U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Format

Send to:

Choose Destination

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy, 3(DEE3)

MedGen UID:
1801135
Concept ID:
C5574665
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: DEE3; Epileptic encephalopathy, early infantile, 3
 
Gene (location): SLC25A22 (11p15.5)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0012245
OMIM®: 609304

Definition

Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy-3 (DEE3) is an autosomal recessive neurologic disorder characterized by onset of refractory seizures in the first weeks to months of life. The prognosis is poor, and affected children either may die within 1 to 2 years after birth or survive in a persistent vegetative state. The EEG pattern often shows a suppression-burst pattern with high-voltage bursts of slow waves mixed with multifocal spikes alternating with isoelectric suppression phases; these features are reminiscent of a clinical diagnosis of Ohtahara syndrome. Some patients may have hypsarrhythmia on EEG, consistent with a clinical diagnosis of West syndrome (summary by Molinari et al., 2005, Molinari et al., 2009). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of DEE, see 308350. [from OMIM]

Clinical features

From HPO
Spasticity
MedGen UID:
7753
Concept ID:
C0026838
Sign or Symptom
A motor disorder characterized by a velocity-dependent increase in tonic stretch reflexes with increased muscle tone, exaggerated (hyperexcitable) tendon reflexes.
Seizure
MedGen UID:
20693
Concept ID:
C0036572
Sign or Symptom
A seizure is an intermittent abnormality of nervous system physiology characterised by a transient occurrence of signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Cerebral atrophy
MedGen UID:
116012
Concept ID:
C0235946
Disease or Syndrome
Atrophy (wasting, decrease in size of cells or tissue) affecting the cerebrum.
Epileptic encephalopathy
MedGen UID:
452596
Concept ID:
C0543888
Disease or Syndrome
A condition in which epileptiform abnormalities are believed to contribute to the progressive disturbance in cerebral function. Epileptic encephalaopathy is characterized by (1) electrographic EEG paroxysmal activity that is often aggressive, (2) seizures that are usually multiform and intractable, (3) cognitive, behavioral and neurological deficits that may be relentless, and (4) sometimes early death.
Delayed myelination
MedGen UID:
224820
Concept ID:
C1277241
Finding
Delayed myelination.
EEG with burst suppression
MedGen UID:
369943
Concept ID:
C1969156
Finding
The burst suppression pattern in electroencephalography refers to a characteristic periodic pattern of low voltage (<10 microvolts) suppressed background and a relatively shorter pattern of higher amplitude slow, sharp, and spiking complexes.
Generalized myoclonic seizure
MedGen UID:
892704
Concept ID:
C4021759
Disease or Syndrome
A generalized myoclonic seizure is a type of generalized motor seizure characterised by bilateral, sudden, brief (<100 ms) involuntary single or multiple contraction of muscles or muscle groups of variable topography (axial, proximal limb, distal). Myoclonus is less regularly repetitive and less sustained than is clonus.
Brain atrophy
MedGen UID:
1643639
Concept ID:
C4551584
Disease or Syndrome
Partial or complete wasting (loss) of brain tissue that was once present.
Hypotonia
MedGen UID:
10133
Concept ID:
C0026827
Finding
Hypotonia is an abnormally low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to movement in a muscle). Even when relaxed, muscles have a continuous and passive partial contraction which provides some resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia thus manifests as diminished resistance to passive stretching. Hypotonia is not the same as muscle weakness, although the two conditions can co-exist.
Secondary microcephaly
MedGen UID:
608952
Concept ID:
C0431352
Finding
Head circumference which falls below 2 standard deviations below the mean for age and gender because of insufficient head growth after birth.
Neonatal hypotonia
MedGen UID:
412209
Concept ID:
C2267233
Disease or Syndrome
Muscular hypotonia (abnormally low muscle tone) manifesting in the neonatal period.
Abnormality of visual evoked potentials
MedGen UID:
105509
Concept ID:
C0522214
Finding
An anomaly of visually evoked potentials (VEP), which are electrical potentials, initiated by brief visual stimuli, which are recorded from the scalp overlying the visual cortex.

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Johannesen KM, Liu Y, Koko M, Gjerulfsen CE, Sonnenberg L, Schubert J, Fenger CD, Eltokhi A, Rannap M, Koch NA, Lauxmann S, Krüger J, Kegele J, Canafoglia L, Franceschetti S, Mayer T, Rebstock J, Zacher P, Ruf S, Alber M, Sterbova K, Lassuthová P, Vlckova M, Lemke JR, Platzer K, Krey I, Heine C, Wieczorek D, Kroell-Seger J, Lund C, Klein KM, Au PYB, Rho JM, Ho AW, Masnada S, Veggiotti P, Giordano L, Accorsi P, Hoei-Hansen CE, Striano P, Zara F, Verhelst H, Verhoeven JS, Braakman HMH, van der Zwaag B, Harder AVE, Brilstra E, Pendziwiat M, Lebon S, Vaccarezza M, Le NM, Christensen J, Grønborg S, Scherer SW, Howe J, Fazeli W, Howell KB, Leventer R, Stutterd C, Walsh S, Gerard M, Gerard B, Matricardi S, Bonardi CM, Sartori S, Berger A, Hoffman-Zacharska D, Mastrangelo M, Darra F, Vøllo A, Motazacker MM, Lakeman P, Nizon M, Betzler C, Altuzarra C, Caume R, Roubertie A, Gélisse P, Marini C, Guerrini R, Bilan F, Tibussek D, Koch-Hogrebe M, Perry MS, Ichikawa S, Dadali E, Sharkov A, Mishina I, Abramov M, Kanivets I, Korostelev S, Kutsev S, Wain KE, Eisenhauer N, Wagner M, Savatt JM, Müller-Schlüter K, Bassan H, Borovikov A, Nassogne MC, Destrée A, Schoonjans AS, Meuwissen M, Buzatu M, Jansen A, Scalais E, Srivastava S, Tan WH, Olson HE, Loddenkemper T, Poduri A, Helbig KL, Helbig I, Fitzgerald MP, Goldberg EM, Roser T, Borggraefe I, Brünger T, May P, Lal D, Lederer D, Rubboli G, Heyne HO, Lesca G, Hedrich UBS, Benda J, Gardella E, Lerche H, Møller RS
Brain 2022 Sep 14;145(9):2991-3009. doi: 10.1093/brain/awab321. PMID: 34431999Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Johannesen KM, Liu Y, Koko M, Gjerulfsen CE, Sonnenberg L, Schubert J, Fenger CD, Eltokhi A, Rannap M, Koch NA, Lauxmann S, Krüger J, Kegele J, Canafoglia L, Franceschetti S, Mayer T, Rebstock J, Zacher P, Ruf S, Alber M, Sterbova K, Lassuthová P, Vlckova M, Lemke JR, Platzer K, Krey I, Heine C, Wieczorek D, Kroell-Seger J, Lund C, Klein KM, Au PYB, Rho JM, Ho AW, Masnada S, Veggiotti P, Giordano L, Accorsi P, Hoei-Hansen CE, Striano P, Zara F, Verhelst H, Verhoeven JS, Braakman HMH, van der Zwaag B, Harder AVE, Brilstra E, Pendziwiat M, Lebon S, Vaccarezza M, Le NM, Christensen J, Grønborg S, Scherer SW, Howe J, Fazeli W, Howell KB, Leventer R, Stutterd C, Walsh S, Gerard M, Gerard B, Matricardi S, Bonardi CM, Sartori S, Berger A, Hoffman-Zacharska D, Mastrangelo M, Darra F, Vøllo A, Motazacker MM, Lakeman P, Nizon M, Betzler C, Altuzarra C, Caume R, Roubertie A, Gélisse P, Marini C, Guerrini R, Bilan F, Tibussek D, Koch-Hogrebe M, Perry MS, Ichikawa S, Dadali E, Sharkov A, Mishina I, Abramov M, Kanivets I, Korostelev S, Kutsev S, Wain KE, Eisenhauer N, Wagner M, Savatt JM, Müller-Schlüter K, Bassan H, Borovikov A, Nassogne MC, Destrée A, Schoonjans AS, Meuwissen M, Buzatu M, Jansen A, Scalais E, Srivastava S, Tan WH, Olson HE, Loddenkemper T, Poduri A, Helbig KL, Helbig I, Fitzgerald MP, Goldberg EM, Roser T, Borggraefe I, Brünger T, May P, Lal D, Lederer D, Rubboli G, Heyne HO, Lesca G, Hedrich UBS, Benda J, Gardella E, Lerche H, Møller RS
Brain 2022 Sep 14;145(9):2991-3009. doi: 10.1093/brain/awab321. PMID: 34431999Free PMC Article
Dupont S, Vercueil L
Rev Neurol (Paris) 2021 Mar;177(3):168-179. Epub 2021 Feb 18 doi: 10.1016/j.neurol.2021.01.003. PMID: 33610349
Bar C, Kuchenbuch M, Barcia G, Schneider A, Jennesson M, Le Guyader G, Lesca G, Mignot C, Montomoli M, Parrini E, Isnard H, Rolland A, Keren B, Afenjar A, Dorison N, Sadleir LG, Breuillard D, Levy R, Rio M, Dupont S, Negrin S, Danieli A, Scalais E, De Saint Martin A, El Chehadeh S, Chelly J, Poisson A, Lebre AS, Nica A, Odent S, Sekhara T, Brankovic V, Goldenberg A, Vrielynck P, Lederer D, Maurey H, Terrone G, Besmond C, Hubert L, Berquin P, Billette de Villemeur T, Isidor B, Freeman JL, Mefford HC, Myers CT, Howell KB, Rodríguez-Sacristán Cascajo A, Meyer P, Genevieve D, Guët A, Doummar D, Durigneux J, van Dooren MF, de Wit MCY, Gerard M, Marey I, Munnich A, Guerrini R, Scheffer IE, Kabashi E, Nabbout R
Epilepsia 2020 Nov;61(11):2461-2473. Epub 2020 Sep 21 doi: 10.1111/epi.16679. PMID: 32954514
McTague A, Howell KB, Cross JH, Kurian MA, Scheffer IE
Lancet Neurol 2016 Mar;15(3):304-16. Epub 2015 Nov 17 doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(15)00250-1. PMID: 26597089
Vezzani A, Fujinami RS, White HS, Preux PM, Blümcke I, Sander JW, Löscher W
Acta Neuropathol 2016 Feb;131(2):211-234. Epub 2015 Sep 30 doi: 10.1007/s00401-015-1481-5. PMID: 26423537Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Poke G, Stanley J, Scheffer IE, Sadleir LG
Neurology 2023 Mar 28;100(13):e1363-e1375. Epub 2022 Dec 29 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000206758. PMID: 36581463Free PMC Article
Brunklaus A, Brünger T, Feng T, Fons C, Lehikoinen A, Panagiotakaki E, Vintan MA, Symonds J, Andrew J, Arzimanoglou A, Delima S, Gallois J, Hanrahan D, Lesca G, MacLeod S, Marjanovic D, McTague A, Nuñez-Enamorado N, Perez-Palma E, Scott Perry M, Pysden K, Russ-Hall SJ, Scheffer IE, Sully K, Syrbe S, Vaher U, Velayutham M, Vogt J, Weiss S, Wirrell E, Zuberi SM, Lal D, Møller RS, Mantegazza M, Cestèle S
Brain 2022 Nov 21;145(11):3816-3831. doi: 10.1093/brain/awac210. PMID: 35696452Free PMC Article
Symonds JD, Elliott KS, Shetty J, Armstrong M, Brunklaus A, Cutcutache I, Diver LA, Dorris L, Gardiner S, Jollands A, Joss S, Kirkpatrick M, McLellan A, MacLeod S, O'Regan M, Page M, Pilley E, Pilz DT, Stephen E, Stewart K, Ashrafian H, Knight JC, Zuberi SM
Brain 2021 Oct 22;144(9):2879-2891. doi: 10.1093/brain/awab162. PMID: 34687210Free PMC Article
Katyayan A, Diaz-Medina G
Neurol Clin 2021 Aug;39(3):779-795. doi: 10.1016/j.ncl.2021.04.002. PMID: 34215386
Pavone P, Polizzi A, Marino SD, Corsello G, Falsaperla R, Marino S, Ruggieri M
Neurol Sci 2020 Dec;41(12):3547-3562. Epub 2020 Aug 22 doi: 10.1007/s10072-020-04600-5. PMID: 32827285Free PMC Article

Therapy

Hahn CD, Jiang Y, Villanueva V, Zolnowska M, Arkilo D, Hsiao S, Asgharnejad M, Dlugos D
Epilepsia 2022 Oct;63(10):2671-2683. Epub 2022 Aug 4 doi: 10.1111/epi.17367. PMID: 35841234Free PMC Article
Strzelczyk A, Schubert-Bast S
CNS Drugs 2022 Mar;36(3):217-237. Epub 2022 Feb 14 doi: 10.1007/s40263-022-00898-1. PMID: 35156171Free PMC Article
Johannesen KM, Liu Y, Koko M, Gjerulfsen CE, Sonnenberg L, Schubert J, Fenger CD, Eltokhi A, Rannap M, Koch NA, Lauxmann S, Krüger J, Kegele J, Canafoglia L, Franceschetti S, Mayer T, Rebstock J, Zacher P, Ruf S, Alber M, Sterbova K, Lassuthová P, Vlckova M, Lemke JR, Platzer K, Krey I, Heine C, Wieczorek D, Kroell-Seger J, Lund C, Klein KM, Au PYB, Rho JM, Ho AW, Masnada S, Veggiotti P, Giordano L, Accorsi P, Hoei-Hansen CE, Striano P, Zara F, Verhelst H, Verhoeven JS, Braakman HMH, van der Zwaag B, Harder AVE, Brilstra E, Pendziwiat M, Lebon S, Vaccarezza M, Le NM, Christensen J, Grønborg S, Scherer SW, Howe J, Fazeli W, Howell KB, Leventer R, Stutterd C, Walsh S, Gerard M, Gerard B, Matricardi S, Bonardi CM, Sartori S, Berger A, Hoffman-Zacharska D, Mastrangelo M, Darra F, Vøllo A, Motazacker MM, Lakeman P, Nizon M, Betzler C, Altuzarra C, Caume R, Roubertie A, Gélisse P, Marini C, Guerrini R, Bilan F, Tibussek D, Koch-Hogrebe M, Perry MS, Ichikawa S, Dadali E, Sharkov A, Mishina I, Abramov M, Kanivets I, Korostelev S, Kutsev S, Wain KE, Eisenhauer N, Wagner M, Savatt JM, Müller-Schlüter K, Bassan H, Borovikov A, Nassogne MC, Destrée A, Schoonjans AS, Meuwissen M, Buzatu M, Jansen A, Scalais E, Srivastava S, Tan WH, Olson HE, Loddenkemper T, Poduri A, Helbig KL, Helbig I, Fitzgerald MP, Goldberg EM, Roser T, Borggraefe I, Brünger T, May P, Lal D, Lederer D, Rubboli G, Heyne HO, Lesca G, Hedrich UBS, Benda J, Gardella E, Lerche H, Møller RS
Brain 2022 Sep 14;145(9):2991-3009. doi: 10.1093/brain/awab321. PMID: 34431999Free PMC Article
Dupont S, Vercueil L
Rev Neurol (Paris) 2021 Mar;177(3):168-179. Epub 2021 Feb 18 doi: 10.1016/j.neurol.2021.01.003. PMID: 33610349
Samanta D
Brain Dev 2021 Jan;43(1):32-44. Epub 2020 Sep 4 doi: 10.1016/j.braindev.2020.08.014. PMID: 32893075Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Specchio N, Wirrell EC, Scheffer IE, Nabbout R, Riney K, Samia P, Guerreiro M, Gwer S, Zuberi SM, Wilmshurst JM, Yozawitz E, Pressler R, Hirsch E, Wiebe S, Cross HJ, Perucca E, Moshé SL, Tinuper P, Auvin S
Epilepsia 2022 Jun;63(6):1398-1442. Epub 2022 May 3 doi: 10.1111/epi.17241. PMID: 35503717
Johannesen KM, Liu Y, Koko M, Gjerulfsen CE, Sonnenberg L, Schubert J, Fenger CD, Eltokhi A, Rannap M, Koch NA, Lauxmann S, Krüger J, Kegele J, Canafoglia L, Franceschetti S, Mayer T, Rebstock J, Zacher P, Ruf S, Alber M, Sterbova K, Lassuthová P, Vlckova M, Lemke JR, Platzer K, Krey I, Heine C, Wieczorek D, Kroell-Seger J, Lund C, Klein KM, Au PYB, Rho JM, Ho AW, Masnada S, Veggiotti P, Giordano L, Accorsi P, Hoei-Hansen CE, Striano P, Zara F, Verhelst H, Verhoeven JS, Braakman HMH, van der Zwaag B, Harder AVE, Brilstra E, Pendziwiat M, Lebon S, Vaccarezza M, Le NM, Christensen J, Grønborg S, Scherer SW, Howe J, Fazeli W, Howell KB, Leventer R, Stutterd C, Walsh S, Gerard M, Gerard B, Matricardi S, Bonardi CM, Sartori S, Berger A, Hoffman-Zacharska D, Mastrangelo M, Darra F, Vøllo A, Motazacker MM, Lakeman P, Nizon M, Betzler C, Altuzarra C, Caume R, Roubertie A, Gélisse P, Marini C, Guerrini R, Bilan F, Tibussek D, Koch-Hogrebe M, Perry MS, Ichikawa S, Dadali E, Sharkov A, Mishina I, Abramov M, Kanivets I, Korostelev S, Kutsev S, Wain KE, Eisenhauer N, Wagner M, Savatt JM, Müller-Schlüter K, Bassan H, Borovikov A, Nassogne MC, Destrée A, Schoonjans AS, Meuwissen M, Buzatu M, Jansen A, Scalais E, Srivastava S, Tan WH, Olson HE, Loddenkemper T, Poduri A, Helbig KL, Helbig I, Fitzgerald MP, Goldberg EM, Roser T, Borggraefe I, Brünger T, May P, Lal D, Lederer D, Rubboli G, Heyne HO, Lesca G, Hedrich UBS, Benda J, Gardella E, Lerche H, Møller RS
Brain 2022 Sep 14;145(9):2991-3009. doi: 10.1093/brain/awab321. PMID: 34431999Free PMC Article
Katyayan A, Diaz-Medina G
Neurol Clin 2021 Aug;39(3):779-795. doi: 10.1016/j.ncl.2021.04.002. PMID: 34215386
Bar C, Kuchenbuch M, Barcia G, Schneider A, Jennesson M, Le Guyader G, Lesca G, Mignot C, Montomoli M, Parrini E, Isnard H, Rolland A, Keren B, Afenjar A, Dorison N, Sadleir LG, Breuillard D, Levy R, Rio M, Dupont S, Negrin S, Danieli A, Scalais E, De Saint Martin A, El Chehadeh S, Chelly J, Poisson A, Lebre AS, Nica A, Odent S, Sekhara T, Brankovic V, Goldenberg A, Vrielynck P, Lederer D, Maurey H, Terrone G, Besmond C, Hubert L, Berquin P, Billette de Villemeur T, Isidor B, Freeman JL, Mefford HC, Myers CT, Howell KB, Rodríguez-Sacristán Cascajo A, Meyer P, Genevieve D, Guët A, Doummar D, Durigneux J, van Dooren MF, de Wit MCY, Gerard M, Marey I, Munnich A, Guerrini R, Scheffer IE, Kabashi E, Nabbout R
Epilepsia 2020 Nov;61(11):2461-2473. Epub 2020 Sep 21 doi: 10.1111/epi.16679. PMID: 32954514
Pavone P, Polizzi A, Marino SD, Corsello G, Falsaperla R, Marino S, Ruggieri M
Neurol Sci 2020 Dec;41(12):3547-3562. Epub 2020 Aug 22 doi: 10.1007/s10072-020-04600-5. PMID: 32827285Free PMC Article

Clinical prediction guides

Stamberger H, Crosiers D, Balagura G, Bonardi CM, Basu A, Cantalupo G, Chiesa V, Christensen J, Dalla Bernardina B, Ellis CA, Furia F, Gardiner F, Giron C, Guerrini R, Klein KM, Korff C, Krijtova H, Leffler M, Lerche H, Lesca G, Lewis-Smith D, Marini C, Marjanovic D, Mazzola L, McKeown Ruggiero S, Mochel F, Ramond F, Reif PS, Richard-Mornas A, Rosenow F, Schropp C, Thomas RH, Vignoli A, Weber Y, Palmer E, Helbig I, Scheffer IE, Striano P, Møller RS, Gardella E, Weckhuysen S
Neurology 2022 Jul 19;99(3):e221-e233. Epub 2022 Jun 3 doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000200715. PMID: 35851549Free PMC Article
Hahn CD, Jiang Y, Villanueva V, Zolnowska M, Arkilo D, Hsiao S, Asgharnejad M, Dlugos D
Epilepsia 2022 Oct;63(10):2671-2683. Epub 2022 Aug 4 doi: 10.1111/epi.17367. PMID: 35841234Free PMC Article
Symonds JD, Elliott KS, Shetty J, Armstrong M, Brunklaus A, Cutcutache I, Diver LA, Dorris L, Gardiner S, Jollands A, Joss S, Kirkpatrick M, McLellan A, MacLeod S, O'Regan M, Page M, Pilley E, Pilz DT, Stephen E, Stewart K, Ashrafian H, Knight JC, Zuberi SM
Brain 2021 Oct 22;144(9):2879-2891. doi: 10.1093/brain/awab162. PMID: 34687210Free PMC Article
Burgess R, Wang S, McTague A, Boysen KE, Yang X, Zeng Q, Myers KA, Rochtus A, Trivisano M, Gill D; EIMFS Consortium, Sadleir LG, Specchio N, Guerrini R, Marini C, Zhang YH, Mefford HC, Kurian MA, Poduri AH, Scheffer IE
Ann Neurol 2019 Dec;86(6):821-831. doi: 10.1002/ana.25619. PMID: 31618474Free PMC Article
Bikson M, Grossman P, Thomas C, Zannou AL, Jiang J, Adnan T, Mourdoukoutas AP, Kronberg G, Truong D, Boggio P, Brunoni AR, Charvet L, Fregni F, Fritsch B, Gillick B, Hamilton RH, Hampstead BM, Jankord R, Kirton A, Knotkova H, Liebetanz D, Liu A, Loo C, Nitsche MA, Reis J, Richardson JD, Rotenberg A, Turkeltaub PE, Woods AJ
Brain Stimul 2016 Sep-Oct;9(5):641-661. Epub 2016 Jun 15 doi: 10.1016/j.brs.2016.06.004. PMID: 27372845Free PMC Article

Recent systematic reviews

Lattanzi S, Trinka E, Russo E, Del Giovane C, Matricardi S, Meletti S, Striano P, Damavandi PT, Silvestrini M, Brigo F
Drugs 2023 Oct;83(15):1409-1424. Epub 2023 Sep 11 doi: 10.1007/s40265-023-01936-y. PMID: 37695433Free PMC Article
Olusanya BO, Smythe T, Ogbo FA, Nair MKC, Scher M, Davis AC
Front Public Health 2023;11:1122009. Epub 2023 Feb 16 doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2023.1122009. PMID: 36891340Free PMC Article
Lattanzi S, Trinka E, Striano P, Rocchi C, Salvemini S, Silvestrini M, Brigo F
CNS Drugs 2021 Mar;35(3):265-281. Epub 2021 Mar 22 doi: 10.1007/s40263-021-00807-y. PMID: 33754312Free PMC Article
McTague A, Martland T, Appleton R
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Jan 10;1(1):CD001905. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001905.pub3. PMID: 29320603Free PMC Article
Veroniki AA, Rios P, Cogo E, Straus SE, Finkelstein Y, Kealey R, Reynen E, Soobiah C, Thavorn K, Hutton B, Hemmelgarn BR, Yazdi F, D'Souza J, MacDonald H, Tricco AC
BMJ Open 2017 Jul 20;7(7):e017248. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017248. PMID: 28729328Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Table of contents

    Clinical resources

    Practice guidelines

    • PubMed
      See practice and clinical guidelines in PubMed. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.
    • Bookshelf
      See practice and clinical guidelines in NCBI Bookshelf. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.

    Recent activity

    Your browsing activity is empty.

    Activity recording is turned off.

    Turn recording back on

    See more...