Disease or Syndrome
Nabais Sa-de Vries syndrome type 1 (NSDVS1) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy, variable behavioral abnormalities, microcephaly, and dysmorphic facial features, including round face, small palpebral fissures, highly arched eyebrows, and short nose. The severity is variable (summary by Nabais Sa et al., 2020).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with relative macrocephaly and with or without cardiac or endocrine anomalies
MedGen UID:
1714169
Concept ID:
C5394221
Disease or Syndrome
Nabais Sa-de Vries syndrome type 2 (NSDVS2) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from birth and distinctive dysmorphic facial features. Most patients have additional anomalies, including congenital heart defects, sleep disturbances, hypotonia, and variable endocrine abnormalities, such as hypothyroidism (summary by Nabais Sa et al., 2020).
Alopecia-intellectual disability syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
1713432
Concept ID:
C5394241
Disease or Syndrome
Alopecia-intellectual disability syndrome-4 (APMR4) is characterized by alopecia universalis, scaly skin, and psychomotor retardation of varying degrees (Besnard et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of alopecia-intellectual disability syndrome, see APMR1 (203650).
Diets-Jongmans syndrome
MedGen UID:
1714920
Concept ID:
C5394263
Disease or Syndrome
Diets-Jongmans syndrome (DIJOS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by mild to moderately impaired intellectual development with a recognizable facial gestalt (summary by Diets et al., 2019).
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 44
MedGen UID:
1718899
Concept ID:
C5394293
Disease or Syndrome
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-44 (COXPD44) is an autosomal recessive mitochondrial disorder with multisystemic manifestations. Most affected individuals present in infancy or early childhood with global developmental delay, hypotonia, and abnormal movements. Most patients develop seizures, often associated with status epilepticus, and some patients may have optic atrophy. One patient with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy has been reported. Serum lactate may be increased, although that finding is inconsistent. Detailed biochemical analysis shows variable combined deficiencies of mitochondrial oxidative complexes that appear to be tissue-specific (summary by Wei et al., 2020). For discussion of genetic heterogeneity of combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency, see COXPD1 (609060).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, microcephaly, and seizures
MedGen UID:
1710110
Concept ID:
C5394312
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, microcephaly, and seizures (NEDHYMS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay with axial hypotonia, inability to sit or walk, and severely impaired intellectual development with absent language. Most patients develop early-onset intractable seizures that prevent normal development. Additional features include feeding difficulties with poor overall growth and microcephaly. Some patients may have spastic quadriplegia, poor eye contact due to cortical blindness, variable dysmorphic features, and nonspecific abnormalities on brain imaging (summary by Tan et al., 2020).
Epilepsy, progressive myoclonic, 11
MedGen UID:
1716712
Concept ID:
C5394362
Disease or Syndrome
Progressive myoclonic epilepsy-11 (EPM11) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by onset of developmental regression and various types of seizures around 2 years of age after relatively normal early development. The seizures are usually refractory to treatment and are associated with multiple abnormalities on EEG. During the first and second decades, affected individuals develop additional neurologic signs and symptoms, including pyramidal, extrapyramidal, and cerebellar signs such as spasticity, loss of independent ambulation, myoclonus, tremor, and ataxia. Cognitive impairment is severe, and patients can speak only a few words or are non-verbal (summary by Hamanaka et al., 2020). For discussion of genetic heterogeneity of progressive myoclonic epilepsy, see EPM1A (254800).
Leukoencephalopathy, motor delay, spasticity, and dysarthria syndrome
MedGen UID:
1719764
Concept ID:
C5394371
Disease or Syndrome
Leukoencephalopathy, motor delay, spasticity, and dysarthria syndrome (LEMSPAD) is characterized by a motor-predominant phenotype including motor developmental delay, speech articulation disorder, progressive spastic hemiplegia with hyperreflexia, and age-appropriate cognition (Mao et al., 2020).
Congenital disorder of glycosylation, type iit
MedGen UID:
1709627
Concept ID:
C5394387
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorder of glycosylation type IIt (CDG2t) is an autosomal recessive multisystemic metabolic disorder characterized by global developmental delay, poor overall growth, severely impaired intellectual development with absent language, and behavioral abnormalities. Most patients develop early-onset seizures; brain imaging tends to show white matter abnormalities. Variable dysmorphic features, including long face, almond-shaped eyes, protruding maxilla, and short philtrum, are also present. The disorder, which is associated with low levels of HDL cholesterol, results from defective posttranslational O-linked glycosylation of certain plasma lipids and proteins (summary by Zilmer et al., 2020). For an overview of congenital disorders of glycosylation, see CDG1A (212065) and CDG2A (212066).
Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy (congenital with impaired intellectual development), type B, 15
MedGen UID:
1755743
Concept ID:
C5436552
Disease or Syndrome
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 50
MedGen UID:
1753519
Concept ID:
C5436623
Disease or Syndrome
Spinal muscular atrophy, infantile, James type
MedGen UID:
1764556
Concept ID:
C5436669
Disease or Syndrome
The phenotypic spectrum of GARS1-associated axonal neuropathy ranges from GARS1 infantile-onset SMA (GARS1-iSMA) to GARS1 adolescent- or early adult-onset hereditary motor/sensory neuropathy (GARS1-HMSN). GARS1-iSMA. Age of onset ranges from the neonatal period to the toddler years. Initial manifestations are typically respiratory distress, poor feeding, and muscle weakness (distal greater than proximal). Weakness is slowly progressive, ultimately requiring mechanical ventilation and feeding via gastrostomy tube. GARS1-HMSN. Age of onset is most commonly during the second decade (range eight to 36 years). Initial manifestations are typically muscle weakness in the hands sometimes with sensory deficits. Lower limb involvement (seen in ~50% of individuals) ranges from weakness and atrophy of the extensor digitorum brevis and weakness of toe dorsiflexors to classic peroneal muscular atrophy with foot drop and a high steppage gait.
Vitamin D-dependent rickets, type 3
MedGen UID:
1725534
Concept ID:
C5436733
Disease or Syndrome
Vitamin D-dependent rickets-3 (VDDR3) is characterized by early-onset rickets, reduced serum levels of the vitamin D metabolites 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, and deficient responsiveness to the parent molecule as well as activated forms of vitamin D (Roizen et al., 2018). For discussion of genetic heterogeneity of vitamin D-dependent rickets, see 264700.
Cleft palate, proliferative retinopathy, and developmental delay
MedGen UID:
1765503
Concept ID:
C5436739
Disease or Syndrome
Cleft palate, proliferative retinopathy, and developmental delay (CPPRDD) is characterized by motor and speech delay, with intellectual disability ranging from mild to severe. Brain imaging shows ventriculomegaly as well as other malformations (Harel et al., 2019).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with alopecia and brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1775930
Concept ID:
C5436741
Disease or Syndrome
Bachmann-Bupp syndrome (BABS) is characterized by a distinctive type of alopecia, global developmental delay in the moderate to severe range, hypotonia, nonspecific dysmorphic features, behavioral abnormalities (autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder) and feeding difficulties. Hair is typically present at birth but may be sparse and of an unexpected color with subsequent loss of hair in large clumps within the first few weeks of life. Rare findings may include seizures with onset in later childhood and conductive hearing loss.
Delpire-McNeill syndrome
MedGen UID:
1725056
Concept ID:
C5436771
Disease or Syndrome
Delpire-McNeill syndrome (DELMNES) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with highly variable manifestations. Patients present in infancy with global developmental delay, including motor, speech, and impaired intellectual development. The most severely affected patients have hypotonia, inability to hold their head or walk, bilateral sensorineural deafness, and absent language, whereas others have delayed walking and mild to moderate intellectual disability, often with speech delay and autistic features. More variable features may include spasticity or minor involvement of other organ systems, such as hip dislocation or ventricular septal defect (summary by McNeill et al., 2020).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, impaired language, and gait abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1731507
Concept ID:
C5436783
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, language delay, and gait abnormalities (NEDMILG) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent in infancy. Affected individuals have delayed walking with variable gait abnormalities, impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech and language, and progressive microcephaly. More variable features include hypotonia, early-onset seizures, and a peripheral demyelinating or axonal peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy. The disease follows a neurodegenerative course in many patients; clinical features suggest involvement of both the central and peripheral nervous systems (Manole et al., 2020).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, impaired language, epilepsy, and gait abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1764121
Concept ID:
C5436788
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, impaired language, epilepsy, and gait abnormalities (NEDMILEG) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent in infancy. Affected individuals have delayed walking with variable gait abnormalities, including ataxia and spasticity, impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech and language, and progressive microcephaly. Dysmorphic facial features may also be observed. Most patients have early-onset seizures; some may develop a demyelinating peripheral neuropathy. The clinical features suggest involvement of both the central and peripheral nervous systems (Manole et al., 2020).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with cardiomyopathy, spasticity, and brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1750805
Concept ID:
C5436848
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with cardiomyopathy, spasticity, and brain abnormalities (NEDCASB) is an autosomal recessive multisystemic disorder characterized by global neurodevelopmental delay, severely impaired intellectual development, poor overall growth, and spasticity of the lower limbs resulting in gait difficulties. Most affected individuals also develop progressive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in childhood or have cardiac developmental anomalies. Additional more variable features include dysmorphic facies and axonal sensory peripheral neuropathy. Brain imaging tends to show thin corpus callosum and polymicrogyria (summary by Garcia-Cazorla et al., 2020).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with or without early-onset generalized epilepsy
MedGen UID:
1737097
Concept ID:
C5436914
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with or without early-onset generalized epilepsy (NEDEGE) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy or early childhood. Affected individuals have variably impaired intellectual development, speech delay, and behavioral abnormalities. About half of patients develop early-onset generalized epilepsy with different seizure types; myoclonic seizures and myoclonic-atonic epilepsy are commonly observed. The seizures may remit with age or remain refractory to treatment. Brain imaging is essentially normal and there are no significant accompanying neurologic or systemic abnormalities (summary by Mulhern et al., 2018).
Blepharophimosis-impaired intellectual development syndrome
MedGen UID:
1779966
Concept ID:
C5443984
Disease or Syndrome
Blepharophimosis-impaired intellectual development syndrome (BIS) is a congenital disorder characterized by a distinct facial appearance with blepharophimosis and global development delay. Affected individuals have delayed motor skills, sometimes with inability to walk, and impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech; some patients show behavioral abnormalities. There are recognizable facial features, including epicanthal folds, sparse eyebrows, broad nasal bridge, short nose with downturned tip, and open mouth with thin upper lip. Other more variable features include distal skeletal anomalies, feeding difficulties with poor growth, respiratory infections, and hypotonia with peripheral spasticity (summary by Cappuccio et al., 2020).
Martsolf syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1778114
Concept ID:
C5542298
Disease or Syndrome
RAB18 deficiency is the molecular deficit underlying both Warburg micro syndrome (characterized by eye, nervous system, and endocrine abnormalities) and Martsolf syndrome (characterized by similar – but milder – findings). To date Warburg micro syndrome comprises >96% of reported individuals with genetically defined RAB18 deficiency. The hallmark ophthalmologic findings are bilateral congenital cataracts, usually accompanied by microphthalmia, microcornea (diameter <10), and small atonic pupils. Poor vision despite early cataract surgery likely results from progressive optic atrophy and cortical visual impairment. Individuals with Warburg micro syndrome have severe to profound intellectual disability (ID); those with Martsolf syndrome have mild to moderate ID. Some individuals with RAB18 deficiency also have epilepsy. In Warburg micro syndrome, a progressive ascending spastic paraplegia typically begins with spastic diplegia and contractures during the first year, followed by upper-limb involvement leading to spastic quadriplegia after about age five years, often eventually causing breathing difficulties. In Martsolf syndrome infantile hypotonia is followed primarily by slowly progressive lower-limb spasticity. Hypogonadism – when present – manifests in both syndromes, in males as micropenis and/or cryptorchidism and in females as hypoplastic labia minora, clitoral hypoplasia, and small introitus.
Leukoencephalopathy, progressive, infantile-onset, with or without deafness
MedGen UID:
1779519
Concept ID:
C5542996
Disease or Syndrome
Infantile-onset progressive leukoencephalopathy with or without deafness (LEPID) is an autosomal recessive complex neurodegenerative disorder with onset of symptoms in infancy or early childhood. Most patients present with sensorineural deafness or hypoacousia and global developmental delay. Affected individuals show episodic regression with progressive motor deterioration resulting in spastic tetraplegia and loss of ambulation, as well as impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech. Additional more variable features may include poor overall growth with microcephaly, seizures, visual loss, microcytic anemia, and hepatic enlargement or abnormal liver enzymes. Brain imaging shows deep white matter abnormalities consistent with a progressive leukoencephalopathy. The brain and spinal cord are usually both involved; calcifications of these regions are often observed. Laboratory studies show increased serum lactate and deficiencies of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, consistent with global mitochondrial dysfunction. Early death often occurs (summary by Itoh et al., 2019).
Microcephaly 26, primary, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
1779629
Concept ID:
C5543048
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant primary microcephaly-26 (MCPH26) is characterized by progressive microcephaly beginning at birth and associated with global developmental delay with variably impaired intellectual development. Some patients may have only mild learning difficulties or speech delay, whereas other are more severely affected with the inability to walk or speak. Additional features may include short stature, spasticity, feeding difficulties requiring tube feeding, and nonspecific dysmorphic facial features. Brain imaging in some patients shows a simplified gyral pattern or dysgenesis of the corpus callosum, suggesting abnormal neuronal migration (summary by Cristofoli et al., 2020). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary microcephaly, see MCPH1 (251200).
Microcephaly 27, primary, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
1783457
Concept ID:
C5543051
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant primary microcephaly-27 (MCPH27) is characterized by small head circumference apparent in early childhood and associated with global developmental delay manifest as delayed walking, inability to walk, impaired intellectual development, and poor or absent speech. Most patients have variable and nonspecific additional features, including facial dysmorphism, hypotonia, limb hypertonia, poor feeding, and distal skeletal anomalies. Brain imaging may show enlarged ventricles or gyral abnormalities, but most have normal imaging (Parry et al., 2021). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary microcephaly, see MCPH1 (251200).
Mitochondrial complex 2 deficiency, nuclear type 4
MedGen UID:
1782861
Concept ID:
C5543176
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial complex II deficiency nuclear type 4 (MC2DN4) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by early-onset progressive neurodegeneration with leukoencephalopathy. Acute episodes of neurodegeneration are often triggered by catabolic stress such as infection or fasting.
Kohlschutter-Tonz syndrome-like
MedGen UID:
1781649
Concept ID:
C5543202
Disease or Syndrome
Den Hoed-de Boer-Voisin syndrome (DHDBV) is characterized by global developmental delay with moderately to severely impaired intellectual development, poor or absent speech, and delayed motor skills. Although the severity of the disorder varies, many patients are nonverbal and have hypotonia with inability to sit or walk. Early-onset epilepsy is common and may be refractory to treatment, leading to epileptic encephalopathy and further interruption of developmental progress. Most patients have feeding difficulties with poor overall growth and dysmorphic facial features, as well as significant dental anomalies resembling amelogenesis imperfecta. The phenotype is reminiscent of Kohlschutter-Tonz syndrome (KTZS; 226750). More variable features of DHDBV include visual defects, behavioral abnormalities, and nonspecific involvement of other organ systems (summary by den Hoed et al., 2021).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with or without autism or seizures
MedGen UID:
1784023
Concept ID:
C5543225
Disease or Syndrome
CUL3-related neurodevelopmental disorder is a condition that affects neurological and physical development. Children with CUL3-related neurodevelopmental disorder may have intellectual disability or specific learning disorders. They may also experience delayed development of speech and motor skills, such as sitting and walking. Some individuals with this condition may have autism spectrum disorder, a developmental condition that affects communication and social skills. \n\nMovement abnormalities can also occur in people with CUL3-related neurodevelopmental disorder. Affected individuals may have weak muscle tone (hypotonia) in childhood. In adulthood, they may develop involuntary muscle tensing (dystonia), rhythmic shaking (tremor), or other uncontrolled movements (spasms). \n\nPeople with CUL3-related neurodevelopmental disorder can have distinctive facial features, including a long, triangular-shaped face; a large forehead; a large, rounded nose; small ears; deep-set eyes; or a pointed chin. Some affected individuals have a larger than normal head (macrocephaly). \n\nMany people with CUL3-related neurodevelopmental disorder have hand and foot abnormalities. Hand abnormalities can include small pinky (fifth) fingers that curve inward (clinodactyly), narrow thumbs, underdevelopment of the muscle at the base of the thumb (thenar hypoplasia), or a single crease across the palm of the hand. Foot abnormalities can include high arches of the feet (pes cavus); bunions; fusion of the skin between some toes (cutaneous syndactyly); or joint deformities (contractures) in the ankles, feet, or toes. A few individuals with CUL3-related neurodevelopmental disorder have an abnormally curved lower back (lordosis) or a spine that curves to the side (scoliosis). \n\nSome affected infants have a backflow of stomach acids into the esophagus (gastroesophageal reflux disease or GERD), which tends to go away after childhood. Rarely, recurrent seizures (epilepsy), congenital heart abnormalities, or genitourinary abnormalities occur in people with CUL3-related neurodevelopmental disorder. 
Baralle-Macken syndrome
MedGen UID:
1778777
Concept ID:
C5543241
Disease or Syndrome
Baralle-Macken syndrome (BARMACS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent from infancy, difficulty walking or inability to walk, and impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech. Affected individuals develop early-onset cataracts; some may have microcephaly. Additional more variable features may include dysmorphic facial features, metabolic abnormalities, spasticity, and lymphopenia (summary by Macken et al., 2021).
Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, sensorineural hearing loss, impaired intellectual development, and leber congenital amaurosis
MedGen UID:
1780157
Concept ID:
C5543257
Disease or Syndrome
SHILCA is characterized by early-onset retinal degeneration in association with sensorineural hearing loss, short stature, vertebral anomalies, and epiphyseal dysplasia, as well as motor and intellectual delay. Delayed myelination, leukoencephalopathy, and hypoplasia of the corpus callosum and cerebellum have been observed on brain MRI (Bedoni et al., 2020).
Hiatt-Neu-Cooper neurodevelopmental syndrome
MedGen UID:
1785187
Concept ID:
C5543338
Disease or Syndrome
Hiatt-Neu-Cooper neurodevelopmental syndrome (HINCONS) is characterized by global developmental delay with delayed walking or inability to walk and impaired intellectual development with poor or absent speech. Affected individuals have axial hypotonia and dysmorphic facies. Additional more variable features may include seizures, autistic or behavioral abnormalities, and brain abnormalities, such as dysplastic corpus callosum or polymicrogyria (summary by Hiatt et al., 2018).
Leukodystrophy, hypomyelinating, 22
MedGen UID:
1787833
Concept ID:
C5543406
Disease or Syndrome
Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy-22 (HLD22) is a neurologic disorder characterized by global developmental delay with mildly impaired intellectual development and marked motor impairment with limited or no ability to walk and dysarthria. Affected individuals have limb spasticity with pyramidal signs, as well as nystagmus, hypermetropia, and astigmatism. Brain imaging shows hypomyelination and a delay in myelination, although serial imaging shows some progress in both the central and peripheral white matter regions (Riedhammer et al., 2021). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HLD, see 312080.
CATARACTS, SPASTIC PARAPARESIS, AND SPEECH DELAY
MedGen UID:
1778818
Concept ID:
C5543440
Disease or Syndrome
Cataracts, spastic paraparesis, and speech delay (CSPSD) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by spastic paraparesis and bilateral congenital/juvenile cataracts. Speech delay is a common feature (Ferdinandusse et al., 2021).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with infantile epileptic spasms
MedGen UID:
1781627
Concept ID:
C5543538
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with infantile epileptic spasms (NEDIES) is characterized by onset of severe and frequent epileptic spasms within the first year of life. Affected individuals have global developmental delay with delayed walking and poor or absent speech. More variable features may include poor overall growth, high-arched palate, and delayed myelination on brain imaging (summary by Fatima et al., 2021).
Martsolf syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
1779703
Concept ID:
C5543626
Disease or Syndrome
Martsolf syndrome-2 (MARTS2) is an autosomal recessive disorder with the main features of congenital cataracts, mildly to severely impaired intellectual development, and facial dysmorphism. Other features include brain malformations, microcephaly, and hypogonadism-hypogenitalism (summary by Koparir et al., 2019).
Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 31
MedGen UID:
1786855
Concept ID:
C5543627
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia-31 (SCAR31) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by global developmental delay with hypotonia and variably impaired intellectual and language development. Affected individuals have an ataxic gait, tremor, and dysarthria; more severely affected patients also have spasticity with inability to walk. Most have optic atrophy. Brain imaging shows cerebellar hypoplasia, enlarged ventricles, and atrophy of the posterior corpus callosum. Additional features may include retinitis pigmentosa, sensorineural deafness, dysmorphic facial features, and possibly endocrine dysfunction (summary by Collier et al., 2021).
Dyskinesia with orofacial involvement, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
1790407
Concept ID:
C5551343
Disease or Syndrome
ADCY5 dyskinesia is a hyperkinetic movement disorder (more prominent in the face and arms than the legs) characterized by infantile to late-adolescent onset of chorea, athetosis, dystonia, myoclonus, or a combination of these. To date, affected individuals have had overlapping (but not identical) manifestations with wide-ranging severity. The facial movements are typically periorbital and perioral. The dyskinesia is prone to episodic or paroxysmal exacerbation lasting minutes to hours, and may occur during sleep. Precipitating factors in some persons have included emotional stress, intercurrent illness, sneezing, or caffeine; in others, no precipitating factors have been identified. In some children, severe infantile axial hypotonia results in gross motor delays accompanied by chorea, sometimes with language delays. The overall tendency is for the abnormal movements to stabilize in early middle age, at which point they may improve in some individuals; less commonly, the abnormal movements are slowly progressive, increasing in severity and frequency.
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and neurodevelopmental syndrome
MedGen UID:
1794148
Concept ID:
C5561938
Disease or Syndrome
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and neurodevelopmental syndrome (FSGSNEDS) is characterized by global developmental delay and renal dysfunction manifest as proteinuria and nephrotic syndrome apparent from infancy or early childhood. Some patients present with renal disease, whereas others present with developmental delay and develop renal disease later in childhood. Renal biopsy shows focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), but the course of the disease is variable: some patients have transient proteinuria and others require renal transplant. Neurodevelopmental features are also variable, with some patients having only mildly impaired intellectual development, and others having a severe developmental disorder associated with early-onset refractory seizures or epileptic encephalopathy. Additional features, including feeding difficulties, poor overall growth, and nonspecific dysmorphic facial features, are commonly observed (summary by Assoum et al., 2018 and Weng et al., 2021).
Ritscher-Schinzel syndrome 4
MedGen UID:
1794149
Concept ID:
C5561939
Disease or Syndrome
Ritscher-Schinzel syndrome-4 (RTSC4) is characterized by a constellation of congenital anomalies, including dysmorphic craniofacial features and structural brain anomalies, such as Dandy-Walker malformation (220200), hindbrain malformations, or agenesis of the corpus callosum, associated with global developmental delay and impaired intellectual development. Congenital cardiac defects have been reported in 1 family (summary by Ritscher et al., 1987 and Jeanne et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Ritscher-Schinzel syndrome, see RTSC1 (220210).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with motor and speech delay and behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1794164
Concept ID:
C5561954
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with motor and speech delay and behavioral abnormalities (NEDMOSBA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay apparent from early childhood. There is significant phenotypic variability: some patients achieve walking and talking after a few years, whereas others develop spastic tetraplegia with inability to walk independently and never gain proper speech. Affected individuals may have variable additional features, including poor overall growth, hypotonia, tremor, ocular anomalies, seizures, and nonspecific dysmorphic facial features (summary by Polla et al., 2021).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with seizures and brain abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1794189
Concept ID:
C5561979
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with seizures and brain abnormalities (NEDSBA) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by global developmental delay and onset of seizures in the first months of life associated with structural brain defects on brain imaging. Additional features may include pigmentary retinopathy with poor visual fixation and spasticity (summary by Duncan et al., 2021).
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, axonal, type 2FF
MedGen UID:
1794191
Concept ID:
C5561981
Disease or Syndrome
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2FF (CMT2FF) is an autosomal dominant progressive axonal sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy characterized by early-childhood onset of difficulties walking or running due to atrophy and weakness of the lower limbs. Most patients have foot and ankle deformities, requiring surgery or walking aids. Some patients lose independent ambulation. There is also prominent involvement of the upper limbs, with weakness and atrophy of the forearm, wrist, and intrinsic hand muscles. Proximal muscle function is preserved. Affected individuals have variable distal sensory impairment. Most patients have hyporeflexia, although brisk reflexes, suggesting upper motor involvement, have been described in 1 family. Sural nerve biopsy showed abnormal myelination (Rebelo et al., 2021). For a phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of axonal CMT type 2, see CMT2A (118210).
Congenital disorder of glycosylation, type IIw
MedGen UID:
1794196
Concept ID:
C5561986
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorder of glycosylation type IIw (CDG2W) is an autosomal dominant metabolic disorder characterized by liver dysfunction, coagulation deficiencies, and profound abnormalities in N-glycosylation of serum specific proteins. All reported patients carry the same mutation (602671.0017) (summary by Ng et al., 2021). For an overview of congenital disorders of glycosylation, see CDG1A (212065) and CDG2A (212066).
Short stature, impaired intellectual development, microcephaly, hypotonia, and ocular anomalies
MedGen UID:
1794208
Concept ID:
C5561998
Disease or Syndrome
SIMHA syndrome is characterized by short stature, impaired intellectual development, microcephaly, hypotonia, and ocular anomalies. Inter- and intrafamilial phenotypic variability has been observed (Kambouris et al., 2014; Zahra et al., 2020).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 97
MedGen UID:
1794209
Concept ID:
C5561999
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-97 (DEE97) is characterized by developmental delay, epileptic encephalopathy, and impaired intellectual development. Other clinical features may include autistic features and hypotonia. For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, axonal, Type 2HH
MedGen UID:
1794213
Concept ID:
C5562003
Disease or Syndrome
Axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2HH (CMT2HH) is an autosomal dominant peripheral neuropathy characterized predominantly by onset of vocal cord weakness resulting in stridor in infancy or early childhood. The vocal cord paresis remains throughout life and may be severe enough to require tracheostomy. Additional features of the disorder usually include pes cavus and scoliosis. Some patients have mild distal muscle weakness and atrophy primarily affecting the lower limbs, although the upper limbs may also be involved, and distal sensory impairment, often with hyporeflexia (Sullivan et al., 2020). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of axonal CMT, see CMT2A1 (118210).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with impaired language and ataxia and with or without seizures
MedGen UID:
1794216
Concept ID:
C5562006
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with impaired language and ataxia and with or without seizures (NEDLAS) is characterized by axial hypotonia and global developmental delay apparent in early infancy. Affected individuals have delayed walking with gait ataxia and poor language development. Behavioral abnormalities also commonly occur. The severity is highly variable: a subset of patients have a more severe phenotype with early-onset seizures resembling epileptic encephalopathy, inability to walk or speak, and hypomyelination on brain imaging (summary by Stolz et al., 2021).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hyperkinetic movements and dyskinesia
MedGen UID:
1794248
Concept ID:
C5562038
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hyperkinetic movements and dyskinesia (NEDHYD) is an autosomal recessive complex neurologic disorder characterized by severe global developmental delay with axial hypotonia, impaired intellectual development, poor overall growth, and abnormal involuntary hyperkinetic movements, including dystonia, myoclonus, spasticity, and orofacial dyskinesia. It is the most severe manifestation of ADCY5-related dyskinetic disorders (summary by Okamoto et al., 2021 and Kaiyrzhanov et al., 2021).
Brunet-Wagner neurodevelopmental syndrome
MedGen UID:
1794266
Concept ID:
C5562056
Disease or Syndrome
Brunet-Wagner neurodevelopmental syndrome (BRUWAG) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by infantile hypotonia and severely impaired development affecting both motor and cognitive skills. Affected individuals either do not achieve independent ambulation or walk with an unsteady gait; those who walk may lose the ability due to spasticity of the lower limbs. They have absent language, poor or absent social skills, and behavioral abnormalities. Most have variable ocular findings, including nystagmus, strabismus, optic atrophy, myopia, or hypermetropia (summary by Brunet et al., 2020 and Samra et al., 2021).
Schaaf-Yang syndrome
MedGen UID:
1807366
Concept ID:
C5575066
Disease or Syndrome
Schaaf-Yang syndrome (SYS) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder that shares multiple clinical features with the genetically related Prader-Willi syndrome. It usually manifests at birth with muscular hypotonia in all and distal joint contractures in a majority of affected individuals. Gastrointestinal/feeding problems are particularly pronounced in infancy and childhood, but can transition to hyperphagia and obesity in adulthood. Respiratory distress is present in many individuals at birth, with approximately half requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation, and approximately 20% requiring tracheostomy. Skeletal manifestations such as joint contractures, scoliosis, and decreased bone mineral density are frequently observed. All affected individuals show developmental delay, resulting in intellectual disability of variable degree, from low-normal intelligence to severe intellectual disability. Other findings may include short stature, seizures, eye anomalies, and hypogonadism.
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 40
MedGen UID:
1810363
Concept ID:
C5676894
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, impaired language, and dysmorphic features (NEDHILD) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder associated with impaired intellectual development, speech and language impairment, microcephaly, seizures, hypotonia, ophthalmologic issues, constipation/gastroesophageal reflux, and behavioral problems, including autism and sleep disturbances (summary by Garrity et al., 2021).
Bryant-Li-Bhoj neurodevelopmental syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1801103
Concept ID:
C5676905
Disease or Syndrome
Bryant-Li-Bhoj neurodevelopmental syndrome-1 (BRYLIB1) is a highly variable phenotype characterized predominantly by moderate to severe global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development, poor or absent speech, and delayed motor milestones. Most patients have hypotonia, although some have peripheral hypertonia. Common features include abnormal head shape, variable dysmorphic facial features, oculomotor abnormalities, feeding problems, and nonspecific brain imaging abnormalities. Additional features may include hearing loss, seizures, short stature, and mild skeletal defects (summary by Bryant et al., 2020). Genetic Heterogeneity of Bryant-Li-Bhoj Neurodevelopmental Syndrome See also BRYLIB2 (619721), caused by heterozygous mutation in the H3F3B gene (601058).
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, demyelinating, IIA 1I
MedGen UID:
1811493
Concept ID:
C5676914
Disease or Syndrome
Demyelinating Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1I (CMT1I) is a neurologic disorder characterized predominantly by delayed motor development in the first years of life associated with gait abnormalities, sensory ataxia, hyporeflexia, and distal sensory impairment due to a sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy that mainly affects the lower limbs. The disorder is progressive, and some may have upper limb involvement. A subset of patients has central nervous system involvement that manifests as global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development and speech difficulties. Other features may include spasticity, hyperreflexia, tremor, dysmetria, seizures, or cerebellar findings. Brain imaging may be normal or show nonspecific abnormalities, such as white matter signal changes and delayed myelination (summary by Djordjevic et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal dominant Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1, see CMT1B (118200).
Osteogenesis imperfecta, IIA 22
MedGen UID:
1801631
Concept ID:
C5676943
Disease or Syndrome
Osteogenesis imperfecta comprises a group of connective tissue disorders characterized clinically by bone fragility, low bone mass, and increased susceptibility to fractures. Osteogenesis imperfecta type XXII (OI22) is a severe recessive form of the disease (Dubail et al., 2020).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with central hypotonia and dysmorphic facies
MedGen UID:
1807420
Concept ID:
C5676944
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with central hypotonia and dysmorphic facies (NEDCHF) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by global developmental delay, impaired intellectual development, seizures, distinctive facial features, scoliosis, delayed closure of the anterior fontanel, and nonspecific brain abnormalities (Wakeling et al., 2021).
Intellectual developmental disorder with or without peripheral neuropathy
MedGen UID:
1807523
Concept ID:
C5676969
Disease or Syndrome
Intellectual developmental disorder with or without peripheral neuropathy (IDDPN) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by global developmental delay with mildly impaired intellectual development apparent from infancy or early childhood. Affected individuals have hypotonia and delayed walking with an unsteady gait and frequent falls. Some patients develop a progressive length-dependent sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy. Additional features may include dysarthria and subtle dysmorphic facial features (Diaz et al., 2020).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, impaired speech, and behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1812577
Concept ID:
C5676975
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, impaired speech, and behavioral abnormalities (NEDHISB) is characterized by global developmental delay apparent since infancy or early childhood, hypotonia with delayed motor development, impaired intellectual development with significant speech delay or absent speech, and variable behavioral abnormalities, such as autism, repetitive actions, or aggression. About two-thirds of patients have early-onset seizures that range from intractable to self-limiting. More variable features include nonspecific dysmorphic facial features, distal skeletal anomalies, and brain imaging abnormalities. The phenotypic manifestations and severity are highly variable (Muir et al., 2021).
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 104
MedGen UID:
1823956
Concept ID:
C5774183
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-104 (DEE104) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by developmental delay in the first few months of life and drug-resistant focal and generalized tonic-clonic seizures (summary by Bott et al., 2021). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, short stature, and speech delay
MedGen UID:
1823984
Concept ID:
C5774211
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, short stature, and speech delay (NEDMISS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay with severely impaired intellectual development usually accompanied by behavioral abnormalities. Other features may include hypotonia, abnormal gait, mild dysmorphism, and seizures (Rawlins et al., 2022).
Developmental delay, behavioral abnormalities, and neuropsychiatric disorders
MedGen UID:
1823997
Concept ID:
C5774224
Disease or Syndrome
Developmental delay, behavioral abnormalities, and neuropsychiatric disorders (DEDBANP) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by mild global developmental delay and normal or variably impaired intellectual development. Most individuals have behavioral or neuropsychiatric disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and executive functioning deficits. Additional features may include speech delay, dysmorphic features, hypotonia, sleep disturbances, and seizures (Vitobello et al., 2022).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with facial dysmorphism, absent language, and pseudo-pelger-huet anomaly
MedGen UID:
1824005
Concept ID:
C5774232
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with facial dysmorphism, absent language, and pseudo-Pelger-Huet anomaly (NEDFLPH) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by global developmental delay with severely impaired intellectual development. Affected individuals often have behavioral abnormalities and may have variable findings on brain imaging, such as thin corpus callosum. Laboratory studies show nuclear lobulation defects in a subset of neutrophils, indicating a pseudo-Pelger-Huet anomaly (see 169400) and suggesting defects in the integrity of the nuclear envelope, where TMEM147 localizes (Thomas et al., 2022).
Spastic paraplegia 88, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
1824020
Concept ID:
C5774247
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant spastic paraplegia-88 (SPG88) is characterized by onset of symptoms in the first year of life. Affected individuals show delayed motor development with walking difficulties due to spasticity of the lower limbs. The disorder is slowly progressive, but variable in severity; some patients are unable to ambulate independently. Most patients have a pure form of the disorder, although rare patients have been reported to have additional features, including peripheral neuropathy, speech delay, ADHD, and nonspecific brain imaging abnormalities (Schob et al., 2021, Estiar et al., 2022, De Winter et al., 2022). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal dominant spastic paraplegia, see SPG3A (182600).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, dysmorphic facies, and skin abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1824058
Concept ID:
C5774285
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, dysmorphic facies, and skin abnormalities (NEDHFS) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development and poor or absent speech. Affected individuals have dysmorphic facies, including large abnormally shaped ears and strabismus, hypotonia, and dry skin with keratosis pilaris. Some patients develop seizures. Metabolic studies are unremarkable (Morava et al., 2021).
Congenital disorder of glycosylation, type IIy
MedGen UID:
1824067
Concept ID:
C5774294
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital disorder of glycosylation type IIy (CDG2Y) is an autosomal recessive multisystemic congenital disorder characterized by poor overall growth and global developmental delay with impaired intellectual development. Other features may include hypotonia, seizures, brain imaging abnormalities, dysmorphic features, and various skeletal defects. Laboratory studies show a subtle type II glycosylation defect of serum transferrin (Tambe et al., 2020). For a general discussion of CDGs, see CDG1A (212065).
Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 33
MedGen UID:
1824070
Concept ID:
C5774297
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia-33 (SCAR33) is a neurologic disorder characterized by delayed motor development apparent in infancy, unsteady ataxic gait, intention tremor, nystagmus, and speech delay with dysarthria. Some patients have seizures and/or learning difficulties. Brain imaging shows cerebellar hypoplasia (Elsaid et al., 2017).
Intellectual disability-macrocephaly-hypotonia-behavioral abnormalities syndrome
MedGen UID:
1830493
Concept ID:
C5779996
Disease or Syndrome
PPP2R5D-related neurodevelopmental disorder is characterized by mild to severe neurodevelopmental delay. Pronounced hypotonia with delay in gross motor skills is common. Onset of independent walking varies widely and ataxia is reported. All reported individuals have speech impairment, with a wide range of abilities. Autism spectrum disorder is reported in six individuals. Macrocephaly is common. Seizures and ophthalmologic abnormalities are reported in fewer than half of individuals. Additional anomalies include skeletal, endocrine, and cardiac malformations, each reported in a few individuals. To date, 23 individuals with PPP2R5D-related neurodevelopmental disorder have been reported.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, dysmorphic facies, and skeletal anomalies, with or without seizures
MedGen UID:
1840880
Concept ID:
C5830244
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with hypotonia, dysmorphic facies, and skeletal anomalies, with or without seizures (NEDFSS), is characterized by these features and global developmental delay with delayed or absent walking, moderate to severely impaired intellectual development, and poor or absent speech acquisition. Affected individuals may also have behavioral abnormalities. About half of patients develop various types of seizures that are usually well-controlled with medication. Rare patients are noted to have heat intolerance or insensitivity to pain (Lines et al., 2022).
Leukodystrophy, hypomyelinating, 25
MedGen UID:
1840911
Concept ID:
C5830275
Disease or Syndrome
Hypomyelinating leukodystrophy-25 (HLD25) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by horizontal nystagmus, hypotonia, and global developmental delay apparent soon after birth or in infancy. Most patients show gradual clinical improvement over time with resolution of the nystagmus in early childhood. Many achieve developmental milestones and may have normal cognition, although the severity of the disorder varies and some patients may have persistent neurologic deficits, such as ataxia or intellectual disability. Brain imaging shows hypomyelination that may also improve with time (Yan et al., 2022; do Rosario et al., 2022). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of HLD, see 312080.
Neurodevelopmental disorder with language delay and behavioral abnormalities, with or without seizures
MedGen UID:
1841001
Concept ID:
C5830365
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with language delay and behavioral abnormalities, with or without seizures (NEDLBAS), is characterized by global developmental delay with variably impaired intellectual development apparent from infancy or early childhood. Affected individuals have significant speech delay, and most demonstrate behavioral abnormalities, including autistic features. About half of patients develop seizures, which may be controlled or refractory. More variable features include hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and subtle facial dysmorphism (Schalk et al., 2022).
Congenital myopathy 20
MedGen UID:
1841029
Concept ID:
C5830393
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myopathy-20 (CMYP20) is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder that shows wide phenotypic variability. Some patients present in early childhood with proximal muscle weakness affecting the lower and upper limbs resulting in difficulties running and climbing, whereas others present soon after birth with congenital limb or distal contractures. Additional features may include dysmorphic facial features and global developmental delay. Skeletal muscle biopsy may show nemaline rods (Nilipour et al., 2018; Pehlivan et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000).
Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter 4
MedGen UID:
1841042
Concept ID:
C5830406
Disease or Syndrome
Leukoencephalopathy with vanishing white matter-4 (VWM4) is a chronic and progressive autosomal recessive leukoencephalopathy characterized by neurologic deterioration with cerebellar ataxia, spasticity, and relatively mild mental decline. Onset is usually in childhood; early development may be normal. Female patients may experience ovarian failure. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy are diagnostic and show a diffuse abnormality of the cerebral white matter beginning in the presymptomatic stage, with increasing amounts of the abnormal white matter vanishing and being replaced by cerebrospinal fluid; autopsy confirms these findings (summary by van der Knaap et al., 2002, Fogli et al., 2003). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of VWM, see 603896.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Saposnik G, Andhavarapu S, Sainz de la Maza S, Castillo-Triviño T, Borges M, Barón BP, Sotoca J, Alonso A, Caminero AB, Borrega L, Sánchez-Menoyo JL, Barrero-Hernández FJ, Calles C, Brieva L, Blasco MR, García-Soto JD, Del Campo-Amigo M, Navarro-Cantó L, Agüera E, Garcés M, Carmona O, Gabaldón-Torres L, Forero L, Hervás M, García-Arcelay E, Terzaghi M, Gómez-Ballesteros R, Maurino J
Mult Scler Relat Disord 2022 Dec;68:104138. Epub 2022 Aug 20 doi: 10.1016/j.msard.2022.104138. PMID: 36029707
Riva A, Orsini A, Scala M, Taramasso V, Canafoglia L, d'Orsi G, Di Claudio MT, Avolio C, D'Aniello A, Elia M, Franceschetti S, Di Gennaro G, Bisulli F, Tinuper P, Tappatà M, Romeo A, Freri E, Marini C, Costa C, Sofia V, Ferlazzo E, Magaudda A, Veggiotti P, Gennaro E, Pistorio A, Minetti C, Bianchi A, Striano S, Michelucci R, Zara F, Minassian BA, Striano P; Italian League Against Epilepsy Genetic Commission
J Neurol Sci 2021 May 15;424:117409. Epub 2021 Mar 20 doi: 10.1016/j.jns.2021.117409. PMID: 33773408Free PMC Article
Spittle AJ, Anderson PJ, Tapawan SJ, Doyle LW, Cheong JLY
Semin Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 Jun;26(3):101203. Epub 2021 Jan 29 doi: 10.1016/j.siny.2021.101203. PMID: 33547000

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Lublin FD, Häring DA, Ganjgahi H, Ocampo A, Hatami F, Čuklina J, Aarden P, Dahlke F, Arnold DL, Wiendl H, Chitnis T, Nichols TE, Kieseier BC, Bermel RA
Brain 2022 Sep 14;145(9):3147-3161. doi: 10.1093/brain/awac016. PMID: 35104840Free PMC Article
Caballero-García A, Pascual-Fernández J, Noriega-González DC, Bello HJ, Pons-Biescas A, Roche E, Córdova-Martínez A
Nutrients 2021 Sep 8;13(9) doi: 10.3390/nu13093133. PMID: 34579009Free PMC Article
Cameron MH, Nilsagard Y
Handb Clin Neurol 2018;159:237-250. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-63916-5.00015-X. PMID: 30482317
Mendell JR, Rodino-Klapac LR, Sahenk Z, Roush K, Bird L, Lowes LP, Alfano L, Gomez AM, Lewis S, Kota J, Malik V, Shontz K, Walker CM, Flanigan KM, Corridore M, Kean JR, Allen HD, Shilling C, Melia KR, Sazani P, Saoud JB, Kaye EM; Eteplirsen Study Group
Ann Neurol 2013 Nov;74(5):637-47. Epub 2013 Sep 10 doi: 10.1002/ana.23982. PMID: 23907995
Duncan PW, Sullivan KJ, Behrman AL, Azen SP, Wu SS, Nadeau SE, Dobkin BH, Rose DK, Tilson JK, Cen S, Hayden SK; LEAPS Investigative Team
N Engl J Med 2011 May 26;364(21):2026-36. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1010790. PMID: 21612471Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Lambrescu I, Popa A, Manole E, Ceafalan LC, Gaina G
Int J Mol Sci 2022 Apr 27;23(9) doi: 10.3390/ijms23094802. PMID: 35563191Free PMC Article
Cooley Coleman JA, Sarasua SM, Moore HW, Boccuto L, Cowan CW, Skinner SA, DeLuca JM
Mol Genet Genomic Med 2022 Jun;10(6):e1919. Epub 2022 Apr 13 doi: 10.1002/mgg3.1919. PMID: 35416405Free PMC Article
Fumagalli F, Calbi V, Natali Sora MG, Sessa M, Baldoli C, Rancoita PMV, Ciotti F, Sarzana M, Fraschini M, Zambon AA, Acquati S, Redaelli D, Attanasio V, Miglietta S, De Mattia F, Barzaghi F, Ferrua F, Migliavacca M, Tucci F, Gallo V, Del Carro U, Canale S, Spiga I, Lorioli L, Recupero S, Fratini ES, Morena F, Silvani P, Calvi MR, Facchini M, Locatelli S, Corti A, Zancan S, Antonioli G, Farinelli G, Gabaldo M, Garcia-Segovia J, Schwab LC, Downey GF, Filippi M, Cicalese MP, Martino S, Di Serio C, Ciceri F, Bernardo ME, Naldini L, Biffi A, Aiuti A
Lancet 2022 Jan 22;399(10322):372-383. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(21)02017-1. PMID: 35065785Free PMC Article
Fallatah W, Schouten M, Yergeau C, Di Pietro E, Engelen M, Waterham HR, Poll-The BT, Braverman N
J Inherit Metab Dis 2021 Jul;44(4):1021-1038. Epub 2021 Jan 26 doi: 10.1002/jimd.12349. PMID: 33337545
Langhorne P, Collier JM, Bate PJ, Thuy MN, Bernhardt J
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Oct 16;10(10):CD006187. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD006187.pub3. PMID: 30321906Free PMC Article

Therapy

Lublin FD, Häring DA, Ganjgahi H, Ocampo A, Hatami F, Čuklina J, Aarden P, Dahlke F, Arnold DL, Wiendl H, Chitnis T, Nichols TE, Kieseier BC, Bermel RA
Brain 2022 Sep 14;145(9):3147-3161. doi: 10.1093/brain/awac016. PMID: 35104840Free PMC Article
Caballero-García A, Pascual-Fernández J, Noriega-González DC, Bello HJ, Pons-Biescas A, Roche E, Córdova-Martínez A
Nutrients 2021 Sep 8;13(9) doi: 10.3390/nu13093133. PMID: 34579009Free PMC Article
Pahor M, Guralnik JM, Ambrosius WT, Blair S, Bonds DE, Church TS, Espeland MA, Fielding RA, Gill TM, Groessl EJ, King AC, Kritchevsky SB, Manini TM, McDermott MM, Miller ME, Newman AB, Rejeski WJ, Sink KM, Williamson JD; LIFE study investigators
JAMA 2014 Jun 18;311(23):2387-96. doi: 10.1001/jama.2014.5616. PMID: 24866862Free PMC Article
Mendell JR, Rodino-Klapac LR, Sahenk Z, Roush K, Bird L, Lowes LP, Alfano L, Gomez AM, Lewis S, Kota J, Malik V, Shontz K, Walker CM, Flanigan KM, Corridore M, Kean JR, Allen HD, Shilling C, Melia KR, Sazani P, Saoud JB, Kaye EM; Eteplirsen Study Group
Ann Neurol 2013 Nov;74(5):637-47. Epub 2013 Sep 10 doi: 10.1002/ana.23982. PMID: 23907995
Duncan PW, Sullivan KJ, Behrman AL, Azen SP, Wu SS, Nadeau SE, Dobkin BH, Rose DK, Tilson JK, Cen S, Hayden SK; LEAPS Investigative Team
N Engl J Med 2011 May 26;364(21):2026-36. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1010790. PMID: 21612471Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Nathan SD, Deng C, King CS, DuBrock HM, Elwing J, Rajagopal S, Rischard F, Sahay S, Broderick M, Shen E, Smith P, Tapson VF, Waxman AB
Chest 2023 Feb;163(2):398-406. Epub 2022 Sep 15 doi: 10.1016/j.chest.2022.09.007. PMID: 36115497Free PMC Article
Lublin FD, Häring DA, Ganjgahi H, Ocampo A, Hatami F, Čuklina J, Aarden P, Dahlke F, Arnold DL, Wiendl H, Chitnis T, Nichols TE, Kieseier BC, Bermel RA
Brain 2022 Sep 14;145(9):3147-3161. doi: 10.1093/brain/awac016. PMID: 35104840Free PMC Article
Fumagalli F, Calbi V, Natali Sora MG, Sessa M, Baldoli C, Rancoita PMV, Ciotti F, Sarzana M, Fraschini M, Zambon AA, Acquati S, Redaelli D, Attanasio V, Miglietta S, De Mattia F, Barzaghi F, Ferrua F, Migliavacca M, Tucci F, Gallo V, Del Carro U, Canale S, Spiga I, Lorioli L, Recupero S, Fratini ES, Morena F, Silvani P, Calvi MR, Facchini M, Locatelli S, Corti A, Zancan S, Antonioli G, Farinelli G, Gabaldo M, Garcia-Segovia J, Schwab LC, Downey GF, Filippi M, Cicalese MP, Martino S, Di Serio C, Ciceri F, Bernardo ME, Naldini L, Biffi A, Aiuti A
Lancet 2022 Jan 22;399(10322):372-383. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(21)02017-1. PMID: 35065785Free PMC Article
Cameron MH, Nilsagard Y
Handb Clin Neurol 2018;159:237-250. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-63916-5.00015-X. PMID: 30482317
Rossen J, Yngve A, Hagströmer M, Brismar K, Ainsworth BE, Iskull C, Möller P, Johansson UB
BMC Public Health 2015 Jul 12;15:647. doi: 10.1186/s12889-015-1941-9. PMID: 26164092Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Lublin FD, Häring DA, Ganjgahi H, Ocampo A, Hatami F, Čuklina J, Aarden P, Dahlke F, Arnold DL, Wiendl H, Chitnis T, Nichols TE, Kieseier BC, Bermel RA
Brain 2022 Sep 14;145(9):3147-3161. doi: 10.1093/brain/awac016. PMID: 35104840Free PMC Article
Fumagalli F, Calbi V, Natali Sora MG, Sessa M, Baldoli C, Rancoita PMV, Ciotti F, Sarzana M, Fraschini M, Zambon AA, Acquati S, Redaelli D, Attanasio V, Miglietta S, De Mattia F, Barzaghi F, Ferrua F, Migliavacca M, Tucci F, Gallo V, Del Carro U, Canale S, Spiga I, Lorioli L, Recupero S, Fratini ES, Morena F, Silvani P, Calvi MR, Facchini M, Locatelli S, Corti A, Zancan S, Antonioli G, Farinelli G, Gabaldo M, Garcia-Segovia J, Schwab LC, Downey GF, Filippi M, Cicalese MP, Martino S, Di Serio C, Ciceri F, Bernardo ME, Naldini L, Biffi A, Aiuti A
Lancet 2022 Jan 22;399(10322):372-383. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(21)02017-1. PMID: 35065785Free PMC Article
Winders P, Wolter-Warmerdam K, Hickey F
J Intellect Disabil Res 2019 Apr;63(4):346-356. Epub 2018 Dec 21 doi: 10.1111/jir.12580. PMID: 30575169
Malak R, Kostiukow A, Krawczyk-Wasielewska A, Mojs E, Samborski W
Med Sci Monit 2015 Jul 1;21:1904-10. doi: 10.12659/MSM.893377. PMID: 26132100Free PMC Article
Pahor M, Guralnik JM, Ambrosius WT, Blair S, Bonds DE, Church TS, Espeland MA, Fielding RA, Gill TM, Groessl EJ, King AC, Kritchevsky SB, Manini TM, McDermott MM, Miller ME, Newman AB, Rejeski WJ, Sink KM, Williamson JD; LIFE study investigators
JAMA 2014 Jun 18;311(23):2387-96. doi: 10.1001/jama.2014.5616. PMID: 24866862Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Langhorne P, Collier JM, Bate PJ, Thuy MN, Bernhardt J
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Oct 16;10(10):CD006187. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD006187.pub3. PMID: 30321906Free PMC Article
Fonseca PR Jr, Calhes Franco de Moura R, Galli M, Santos Oliveira C
Eur J Phys Rehabil Med 2018 Oct;54(5):757-765. Epub 2017 Nov 29 doi: 10.23736/S1973-9087.17.04940-1. PMID: 29185676
Hughes RA, Brassington R, Gunn AA, van Doorn PA
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2016 Oct 24;10(10):CD001446. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001446.pub5. PMID: 27775812Free PMC Article
De Bellis UG, Legnani C, Calori GM
Injury 2014 Feb;45(2):356-61. Epub 2013 Sep 20 doi: 10.1016/j.injury.2013.09.018. PMID: 24112700
Hughes RA, van Doorn PA
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2012 Aug 15;(8):CD001446. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001446.pub4. PMID: 22895921

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