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Motor tics

MedGen UID:
199761
Concept ID:
C0751900
Sign or Symptom
Synonyms: Motor Tic; Motor Tics; Tic, Motor; Tics, Motor
 
HPO: HP:0100034

Definition

Movement-based tics affecting discrete muscle groups. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • Motor tics

Conditions with this feature

Pigmentary pallidal degeneration
MedGen UID:
6708
Concept ID:
C0018523
Disease or Syndrome
Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) is a type of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA). The phenotypic spectrum of PKAN includes classic PKAN and atypical PKAN. Classic PKAN is characterized by early-childhood onset of progressive dystonia, dysarthria, rigidity, and choreoathetosis. Pigmentary retinal degeneration is common. Atypical PKAN is characterized by later onset (age >10 years), prominent speech defects, psychiatric disturbances, and more gradual progression of disease.
Tourette syndrome
MedGen UID:
21219
Concept ID:
C0040517
Disease or Syndrome
Tourette syndrome is a neurobehavioral disorder manifest particularly by motor and vocal tics and associated with behavioral abnormalities. Tics are sudden, brief, intermittent, involuntary or semi-voluntary movements (motor tics) or sounds (phonic or vocal tics). They typically consist of simple, coordinated, repetitive movements, gestures, or utterances that mimic fragments of normal behavior. Motor tics may range from simple blinking, nose twitching, and head jerking to more complex throwing, hitting, or making rude gestures. Phonic tics include sniffling, throat clearing, blowing, coughing, echolalia, or coprolalia. Males are affected about 3 times more often than females, and onset usually occurs between 3 and 8 years of age. By age 18 years, more than half of affected individuals are free of tics, but they may persist into adulthood (review by Jankovic, 2001).
Autism, susceptibility to, X-linked 4
MedGen UID:
162886
Concept ID:
C0795888
Finding
Autism, the prototypic pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), is usually apparent by 3 years of age. It is characterized by a triad of limited or absent verbal communication, a lack of reciprocal social interaction or responsiveness, and restricted, stereotypical, and ritualized patterns of interests and behavior (Bailey et al., 1996; Risch et al., 1999). 'Autism spectrum disorder,' sometimes referred to as ASD, is a broader phenotype encompassing the less severe disorders Asperger syndrome (see ASPG1; 608638) and pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). 'Broad autism phenotype' includes individuals with some symptoms of autism, but who do not meet the full criteria for autism or other disorders. Mental retardation coexists in approximately two-thirds of individuals with ASD, except for Asperger syndrome, in which mental retardation is conspicuously absent (Jones et al., 2008). Genetic studies in autism often include family members with these less stringent diagnoses (Schellenberg et al., 2006). Levy et al. (2009) provided a general review of autism and autism spectrum disorder, including epidemiology, characteristics of the disorder, diagnosis, neurobiologic hypotheses for the etiology, genetics, and treatment options.
Striatonigral degeneration, infantile, mitochondrial
MedGen UID:
374113
Concept ID:
C1839022
Disease or Syndrome
Microcephaly 9, primary, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
766800
Concept ID:
C3553886
Disease or Syndrome
Primary microcephaly (MCPH) is a clinical diagnosis made when an individual has a head circumference more than 3 standard deviations below the age- and sex-matched population mean and mental retardation, with no other associated malformations and with no apparent etiology. Most cases of primary microcephaly show an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance (Woods et al., 2005). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of primary microcephaly, see MCPH1 (251200).
Basal ganglia calcification, idiopathic, 5
MedGen UID:
815975
Concept ID:
C3809645
Disease or Syndrome
Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC) is a neurodegenerative disorder with characteristic calcium deposits in the basal ganglia and other brain areas visualized on neuroimaging. Most affected individuals are in good health during childhood and young adulthood and typically present in the fourth to fifth decade with a gradually progressive movement disorder and neuropsychiatric symptoms. The movement disorder first manifests as clumsiness, fatigability, unsteady gait, slow or slurred speech, dysphagia, involuntary movements, or muscle cramping. Neuropsychiatric symptoms, often the first or most prominent manifestations, range from mild difficulty with concentration and memory to changes in personality and/or behavior, to psychosis and dementia. Seizures of various types occur frequently, some individuals experience chronic headache and vertigo; urinary urgency or incontinence may be present.
Intellectual disability, autosomal dominant 42
MedGen UID:
934741
Concept ID:
C4310774
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
GNB1 encephalopathy (GNB1-E) is characterized by moderate-to-severe developmental delay / intellectual disability, structural brain abnormalities, and often infantile hypotonia and seizures. Other less common findings include dystonia, reduced vision, behavior issues, growth delay, gastrointestinal (GI) problems, genitourinary (GU) abnormalities in males, and cutaneous mastocytosis.
Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation 6
MedGen UID:
1387791
Concept ID:
C4517377
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation refers to a group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by progressive motor and cognitive dysfunction beginning in childhood or young adulthood. Patients show extrapyramidal motor signs, such as spasticity, dystonia, and parkinsonism. Brain imaging shows iron accumulation in the basal ganglia (summary by Dusi et al., 2014). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of NBIA, see NBIA1 (234200).
Neurodevelopmental disorder with or without variable movement or behavioral abnormalities
MedGen UID:
1802087
Concept ID:
C5676908
Disease or Syndrome
Neurodevelopmental disorder with or without variable movement or behavioral abnormalities (NEDMAB) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by mildly to severely impaired intellectual development and, in some patients, movement abnormalities consisting of tremors, cerebellar ataxia, or extrapyramidal symptoms. Movement abnormalities have onset in childhood or adolescence. Other variable features include autism spectrum disorder or autistic features and epilepsy.
Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal dominant 67
MedGen UID:
1805690
Concept ID:
C5677006
Mental or Behavioral Dysfunction
Autosomal dominant intellectual developmental disorder-67 (MRD67) is characterized by global developmental delay with variably impaired intellectual development apparent from infancy or early childhood. Additional features may include behavioral abnormalities, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and ADHD, as well as language and sleeping difficulties. Brain imaging is normal (Ismail et al., 2022).

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Serajee FJ, Mahbubul Huq AH
Pediatr Clin North Am 2015 Jun;62(3):687-701. Epub 2015 Apr 16 doi: 10.1016/j.pcl.2015.03.007. PMID: 26022170
McNaught KS, Mink JW
Nat Rev Neurol 2011 Nov 8;7(12):667-76. doi: 10.1038/nrneurol.2011.167. PMID: 22064610
Shprecher D, Kurlan R
Mov Disord 2009 Jan 15;24(1):15-24. doi: 10.1002/mds.22378. PMID: 19170198Free PMC Article

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Younger DS
Handb Clin Neurol 2023;196:367-387. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-323-98817-9.00028-4. PMID: 37620079
Jain P, Miller-Fleming T, Topaloudi A, Yu D, Drineas P, Georgitsi M, Yang Z, Rizzo R, Müller-Vahl KR, Tumer Z, Mol Debes N, Hartmann A, Depienne C, Worbe Y, Mir P, Cath DC, Boomsma DI, Roessner V, Wolanczyk T, Janik P, Szejko N, Zekanowski C, Barta C, Nemoda Z, Tarnok Z, Buxbaum JD, Grice D, Glennon J, Stefansson H, Hengerer B, Benaroya-Milshtein N, Cardona F, Hedderly T, Heyman I, Huyser C, Morer A, Mueller N, Munchau A, Plessen KJ, Porcelli C, Walitza S, Schrag A, Martino D; Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Tourette Syndrome Working Group (PGC-TS); EMTICS collaborative group, Dietrich A; TS-EUROTRAIN Network, Mathews CA, Scharf JM, Hoekstra PJ, Davis LK, Paschou P
Transl Psychiatry 2023 Feb 23;13(1):69. doi: 10.1038/s41398-023-02341-5. PMID: 36823209Free PMC Article
Baizabal-Carvallo JF, Alonso-Juarez M, Jankovic J
J Neurol 2022 Oct;269(10):5312-5318. Epub 2022 May 14 doi: 10.1007/s00415-022-11174-z. PMID: 35567613
Fernandez TV, State MW, Pittenger C
Handb Clin Neurol 2018;147:343-354. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-63233-3.00023-3. PMID: 29325623
Pandey S, Srivanitchapoom P, Kirubakaran R, Berman BD
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Jan 5;1(1):CD012285. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD012285.pub2. PMID: 29304272Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Nilles C, Hartmann A, Roze E, Martino D, Pringsheim T
Handb Clin Neurol 2023;196:457-474. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-323-98817-9.00002-8. PMID: 37620085
Younger DS
Handb Clin Neurol 2023;196:367-387. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-323-98817-9.00028-4. PMID: 37620079
Baizabal-Carvallo JF, Alonso-Juarez M, Jankovic J
J Neurol 2023 May;270(5):2591-2596. Epub 2023 Feb 1 doi: 10.1007/s00415-023-11583-8. PMID: 36723683
Pandey S, Srivanitchapoom P, Kirubakaran R, Berman BD
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Jan 5;1(1):CD012285. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD012285.pub2. PMID: 29304272Free PMC Article
Kenney C, Kuo SH, Jimenez-Shahed J
Am Fam Physician 2008 Mar 1;77(5):651-8. PMID: 18350763

Therapy

Pandey S, Srivanitchapoom P, Kirubakaran R, Berman BD
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Jan 5;1(1):CD012285. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD012285.pub2. PMID: 29304272Free PMC Article
Hsieh MH, Chiu NY
Gen Hosp Psychiatry 2014 May-Jun;36(3):360.e7-8. Epub 2014 Jan 14 doi: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2014.01.003. PMID: 24556260
Cavanna AE, Nani A
Int Rev Neurobiol 2013;112:373-89. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-411546-0.00012-3. PMID: 24295627
Shprecher D, Kurlan R
Mov Disord 2009 Jan 15;24(1):15-24. doi: 10.1002/mds.22378. PMID: 19170198Free PMC Article
Kenney C, Kuo SH, Jimenez-Shahed J
Am Fam Physician 2008 Mar 1;77(5):651-8. PMID: 18350763

Prognosis

Nilles C, Hartmann A, Roze E, Martino D, Pringsheim T
Handb Clin Neurol 2023;196:457-474. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-323-98817-9.00002-8. PMID: 37620085
Howlett M, Martino D, Nilles C, Pringsheim T
Brain Behav 2022 Jun;12(6):e2606. Epub 2022 May 20 doi: 10.1002/brb3.2606. PMID: 35593445Free PMC Article
Jankovic J, Gelineau-Kattner R, Davidson A
Mov Disord 2010 Oct 15;25(13):2171-5. doi: 10.1002/mds.23199. PMID: 20690167
Müller N
Dialogues Clin Neurosci 2007;9(2):161-71. doi: 10.31887/DCNS.2007.9.2/nmueller. PMID: 17726915Free PMC Article
Leckman JF, Bloch MH, Scahill L, King RA
J Child Neurol 2006 Aug;21(8):642-9. doi: 10.1177/08830738060210081001. PMID: 16970864

Clinical prediction guides

Jain P, Miller-Fleming T, Topaloudi A, Yu D, Drineas P, Georgitsi M, Yang Z, Rizzo R, Müller-Vahl KR, Tumer Z, Mol Debes N, Hartmann A, Depienne C, Worbe Y, Mir P, Cath DC, Boomsma DI, Roessner V, Wolanczyk T, Janik P, Szejko N, Zekanowski C, Barta C, Nemoda Z, Tarnok Z, Buxbaum JD, Grice D, Glennon J, Stefansson H, Hengerer B, Benaroya-Milshtein N, Cardona F, Hedderly T, Heyman I, Huyser C, Morer A, Mueller N, Munchau A, Plessen KJ, Porcelli C, Walitza S, Schrag A, Martino D; Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Tourette Syndrome Working Group (PGC-TS); EMTICS collaborative group, Dietrich A; TS-EUROTRAIN Network, Mathews CA, Scharf JM, Hoekstra PJ, Davis LK, Paschou P
Transl Psychiatry 2023 Feb 23;13(1):69. doi: 10.1038/s41398-023-02341-5. PMID: 36823209Free PMC Article
Jafari F, Abbasi P, Rahmati M, Hodhodi T, Kazeminia M
Pediatr Neurol 2022 Dec;137:6-16. Epub 2022 Sep 5 doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2022.08.010. PMID: 36182698
Baizabal-Carvallo JF, Alonso-Juarez M, Jankovic J
J Neurol 2022 Oct;269(10):5312-5318. Epub 2022 May 14 doi: 10.1007/s00415-022-11174-z. PMID: 35567613
Baizabal-Carvallo JF, Alonso-Juarez M, Jankovic J
J Neurol 2022 May;269(5):2453-2459. Epub 2021 Oct 1 doi: 10.1007/s00415-021-10822-0. PMID: 34596744
Cavanna AE, Nani A
Int Rev Neurobiol 2013;112:373-89. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-411546-0.00012-3. PMID: 24295627

Recent systematic reviews

Jafari F, Abbasi P, Rahmati M, Hodhodi T, Kazeminia M
Pediatr Neurol 2022 Dec;137:6-16. Epub 2022 Sep 5 doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2022.08.010. PMID: 36182698
Kim DD, Barr AM, Chung Y, Yuen JWY, Etminan M, Carleton BC, White RF, Honer WG, Procyshyn RM
CNS Drugs 2018 Oct;32(10):917-938. doi: 10.1007/s40263-018-0559-8. PMID: 30121819
Pandey S, Srivanitchapoom P, Kirubakaran R, Berman BD
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Jan 5;1(1):CD012285. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD012285.pub2. PMID: 29304272Free PMC Article
Waldon K, Hill J, Termine C, Balottin U, Cavanna AE
Behav Neurol 2013;26(4):265-73. doi: 10.3233/BEN-2012-120269. PMID: 22713420Free PMC Article

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