U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Format

Send to:

Choose Destination

Ocular toxoplasmosis

MedGen UID:
21599
Concept ID:
C0040561
Disease or Syndrome
Synonyms: Ocular Toxoplasmoses; Ocular Toxoplasmosis; Toxoplasmoses, Ocular; Toxoplasmosis, Ocular
SNOMED CT: Ocular toxoplasmosis (416481006)
 
Monarch Initiative: MONDO:0005879

Definition

Ocular toxoplasmosis is an infection in the eye caused by the parasite, Toxoplasm a gondii. Toxoplasmosis is the most common cause of eye inflammation in the world. Toxoplamosis can beacquired or present at birth (congenital), having crossed the placenta from a newly infected mother to her fetus. Most humans acquire toxoplasmosis by eating raw or undercooked meat, vegetables or milk products, or by coming into contact with infected cat litterbox or sandboxes.In humans,the infectionusually causes no symptoms, and resolves without treatment in a few months. In individuals with compromised immune systems, Toxoplasm a gondii can reactivate to cause disease. Reactivation of a congenital infection was traditionally thought to be the most common cause ofocular toxoplasmosis, but an acquired infection is now considered to be more common. A toxoplasmosis infection that affects the eye usually attacks the retina andinitially resolves without symptoms. However,the inactive parasite maylaterreactivate causing eyepain, blurred vision, and possibly permanent damage, including blindness. Although most cases of toxoplasmosis resolve on their own,for some,inflammation can be treated with antibiotics and steroids. [from MONDO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVOcular toxoplasmosis

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Yogeswaran K, Furtado JM, Bodaghi B, Matthews JM; International Ocular Toxoplasmosis Study Group, Smith JR
Br J Ophthalmol 2023 Jul;107(7):973-979. Epub 2022 Feb 23 doi: 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2022-321091. PMID: 35197262
Helfenstein M, Zweifel S, Barthelmes D, Meier F, Fehr J, Böni C
Klin Monbl Augenheilkd 2017 Apr;234(4):556-560. Epub 2017 Mar 22 doi: 10.1055/s-0042-123717. PMID: 28329892
Schallhorn JM, Gonzales J
J AAPOS 2013 Oct;17(5):454-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jaapos.2013.08.001. PMID: 24160961

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Goh EJH, Putera I, La Distia Nora R, Mahendradas P, Biswas J, Chee SP, Testi I, Pavesio CE, Curi ALL, Vasconcelos-Santos DV, Arora A, Gupta V, de-la-Torre A, Agrawal R
Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2023 Sep;31(7):1342-1361. Epub 2022 Sep 12 doi: 10.1080/09273948.2022.2117705. PMID: 36095008
Beder D, Esenkaya Taşbent F
Turkiye Parazitol Derg 2020 Jun 2;44(2):94-101. doi: 10.4274/tpd.galenos.2020.6634. PMID: 32482042
Desmettre T
J Fr Ophtalmol 2020 Mar;43(3):e89-e93. Epub 2020 Jan 21 doi: 10.1016/j.jfo.2020.01.001. PMID: 31980266
Minkus CL, Bispo PJM, Papaliodis GN, Sobrin L
Semin Ophthalmol 2019;34(4):252-255. Epub 2019 Jun 9 doi: 10.1080/08820538.2019.1620803. PMID: 31177936
Modrzejewska M, Lachowicz E, Karczewicz D, Zdanowska A
Klin Oczna 2011;113(10-12):352-6. PMID: 22384654

Diagnosis

Goh EJH, Putera I, La Distia Nora R, Mahendradas P, Biswas J, Chee SP, Testi I, Pavesio CE, Curi ALL, Vasconcelos-Santos DV, Arora A, Gupta V, de-la-Torre A, Agrawal R
Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2023 Sep;31(7):1342-1361. Epub 2022 Sep 12 doi: 10.1080/09273948.2022.2117705. PMID: 36095008
Uner OE, Lin P
Ophthalmol Retina 2022 Nov;6(11):1018. Epub 2022 Sep 11 doi: 10.1016/j.oret.2022.08.008. PMID: 36100532
Kalogeropoulos D, Sakkas H, Mohammed B, Vartholomatos G, Malamos K, Sreekantam S, Kanavaros P, Kalogeropoulos C
Int Ophthalmol 2022 Jan;42(1):295-321. Epub 2021 Aug 9 doi: 10.1007/s10792-021-01994-9. PMID: 34370174Free PMC Article
Cunningham ET Jr, Belfort R Jr, Muccioli C, Arevalo JF, Zierhut M
Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2015 Jun;23(3):191-3. doi: 10.3109/09273948.2015.1051360. PMID: 26066570
Saadatnia G, Golkar M
Scand J Infect Dis 2012 Nov;44(11):805-14. Epub 2012 Jul 25 doi: 10.3109/00365548.2012.693197. PMID: 22831461

Therapy

Khan K, Khan W
Parasitol Int 2018 Dec;67(6):715-721. Epub 2018 Jul 21 doi: 10.1016/j.parint.2018.07.004. PMID: 30041005
Helfenstein M, Zweifel S, Barthelmes D, Meier F, Fehr J, Böni C
Klin Monbl Augenheilkd 2017 Apr;234(4):556-560. Epub 2017 Mar 22 doi: 10.1055/s-0042-123717. PMID: 28329892
Jasper S, Vedula SS, John SS, Horo S, Sepah YJ, Nguyen QD
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 Jan 26;1(1):CD007417. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007417.pub3. PMID: 28125765Free PMC Article
Jasper S, Vedula SS, John SS, Horo S, Sepah YJ, Nguyen QD
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013 Apr 30;4(4):CD007417. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007417.pub2. PMID: 23633342Free PMC Article
Bonfioli AA, Orefice F
Semin Ophthalmol 2005 Jul-Sep;20(3):129-41. doi: 10.1080/08820530500231961. PMID: 16282146

Prognosis

Zheng J, Hong X, Peng J, Li S
Clin Lab 2023 Jul 1;69(7) doi: 10.7754/Clin.Lab.2022.221122. PMID: 37436370
Conceição AR, Belucik DN, Missio L, Gustavo Brenner L, Henrique Monteiro M, Ribeiro KS, Costa DF, Valadão MCDS, Commodaro AG, de Oliveira Dias JR, Belfort R Jr
Ophthalmology 2021 Sep;128(9):1346-1355. Epub 2021 Mar 10 doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2021.03.009. PMID: 33711379
Desmettre T
J Fr Ophtalmol 2020 Mar;43(3):e89-e93. Epub 2020 Jan 21 doi: 10.1016/j.jfo.2020.01.001. PMID: 31980266
Bonfioli AA, Orefice F
Semin Ophthalmol 2005 Jul-Sep;20(3):129-41. doi: 10.1080/08820530500231961. PMID: 16282146
Bosch-Driessen LE, Berendschot TT, Ongkosuwito JV, Rothova A
Ophthalmology 2002 May;109(5):869-78. doi: 10.1016/s0161-6420(02)00990-9. PMID: 11986090

Clinical prediction guides

Conceição AR, Belucik DN, Missio L, Gustavo Brenner L, Henrique Monteiro M, Ribeiro KS, Costa DF, Valadão MCDS, Commodaro AG, de Oliveira Dias JR, Belfort R Jr
Ophthalmology 2021 Sep;128(9):1346-1355. Epub 2021 Mar 10 doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2021.03.009. PMID: 33711379
Desmettre T
J Fr Ophtalmol 2020 Mar;43(3):e89-e93. Epub 2020 Jan 21 doi: 10.1016/j.jfo.2020.01.001. PMID: 31980266
Yannuzzi NA, Gal-Or O, Motulsky E, Swaminathan SS, Cunningham ET Jr, Davis JL, Fisher Y, Gregori G, Rosenfeld PJ, Freund KB
Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina 2019 May 1;50(5):281-287. doi: 10.3928/23258160-20190503-04. PMID: 31100158
Aleixo AL, Curi AL, Benchimol EI, Amendoeira MR
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 May;10(5):e0004685. Epub 2016 May 2 doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004685. PMID: 27136081Free PMC Article
Modrzejewska M, Lachowicz E, Karczewicz D, Zdanowska A
Klin Oczna 2011;113(10-12):352-6. PMID: 22384654

Recent systematic reviews

Jasper S, Vedula SS, John SS, Horo S, Sepah YJ, Nguyen QD
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017 Jan 26;1(1):CD007417. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD007417.pub3. PMID: 28125765Free PMC Article
Fernández C, Jaimes J, Ortiz MC, Ramírez JD
Infect Genet Evol 2016 Oct;44:199-209. Epub 2016 Jul 4 doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2016.06.053. PMID: 27389360
Pradhan E, Bhandari S, Gilbert RE, Stanford M
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2016 May 20;2016(5):CD002218. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD002218.pub2. PMID: 27198629Free PMC Article
Stanford MR, See SE, Jones LV, Gilbert RE
Ophthalmology 2003 May;110(5):926-31; quiz 931-2. doi: 10.1016/S0161-6420(03)00083-6. PMID: 12750091
Gilbert RE, See SE, Jones LV, Stanford MS
Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002;(1):CD002218. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD002218. PMID: 11869630

Supplemental Content

Table of contents

    Clinical resources

    Practice guidelines

    • PubMed
      See practice and clinical guidelines in PubMed. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.
    • Bookshelf
      See practice and clinical guidelines in NCBI Bookshelf. The search results may include broader topics and may not capture all published guidelines. See the FAQ for details.

    Recent activity

    Your browsing activity is empty.

    Activity recording is turned off.

    Turn recording back on

    See more...