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Proximal amyotrophy

MedGen UID:
342591
Concept ID:
C1850794
Disease or Syndrome; Finding
Synonyms: Atrophy of proximal muscles; Muscle atrophy, proximal; Proximal muscle atrophy; Proximal muscle wasting; Wasting of the proximal muscles
 
HPO: HP:0007126

Definition

Amyotrophy (muscular atrophy) affecting the proximal musculature. [from HPO]

Conditions with this feature

Werdnig-Hoffmann disease
MedGen UID:
21913
Concept ID:
C0043116
Disease or Syndrome
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is characterized by muscle weakness and atrophy resulting from progressive degeneration and irreversible loss of the anterior horn cells in the spinal cord (i.e., lower motor neurons) and the brain stem nuclei. The onset of weakness ranges from before birth to adulthood. The weakness is symmetric, proximal > distal, and progressive. Before the genetic basis of SMA was understood, it was classified into clinical subtypes based on maximum motor function achieved; however, it is now apparent that the phenotype of SMN1-associated SMA spans a continuum without clear delineation of subtypes. With supportive care only, poor weight gain with growth failure, restrictive lung disease, scoliosis, and joint contractures are common complications; however, newly available targeted treatment options are changing the natural history of this disease.
Sarcotubular myopathy
MedGen UID:
78750
Concept ID:
C0270968
Congenital Abnormality
A mild subtype of autosomal recessive limb girdle muscular dystrophy characterized by slowly progressive proximal muscle weakness and wasting of the pelvic and shoulder girdles with onset that usually occurs during the second or third decade of life. Clinical presentation is variable and can include calf psuedohypertrophy, joint contractures, scapular winging, muscle cramping and/or facial and respiratory muscle involvement.
Autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2F
MedGen UID:
331308
Concept ID:
C1832525
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy-6 (LGMDR6) is a very rare and severe neuromuscular disorder with onset in most patients in the first decade of life. Generalized muscle weakness affecting predominantly proximal and distal muscles of the limbs is progressive, and patients require walking aids or become wheelchair-bound. Some patients have cardiomyopathy or heart rhythm abnormalities, or require ventilatory support (Alonso-Perez et al., 2022). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, see LGMDR1 (253600).
Myasthenia, limb-girdle, autoimmune
MedGen UID:
331795
Concept ID:
C1834635
Disease or Syndrome
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 8
MedGen UID:
325237
Concept ID:
C1837728
Disease or Syndrome
A neurodegenerative disease with characteristics of progressive muscular paralysis reflecting degeneration of motor neurons in the primary motor cortex, corticospinal tracts, brainstem and spinal cord. Caused by heterozygous mutation in the VAPB gene on chromosome 20q13.
Spinal muscular atrophy, type IV
MedGen UID:
325364
Concept ID:
C1838230
Disease or Syndrome
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is characterized by muscle weakness and atrophy resulting from progressive degeneration and irreversible loss of the anterior horn cells in the spinal cord (i.e., lower motor neurons) and the brain stem nuclei. The onset of weakness ranges from before birth to adulthood. The weakness is symmetric, proximal > distal, and progressive. Before the genetic basis of SMA was understood, it was classified into clinical subtypes based on maximum motor function achieved; however, it is now apparent that the phenotype of SMN1-associated SMA spans a continuum without clear delineation of subtypes. With supportive care only, poor weight gain with growth failure, restrictive lung disease, scoliosis, and joint contractures are common complications; however, newly available targeted treatment options are changing the natural history of this disease.
Mitochondrial myopathy with diabetes
MedGen UID:
333236
Concept ID:
C1839028
Disease or Syndrome
A rare, genetic, mitochondrial DNA-related mitochondrial myopathy disorder characterized by slowly progressive muscular weakness (proximal greater than distal), predominantly involving the facial muscles and scapular girdle, associated with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Neurological involvement and congenital myopathy may be variably observed.
Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy type B5
MedGen UID:
335764
Concept ID:
C1847759
Disease or Syndrome
MDDGB5 is an autosomal recessive congenital muscular dystrophy with impaired intellectual development and structural brain abnormalities (Brockington et al., 2001). It is part of a group of similar disorders resulting from defective glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan (DAG1; 128239), collectively known as 'dystroglycanopathies' (Mercuri et al., 2006). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy type B, see MDDGB1 (613155).
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome due to tenascin-X deficiency
MedGen UID:
336244
Concept ID:
C1848029
Disease or Syndrome
The clinical features of TNXB-related classical-like Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (clEDS) strongly resemble those seen in classic EDS (cEDS). Affected individuals have generalized joint hypermobility, hyperextensible skin, and easy bruising, but do not have atrophic scarring, as is seen in cEDS. There are also several other distinguishing clinical findings including anomalies of feet and hands, edema in the legs in the absence of cardiac failure, mild proximal and distal muscle weakness, and axonal polyneuropathy. Vaginal, uterine, and/or rectal prolapse can also occur. Tissue fragility with resulting rupture of the trachea, esophagus, and small and large bowel has been reported. Vascular fragility causing a major event occurs in a minority of individuals. Significant variability in the severity of musculoskeletal symptoms and their effect on day-to-day function between unrelated affected individuals as well as among affected individuals in the same family has been reported. Fatigue has been reported in more than half of affected individuals. The severity of symptoms in middle-aged individuals can range from joint hypermobility without complications to being wheelchair-bound as a result of severe and painful foot deformities and fatigue.
Spinal muscular atrophy, Ryukyuan type
MedGen UID:
376517
Concept ID:
C1849102
Disease or Syndrome
Myopathy, myosin storage, autosomal recessive
MedGen UID:
340603
Concept ID:
C1850709
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive myosin storage congenital myopathy-7B (CMYP7B) is a skeletal muscle disorder characterized by the onset of scapuloperoneal muscle weakness in early childhood or young adulthood. Affected individuals have difficulty walking, steppage gait, and scapular winging due to shoulder girdle involvement. The severity and progression of the disorder is highly variable, even within families. Most patients develop respiratory insufficiency, nocturnal hypoventilation, and restrictive lung disease; some develop hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Additional features include myopathic facies, high-arched palate, scoliosis, and muscle wasting with thin body habitus. Serum creatine kinase may be normal or elevated. Skeletal muscle biopsy shows variable findings, including myosin storage disease, type 1 fiber predominance, centralized nuclei, and multiminicore disease (Onengut et al., 2004; Tajsharghi et al., 2007; Beecroft et al., 2019). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of congenital myopathy, see CMYP1A (117000).
Congenital myasthenic syndrome 10
MedGen UID:
376880
Concept ID:
C1850792
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) are a group of inherited disorders affecting the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Patients present clinically with onset of variable muscle weakness between infancy and adulthood. These disorders have been classified according to the location of the defect: presynaptic, synaptic, and postsynaptic. CMS10 is an autosomal recessive CMS resulting from a postsynaptic defect affecting endplate maintenance of the NMJ. Patients present with limb-girdle weakness in the first decade. Treatment with ephedrine or salbutamol may be beneficial; cholinesterase inhibitors should be avoided (summary by Engel et al., 2015). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462).
Adult-onset proximal spinal muscular atrophy, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
340120
Concept ID:
C1854058
Disease or Syndrome
Spinal muscular atrophy is characterized by degeneration of the anterior horn cells in the spinal cord, leading to symmetric muscle weakness and wasting. See also autosomal recessive adult-onset proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA4; 271150), caused by defect in the SMN1 gene (600354), and autosomal dominant childhood-onset proximal SMA (158600).
Nemaline myopathy 5
MedGen UID:
344273
Concept ID:
C1854380
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal recessive severe infantile nemaline myopathy-5A (NEM5A) is a skeletal muscle disorder characterized by symptom onset soon after birth or in early infancy. Affected infants show axial hypotonia, stiffness, rigid spine with progressive kyphosis, pectus deformities, and contractures or limited movement of the large joints. Some patients show transient tremors. There is muscle atrophy and poor gross motor development. Respiratory insufficiency develops in the first years of life, often leading to death. Muscle biopsy shows nemaline rods (Johnston et al., 2000; Geraud et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nemaline myopathy, see NEM2 (256030).
Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy, Okinawa type
MedGen UID:
346886
Concept ID:
C1858338
Disease or Syndrome
Okinawa-type hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSNO) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by young adult onset of proximal or distal muscle weakness and atrophy, muscle cramps, and fasciculations, with later onset of distal sensory impairment. The disorder is slowly progressive and clinically resembles amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS; see 105400) (summary by Ishiura et al., 2012).
Autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2E
MedGen UID:
347674
Concept ID:
C1858593
Disease or Syndrome
Limb-girdle muscular dystrophies are characterized clinically by predominantly proximal muscle weakness of variable severity and dystrophic changes on muscle biopsy. LGMDR4 is in general a severe form of the disorder, with some patients developing symptoms before 8 years of age and losing the ability to ambulate in their second decade. Some patients have a milder course, with weakness evident in the teenage years and loss of walking ability in their fourth decade (summary by Lim et al., 1995 and Bonnemann et al., 1996). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, see LGMDR1 (253600).
Autosomal recessive limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A
MedGen UID:
358391
Concept ID:
C1869123
Disease or Syndrome
Calpainopathy is characterized by symmetric and progressive weakness of proximal limb-girdle muscles. The age at onset of muscle weakness ranges from two to 40 years. The phenotype shows intra- and interfamilial variability ranging from severe to mild. Three autosomal recessive calpainopathy phenotypes have been identified based on the distribution of muscle weakness and age at onset: Pelvifemoral limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) (Leyden-Möbius LGMD) phenotype, the most frequently observed calpainopathy phenotype, in which muscle weakness is first evident in the pelvic girdle and later in the shoulder girdle, with onset that may occur as early as before age 12 years or as late as after age 30 years. Scapulohumeral LGMD (Erb LGMD) phenotype, usually a milder phenotype with infrequent early onset, in which muscle weakness is first evident in the shoulder girdle and later in the pelvic girdle. HyperCKemia, usually observed in children or young individuals, in which individuals are asymptomatic and have high serum creatine kinase (CK) concentrations. The autosomal dominant form of calpainopathy shows a variability of clinical phenotype, ranging from almost asymptomatic to wheelchair dependence after age 60 years in few cases with a generally milder phenotype than the recessive form. Clinical findings of calpainopathy include the tendency to walk on tiptoe, difficulty in running, scapular winging, waddling gait, and slight hyperlordosis. Other findings include symmetric weakness of proximal more than distal muscles in the limbs, trunk, and periscapular area; laxity of the abdominal muscles; Achilles tendon shortening; scoliosis; and joint contractures. Affected individuals typically do not have cardiac involvement or intellectual disability.
Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy 5, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
414111
Concept ID:
C2751805
Disease or Syndrome
Any autosomal dominant Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the SYNE2 gene.
Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy 4, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
414476
Concept ID:
C2751807
Disease or Syndrome
Any autosomal dominant Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy in which the cause of the disease is a mutation in the SYNE1 gene.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 6
MedGen UID:
419901
Concept ID:
C2931786
Disease or Syndrome
A neurodegenerative disease with characteristics of progressive muscular paralysis reflecting degeneration of motor neurons in the primary motor cortex, corticospinal tracts, brainstem and spinal cord. Caused by heterozygous mutation in the FUS gene on chromosome 16p11.
Congenital myasthenic syndrome 12
MedGen UID:
765249
Concept ID:
C3552335
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital myasthenic syndrome-12 is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disorder characterized by onset of proximal muscle weakness in the first decade. EMG classically shows a decremental response to repeated nerve stimulation. Affected individuals show a favorable response to acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors (summary by Senderek et al., 2011). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462).
Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy 7, autosomal dominant
MedGen UID:
765974
Concept ID:
C3553060
Disease or Syndrome
Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy is a genetically heterogeneous muscular disease that presents with muscular dystrophy, joint contractures, and cardiomyopathy with conduction defects (summary by Liang et al., 2011). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of EDMD, see 310300.
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome 11
MedGen UID:
767376
Concept ID:
C3554462
Disease or Syndrome
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome-11 is an autosomal recessive mitochondrial disorder characterized by onset in childhood or adulthood of progressive external ophthalmoplegia (PEO), muscle weakness and atrophy, exercise intolerance, and respiratory insufficiency due to muscle weakness. More variable features include spinal deformity, emaciation, and cardiac abnormalities. Skeletal muscle biopsies show deletion and depletion of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) with variable defects in respiratory chain enzyme activities (summary by Kornblum et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive mtDNA depletion syndromes, see MTDPS1 (603041).
Myopathy, tubular aggregate, 1
MedGen UID:
860163
Concept ID:
C4011726
Disease or Syndrome
Tubular aggregates in muscle, first described by Engel (1964), are structures of variable appearance consisting of an outer tubule containing either one or more microtubule-like structures or amorphous material. They are a nonspecific pathologic finding that may occur in a variety of circumstances, including alcohol- and drug-induced myopathies, exercise-induced cramps or muscle weakness, and inherited myopathies. Tubular aggregates are derived from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (Salviati et al., 1985) and are believed to represent an adaptive mechanism aimed at regulating an increased intracellular level of calcium in order to prevent the muscle fibers from hypercontraction and necrosis (Martin et al., 1997; Muller et al., 2001). Genetic Heterogeneity of Tubular Aggregate Myopathy See also TAM2 (615883), caused by mutation in the ORAI1 gene (610277) on chromosome 12q24.
Congenital myasthenic syndrome 7
MedGen UID:
863475
Concept ID:
C4015038
Disease or Syndrome
Presynaptic congenital myasthenic syndrome-7A with distal motor neuropathy (CMS7A) is an autosomal dominant neuromuscular disorder characterized by onset of foot deformities, delayed motor development, and slowly progressive distal muscle weakness resulting in gait difficulties in early childhood. Other features may include hyporeflexia, muscle atrophy, and upper limb involvement. Electrophysiologic studies show low compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs), consistent with a distal hereditary motor neuropathy (dHMN), as well as a decremental response to repetitive stimulation, indicating presynaptic defects at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), consistent with myasthenic syndrome (summary by Fionda et al., 2021). The complex phenotype of patients with dominant SYT2 mutations likely results from impairment of 2 fundamental functions of SYT2: (1) disturbance of calcium-dependent synchronous presynaptic neurotransmitter release, resulting in a myasthenic disorder, and (2) disruption of exocytosis and endocytosis, causing a degenerative process affecting peripheral motor nerve terminals and resulting in a motor neuropathy (Maselli et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of CMS, see CMS1A (601462). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of dHMN, see 182960.
Congenital muscular dystrophy with cataracts and intellectual disability
MedGen UID:
1382291
Concept ID:
C4479410
Disease or Syndrome
MDCCAID is an autosomal recessive form of muscular dystrophy with onset of progressive muscle weakness in early childhood. Almost all patients also have early-onset cataracts, most have intellectual disability of varying severity, and some have seizures (summary by Wiessner et al., 2017 and Osborn et al., 2017).
Autosomal dominant centronuclear myopathy
MedGen UID:
1645741
Concept ID:
C4551952
Disease or Syndrome
Centronuclear myopathy-1 (CNM1) is an autosomal dominant congenital myopathy characterized by slowly progressive muscular weakness and wasting. The disorder involves mainly limb girdle, trunk, and neck muscles but may also affect distal muscles. Weakness may be present during childhood or adolescence or may not become evident until the third decade of life, and some affected individuals become wheelchair-bound in their fifties. Ptosis and limitation of eye movements occur frequently. The most prominent histopathologic features include high frequency of centrally located nuclei in a large number of extrafusal muscle fibers (which is the basis of the name of the disorder), radial arrangement of sarcoplasmic strands around the central nuclei, and predominance and hypotrophy of type 1 fibers (summary by Bitoun et al., 2005). Genetic Heterogeneity of Centronuclear Myopathy Centronuclear myopathy is a genetically heterogeneous disorder. See also X-linked CNM (CNMX; 310400), caused by mutation in the MTM1 gene (300415) on chromosome Xq28; CNM2 (255200), caused by mutation in the BIN1 gene (601248) on chromosome 2q14; CNM4 (614807), caused by mutation in the CCDC78 gene (614666) on chromosome 16p13; CNM5 (615959), caused by mutation in the SPEG gene (615950) on chromosome 2q35; and CNM6 (617760), caused by mutation in the ZAK gene (609479) on chromosome 2q31. The mutation in the MYF6 gene that was reported to cause a form of CNM, formerly designated CNM3, has been reclassified as a variant of unknown significance; see 159991.0001. Some patients with mutation in the RYR1 gene (180901) have findings of centronuclear myopathy on skeletal muscle biopsy (see 255320).
Muscular dystrophy, limb-girdle, autosomal dominant 4
MedGen UID:
1648316
Concept ID:
C4748295
Disease or Syndrome
Autosomal dominant limb-girdle muscular dystrophy-4 (LGMDD4) is characterized by onset of proximal muscle weakness in young adulthood. Affected individuals often have gait difficulties; some may have upper limb involvement. Other features include variably increased serum creatine kinase, myalgia, and back pain. The severity and expressivity of the disorder is highly variable, even within families (summary by Vissing et al., 2016). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal dominant limb-girdle muscular dystrophy, see 603511.
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, axonal, IIa 2II
MedGen UID:
1824000
Concept ID:
C5774227
Disease or Syndrome
Axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2II (CMT2II) is an autosomal dominant neurologic disorder characterized by a slowly progressive sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy affecting mainly the lower limbs, resulting in distal muscle weakness and atrophy and subsequent walking difficulties. Some patients may have upper limb involvement with atrophy of the intrinsic hand muscles. The age at onset is highly variable, ranging from infancy to adulthood. Electrophysiologic studies are usually consistent with an axonal process, although some may show intermediate or even demyelinating values (Park et al., 2020; Ando et al., 2022). One family with possible autosomal recessive inheritance has been reported (Bogdanova-Mihaylova et al., 2021). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of axonal CMT, see CMT2A1 (118210).

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Arch Pediatr 2020 Dec;27(7S):7S29-7S34. doi: 10.1016/S0929-693X(20)30274-8. PMID: 33357594
Arnold WD, Kassar D, Kissel JT
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Reichel G, Bruns W, Rabending G
Endokrinologie 1982 Jul;79(3):321-36. PMID: 6751812

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