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Abnormally large globe

MedGen UID:
344595
Concept ID:
C1855852
Finding
Synonym: Large eyes
 
HPO: HP:0001090

Definition

Diffusely large eye (with megalocornea) without glaucoma. [from HPO]

Term Hierarchy

CClinical test,  RResearch test,  OOMIM,  GGeneReviews,  VClinVar  
  • CROGVAbnormally large globe

Conditions with this feature

Achondrogenesis type II
MedGen UID:
66315
Concept ID:
C0220685
Congenital Abnormality
Achondrogenesis type II (ACG2) is characterized by severe micromelic dwarfism with small chest and prominent abdomen, incomplete ossification of the vertebral bodies, and disorganization of the costochondral junction. ACG2 is an autosomal dominant trait occurring mostly as new mutations. However, somatic and germline mosaicism have been reported (summary by Comstock et al., 2010).
Bird-headed dwarfism with progressive ataxia, insulin-resistant diabetes, goiter, and primary gonadal insufficiency
MedGen UID:
90978
Concept ID:
C0342284
Disease or Syndrome
Bangstad syndrome is a rare endocrine disease characterized by the association of primordial birdheaded nanism, progressive ataxia, goiter, primary gonadal insufficiency and insulin resistant diabetes mellitus. Plasma concentrations of TSH, PTH, LH, FSH, ACTH, glucagon, and insulin are usually elevated. A generalized cell membrane defect was suggested to be the pathophysiological abnormality in these patients. The mode of inheritance was thought to be autosomal recessive. There have been no further descriptions in the literature since 1989.
Corpus callosum agenesis-abnormal genitalia syndrome
MedGen UID:
163217
Concept ID:
C0796124
Disease or Syndrome
Proud syndrome is an X-linked developmental disorder characterized by agenesis of the corpus callosum, severe mental retardation, seizures, and spasticity. Males are severely affected, whereas females may be unaffected or have a milder phenotype (Proud et al., 1992). Proud syndrome is part of a phenotypic spectrum of disorders caused by mutation in the ARX gene comprising a nearly continuous series of developmental disorders ranging from lissencephaly (LISX2; 300215) to Proud syndrome to infantile spasms without brain malformations (DEE1; 308350) to syndromic (309510) and nonsyndromic (300419) mental retardation (Kato et al., 2004; Wallerstein et al., 2008).
Frank-Ter Haar syndrome
MedGen UID:
383652
Concept ID:
C1855305
Disease or Syndrome
The primary characteristics of the Frank-ter Haar syndrome (FTHS) are brachycephaly, wide fontanels, prominent forehead, hypertelorism, prominent eyes, macrocornea with or without glaucoma, full cheeks, small chin, bowing of the long bones, and flexion deformity of the fingers. Protruding, simple ears and prominent coccyx are also regarded as important diagnostic signs (summary by Maas et al., 2004). Borrone syndrome was described as a severe progressive multisystem disorder with features overlapping those of FTHS, including thick skin, acne conglobata, osteolysis, gingival hypertrophy, brachydactyly, camptodactyly, and mitral valve prolapse. Although it was initially thought to be a distinct phenotype, mutations in the FTHS-associated gene SH3PXD2B have been identified in patients diagnosed with Borrone syndrome. The earlier differential description was attributed to phenotypic variability as well as to differences in the ages at which patients were examined (Wilson et al., 2014).
Bartter disease type 2
MedGen UID:
343428
Concept ID:
C1855849
Disease or Syndrome
Bartter syndrome refers to a group of disorders that are unified by autosomal recessive transmission of impaired salt reabsorption in the thick ascending loop of Henle with pronounced salt wasting, hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis, and hypercalciuria. Clinical disease results from defective renal reabsorption of sodium chloride in the thick ascending limb (TAL) of the Henle loop, where 30% of filtered salt is normally reabsorbed (Simon et al., 1997). Patients with antenatal forms of Bartter syndrome typically present with premature birth associated with polyhydramnios and low birth weight and may develop life-threatening dehydration in the neonatal period. Patients with classic Bartter syndrome (see BARTS3, 607364) present later in life and may be sporadically asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic (summary by Simon et al., 1996 and Fremont and Chan, 2012). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of Bartter syndrome, see 607364.
Bird headed-dwarfism, Montreal type
MedGen UID:
347890
Concept ID:
C1859468
Disease or Syndrome
A rare genetic multiple congenital anomalies/dysmorphic syndrome with characteristics of severe short stature and craniofacial dysmorphism (microcephaly, narrow face with flat cheeks, ptosis, prominent nose with a convex ridge, low-set ears with small or absent lobes, high-arched/cleft palate, micrognathia), associated with premature greying and loss of scalp hair, redundant, dry and wrinkled skin of the palms, premature senility and varying degrees of intellectual disability. Cryptorchidism and skeletal anomalies may also be observed. There have been no further descriptions in the literature since 1970.
Syndromic X-linked intellectual disability Najm type
MedGen UID:
437070
Concept ID:
C2677903
Disease or Syndrome
CASK disorders include a spectrum of phenotypes in both females and males. Two main types of clinical presentation are seen: Microcephaly with pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia (MICPCH), generally associated with pathogenic loss-of-function variants in CASK. X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) with or without nystagmus, generally associated with hypomorphic CASK pathogenic variants. MICPCH is typically seen in females with moderate-to-severe intellectual disability, progressive microcephaly with or without ophthalmologic anomalies, and sensorineural hearing loss. Most are able to sit independently; 20%-25% attain the ability to walk; language is nearly absent in most. Neurologic features may include axial hypotonia, hypertonia/spasticity of the extremities, and dystonia or other movement disorders. Nearly 40% have seizures by age ten years. Behaviors may include sleep disturbances, hand stereotypies, and self biting. MICPCH in males may occur with or without severe epileptic encephalopathy in addition to severe-to-profound developmental delay. When seizures are present they occur early and may be intractable. In individuals and families with milder (i.e., hypomorphic) pathogenic variants, the clinical phenotype is usually that of XLID with or without nystagmus and additional clinical features. Males have mild-to-severe intellectual disability, with or without nystagmus and other ocular features. Females typically have normal intelligence with some displaying mild-to-severe intellectual disability with or without ocular features.
Chromosome 3q29 microduplication syndrome
MedGen UID:
440897
Concept ID:
C2749873
Disease or Syndrome
3q29 microduplication syndrome (also known as 3q29 duplication syndrome) is a condition that results from the copying (duplication) of a small piece of chromosome 3 in each cell. The duplication occurs on the long (q) arm of the chromosome at a position designated q29.\n\nThe features associated with 3q29 microduplication syndrome vary widely. Some individuals with this chromosomal change have very mild or no related signs and symptoms, and the duplication is discovered because they undergo genetic testing only after a family member is diagnosed. Other people with a 3q29 microduplication have delayed development (particularly speech delay) and intellectual disability or learning difficulties. Although most affected individuals have no major birth defects, eye abnormalities, heart defects, and an unusually small head (microcephaly) can occur. 3q29 microduplication syndrome may increase the likelihood of being overweight or having obesity, although it is hard to determine whether these weight issues are caused by the duplication.
Larsen-like syndrome, B3GAT3 type
MedGen UID:
480034
Concept ID:
C3278404
Disease or Syndrome
CHST3-related skeletal dysplasia is characterized by short stature of prenatal onset, joint dislocations (knees, hips, radial heads), clubfeet, and limitation of range of motion that can involve all large joints. Kyphosis and occasionally scoliosis with slight shortening of the trunk develop in childhood. Minor heart valve dysplasia has been described in several persons. Intellect and vision are normal.
Keppen-Lubinsky syndrome
MedGen UID:
481430
Concept ID:
C3279800
Disease or Syndrome
Keppen-Lubinsky syndrome (KPLBS) is a rare disorder characterized by severely delayed psychomotor development, hypertonia, hyperreflexia, generalized lipodystrophy giving an aged appearance, and distinctive dysmorphic features, including microcephaly, prominent eyes, narrow nasal bridge, and open mouth (summary by Masotti et al., 2015).
Bent bone dysplasia syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
482877
Concept ID:
C3281247
Disease or Syndrome
Bent bone dysplasia syndrome-1 (BBDS1) is a perinatal lethal skeletal dysplasia characterized by poor mineralization of the calvarium, craniosynostosis, dysmorphic facial features, prenatal teeth, hypoplastic pubis and clavicles, osteopenia, and bent long bones (Merrill et al., 2012). Genetic Heterogeneity of Bent Bone Dysplasia Syndrome BBDS2 (620076) is caused by mutation in the LAMA5 gene (601033) on chromosome 20q13.
Muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy (congenital with brain and eye anomalies), type a, 12
MedGen UID:
815294
Concept ID:
C3808964
Disease or Syndrome
Congenital muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy with brain and eye anomalies (type A) is an autosomal recessive disorder with congenital muscular dystrophy resulting in muscle weakness early in life and brain and eye anomalies. It is usually associated with delayed psychomotor development and shortened life expectancy. The phenotype includes the alternative clinical designations Walker-Warburg syndrome (WWS) and muscle-eye-brain disease (MEB). The disorder represents the most severe end of a phenotypic spectrum of similar disorders resulting from defective glycosylation of alpha-dystroglycan (DAG1; 128239), collectively known as dystroglycanopathies (summary by Stevens et al., 2013). For a general phenotypic description and a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of muscular dystrophy-dystroglycanopathy type A, see MDDGA1 (236670).
Megalencephaly-polymicrogyria-polydactyly-hydrocephalus syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
861164
Concept ID:
C4012727
Disease or Syndrome
MPPH (megalencephaly-postaxial polydactyly-polymicrogyria-hydrocephalus) syndrome is a developmental brain disorder characterized by megalencephaly (brain overgrowth) with the cortical malformation bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria (BPP). At birth the occipital frontal circumference (OFC) ranges from normal to 6 standard deviations (SD) above the mean for age, sex, and gestational age; in older individuals the range is from 3 to 10 SD above the mean. A variable degree of ventriculomegaly is seen in almost all children with MPPH syndrome; nearly 50% of individuals have frank hydrocephalus. Neurologic problems associated with BPP include oromotor dysfunction (100%), epilepsy (50%), and mild-to-severe intellectual disability (100%). Postaxial hexadactyly occurs in 50% of individuals with MPPH syndrome.
Craniometadiaphyseal dysplasia wormian bone type
MedGen UID:
1382152
Concept ID:
C4510809
Disease or Syndrome
Craniometadiaphyseal dysplasia (CRMDD) is characterized clinically by macrocephaly with frontal prominence, dental hypoplasia, and increased bone fragility. Diagnostic radiologic features include thin bones in the superior part of calvaria with prominent wormian bones, diaphyseal widening of the long tubular bones in early childhood with wide undermineralized metaphyses in older individuals, widened ribs and clavicles, and broadening of short tubular bones with increased transparency and thin cortices (summary by Dhar et al., 2010).
Seckel syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1637056
Concept ID:
C4551474
Disease or Syndrome
Seckel syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, dwarfism, microcephaly with mental retardation, and a characteristic 'bird-headed' facial appearance (Shanske et al., 1997). Genetic Heterogeneity of Seckel Syndrome Other forms of Seckel syndrome include SCKL2 (606744), caused by mutation in the RBBP8 gene (604124) on chromosome 18q11; SCKL4 (613676), caused by mutation in the CENPJ gene (609279) on chromosome 13q12; SCKL5 (613823), caused by mutation in the CEP152 gene (613529) on chromosome 15q21; SCKL6 (614728), caused by mutation in the CEP63 gene (614724) on chromosome 3q22; SCKL7 (614851), caused by mutation in the NIN gene (608684) on chromosome 14q22; SCKL8 (615807), caused by mutation in the DNA2 gene (601810) on chromosome 10q21; SCKL9 (616777), caused by mutation in the TRAIP gene (605958) on chromosome 3p21; SCKL10 (617253), caused by mutation in the NSMCE2 gene (617246) on chromosome 8q24; and SCKL11 (620767), caused by mutation in the CEP295 gene (617728) on chromosome 11q21. The report of a Seckel syndrome locus on chromosome 14q, designated SCKL3, by Kilinc et al. (2003) was found to be in error; see History section.
Hyperphosphatasia with intellectual disability syndrome 1
MedGen UID:
1647044
Concept ID:
C4551502
Disease or Syndrome
Hyperphosphatasia with impaired intellectual development syndrome-1 (HPMRS1) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by impaired intellectual development, various neurologic abnormalities such as seizures and hypotonia, and hyperphosphatasia. Other features include facial dysmorphism and variable degrees of brachytelephalangy (summary by Krawitz et al., 2010). The disorder is caused by a defect in glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis; see GPIBD1 (610293). Genetic Heterogeneity of Hyperphosphatasia with Impaired Intellectual Development Syndrome See also HPMRS2 (614749), caused by mutation in the PIGO gene (614730) on chromosome 9p13; HPMRS3 (614207), caused by mutation in the PGAP2 gene (615187) on chromosome 11p15; HPMRS4 (615716), caused by mutation in the PGAP3 gene (611801) on chromosome 17q12; HPMRS5 (616025), caused by mutation in the PIGW gene (610275) on chromosome 17q12; and HPMRS6 (616809), caused by mutation in the PIGY gene (610662) on chromosome 4q22. Knaus et al. (2018) provided a review of the main clinical features of the different types of HPMRS, noting that some patients have a distinct pattern of facial anomalies that can be detected by computer-assisted comparison, particularly those with mutations in the PIGV and PGAP3 genes. Individuals with HPMRS have variable increased in alkaline phosphatase (AP) as well as variable decreases in GPI-linked proteins that can be detected by flow cytometry. However, there was no clear correlation between AP levels or GPI-linked protein abnormalities and degree of neurologic involvement, mutation class, or gene involved. Knaus et al. (2018) concluded that a distinction between HPMRS and MCAHS (see, e.g., 614080), which is also caused by mutation in genes involved in GPI biosynthesis, may be artificial and even inaccurate, and that all these disorders should be considered and classified under the more encompassing term of 'GPI biosynthesis defects' (GPIBD).
Intellectual developmental disorder, autosomal recessive 71
MedGen UID:
1673448
Concept ID:
C5193133
Disease or Syndrome

Professional guidelines

PubMed

Northrup H, Aronow ME, Bebin EM, Bissler J, Darling TN, de Vries PJ, Frost MD, Fuchs Z, Gosnell ES, Gupta N, Jansen AC, Jóźwiak S, Kingswood JC, Knilans TK, McCormack FX, Pounders A, Roberds SL, Rodriguez-Buritica DF, Roth J, Sampson JR, Sparagana S, Thiele EA, Weiner HL, Wheless JW, Towbin AJ, Krueger DA; International Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Consensus Group
Pediatr Neurol 2021 Oct;123:50-66. Epub 2021 Jul 24 doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2021.07.011. PMID: 34399110
Tang D, Li H, Chen L
Adv Exp Med Biol 2019;1130:109-128. doi: 10.1007/978-981-13-6123-4_7. PMID: 30915704
Au KS, Williams AT, Roach ES, Batchelor L, Sparagana SP, Delgado MR, Wheless JW, Baumgartner JE, Roa BB, Wilson CM, Smith-Knuppel TK, Cheung MY, Whittemore VH, King TM, Northrup H
Genet Med 2007 Feb;9(2):88-100. doi: 10.1097/gim.0b013e31803068c7. PMID: 17304050

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Gutiérrez-Cerrajero C, Sprecher E, Paller AS, Akiyama M, Mazereeuw-Hautier J, Hernández-Martín A, González-Sarmiento R
Nat Rev Dis Primers 2023 Jan 19;9(1):2. doi: 10.1038/s41572-022-00412-3. PMID: 36658199
Birtel J, von Landenberg C, Gliem M, Gliem C, Reimann J, Kunz WS, Herrmann P, Betz C, Caswell R, Nesbitt V, Kornblum C, Charbel Issa P
Ophthalmol Retina 2022 Jan;6(1):65-79. Epub 2021 Jul 10 doi: 10.1016/j.oret.2021.02.017. PMID: 34257060
Northrup H, Aronow ME, Bebin EM, Bissler J, Darling TN, de Vries PJ, Frost MD, Fuchs Z, Gosnell ES, Gupta N, Jansen AC, Jóźwiak S, Kingswood JC, Knilans TK, McCormack FX, Pounders A, Roberds SL, Rodriguez-Buritica DF, Roth J, Sampson JR, Sparagana S, Thiele EA, Weiner HL, Wheless JW, Towbin AJ, Krueger DA; International Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Consensus Group
Pediatr Neurol 2021 Oct;123:50-66. Epub 2021 Jul 24 doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2021.07.011. PMID: 34399110
Zhu T, Chen DF, Wang L, Wu S, Wei X, Li H, Jin ZB, Sui R
Br J Ophthalmol 2021 May;105(5):694-703. Epub 2020 Jul 16 doi: 10.1136/bjophthalmol-2019-315786. PMID: 32675063
Ferris FL 3rd, Wilkinson CP, Bird A, Chakravarthy U, Chew E, Csaky K, Sadda SR; Beckman Initiative for Macular Research Classification Committee
Ophthalmology 2013 Apr;120(4):844-51. Epub 2013 Jan 16 doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2012.10.036. PMID: 23332590

Diagnosis

Gutiérrez-Cerrajero C, Sprecher E, Paller AS, Akiyama M, Mazereeuw-Hautier J, Hernández-Martín A, González-Sarmiento R
Nat Rev Dis Primers 2023 Jan 19;9(1):2. doi: 10.1038/s41572-022-00412-3. PMID: 36658199
Birtel J, von Landenberg C, Gliem M, Gliem C, Reimann J, Kunz WS, Herrmann P, Betz C, Caswell R, Nesbitt V, Kornblum C, Charbel Issa P
Ophthalmol Retina 2022 Jan;6(1):65-79. Epub 2021 Jul 10 doi: 10.1016/j.oret.2021.02.017. PMID: 34257060
Rodríguez Bandera AI, Sebaratnam DF, Wargon O, Wong LF
J Am Acad Dermatol 2021 Dec;85(6):1379-1392. Epub 2021 Aug 19 doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.08.019. PMID: 34419524
Pichi F, Aggarwal K, Neri P, Salvetti P, Lembo A, Nucci P, Gemmy Cheung CM, Gupta V
Indian J Ophthalmol 2018 Dec;66(12):1716-1726. doi: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_893_18. PMID: 30451172Free PMC Article
Ferris FL 3rd, Wilkinson CP, Bird A, Chakravarthy U, Chew E, Csaky K, Sadda SR; Beckman Initiative for Macular Research Classification Committee
Ophthalmology 2013 Apr;120(4):844-51. Epub 2013 Jan 16 doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2012.10.036. PMID: 23332590

Therapy

Narayan RN, McKeon A, Fife TD
Semin Neurol 2020 Feb;40(1):97-115. Epub 2020 Jan 20 doi: 10.1055/s-0039-3402061. PMID: 31958862
Singhal D, Sahay P, Goel S, Asif MI, Maharana PK, Sharma N
Surv Ophthalmol 2020 May-Jun;65(3):279-293. Epub 2020 Jan 8 doi: 10.1016/j.survophthal.2019.12.006. PMID: 31923476
Tang D, Li H, Chen L
Adv Exp Med Biol 2019;1130:109-128. doi: 10.1007/978-981-13-6123-4_7. PMID: 30915704
Bavle A, Shah R, Gross N, Gavula T, Ruiz-Elizalde A, Wierenga K, McNall-Knapp R
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2018 Oct;40(7):553-554. doi: 10.1097/MPH.0000000000001170. PMID: 29683947
Age-Related Eye Disease Study Research Group
Arch Ophthalmol 2001 Oct;119(10):1417-36. doi: 10.1001/archopht.119.10.1417. PMID: 11594942Free PMC Article

Prognosis

Saffari A, Lau T, Tajsharghi H, Karimiani EG, Kariminejad A, Efthymiou S, Zifarelli G, Sultan T, Toosi MB, Sedighzadeh S, Siu VM, Ortigoza-Escobar JD, AlShamsi AM, Ibrahim S, Al-Sannaa NA, Al-Hertani W, Sandra W, Tarnopolsky M, Alavi S, Li C, Day-Salvatore DL, Martínez-González MJ, Levandoski KM, Bedoukian E, Madan-Khetarpal S, Idleburg MJ, Menezes MJ, Siddharth A, Platzer K, Oppermann H, Smitka M, Collins F, Lek M, Shahrooei M, Ghavideldarestani M, Herman I, Rendu J, Faure J, Baker J, Bhambhani V, Calderwood L, Akhondian J, Imannezhad S, Mirzadeh HS, Hashemi N, Doosti M, Safi M, Ahangari N, Torbati PN, Abedini S, Salpietro V, Gulec EY, Eshaghian S, Ghazavi M, Pascher MT, Vogel M, Abicht A, Moutton S, Bruel AL, Rieubland C, Gallati S, Strom TM, Lochmüller H, Mohammadi MH, Alvi JR, Zackai EH, Keena BA, Skraban CM, Berger SI, Andrew EH, Rahimian E, Morrow MM, Wentzensen IM, Millan F, Henderson LB, Dafsari HS, Jungbluth H, Gomez-Ospina N, McRae A, Peter M, Veltra D, Marinakis NM, Sofocleous C, Ashrafzadeh F, Pehlivan D, Lemke JR, Melki J, Benezit A, Bauer P, Weis D, Lupski JR, Senderek J, Christodoulou J, Chung WK, Goodchild R, Offiah AC, Moreno-De-Luca A, Suri M, Ebrahimi-Fakhari D, Houlden H, Maroofian R
Brain 2023 Aug 1;146(8):3273-3288. doi: 10.1093/brain/awad039. PMID: 36757831Free PMC Article
Gutiérrez-Cerrajero C, Sprecher E, Paller AS, Akiyama M, Mazereeuw-Hautier J, Hernández-Martín A, González-Sarmiento R
Nat Rev Dis Primers 2023 Jan 19;9(1):2. doi: 10.1038/s41572-022-00412-3. PMID: 36658199
Heesterbeek TJ, Lorés-Motta L, Hoyng CB, Lechanteur YTE, den Hollander AI
Ophthalmic Physiol Opt 2020 Mar;40(2):140-170. Epub 2020 Feb 25 doi: 10.1111/opo.12675. PMID: 32100327Free PMC Article
Jayaramayya K, Balachandar V, Santhy KS
Mutat Res Rev Mutat Res 2018 Apr-Jun;776:10-22. Epub 2018 Mar 17 doi: 10.1016/j.mrrev.2018.03.002. PMID: 29807574
Ferris FL 3rd, Wilkinson CP, Bird A, Chakravarthy U, Chew E, Csaky K, Sadda SR; Beckman Initiative for Macular Research Classification Committee
Ophthalmology 2013 Apr;120(4):844-51. Epub 2013 Jan 16 doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2012.10.036. PMID: 23332590

Clinical prediction guides

Koronyo Y, Rentsendorj A, Mirzaei N, Regis GC, Sheyn J, Shi H, Barron E, Cook-Wiens G, Rodriguez AR, Medeiros R, Paulo JA, Gupta VB, Kramerov AA, Ljubimov AV, Van Eyk JE, Graham SL, Gupta VK, Ringman JM, Hinton DR, Miller CA, Black KL, Cattaneo A, Meli G, Mirzaei M, Fuchs DT, Koronyo-Hamaoui M
Acta Neuropathol 2023 Apr;145(4):409-438. Epub 2023 Feb 11 doi: 10.1007/s00401-023-02548-2. PMID: 36773106Free PMC Article
Gutiérrez-Cerrajero C, Sprecher E, Paller AS, Akiyama M, Mazereeuw-Hautier J, Hernández-Martín A, González-Sarmiento R
Nat Rev Dis Primers 2023 Jan 19;9(1):2. doi: 10.1038/s41572-022-00412-3. PMID: 36658199
Lin D, Xiong J, Liu C, Zhao L, Li Z, Yu S, Wu X, Ge Z, Hu X, Wang B, Fu M, Zhao X, Wang X, Zhu Y, Chen C, Li T, Li Y, Wei W, Zhao M, Li J, Xu F, Ding L, Tan G, Xiang Y, Hu Y, Zhang P, Han Y, Li JO, Wei L, Zhu P, Liu Y, Chen W, Ting DSW, Wong TY, Chen Y, Lin H
Lancet Digit Health 2021 Aug;3(8):e486-e495. doi: 10.1016/S2589-7500(21)00086-8. PMID: 34325853
Ferris FL 3rd, Wilkinson CP, Bird A, Chakravarthy U, Chew E, Csaky K, Sadda SR; Beckman Initiative for Macular Research Classification Committee
Ophthalmology 2013 Apr;120(4):844-51. Epub 2013 Jan 16 doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2012.10.036. PMID: 23332590
Au KS, Williams AT, Roach ES, Batchelor L, Sparagana SP, Delgado MR, Wheless JW, Baumgartner JE, Roa BB, Wilson CM, Smith-Knuppel TK, Cheung MY, Whittemore VH, King TM, Northrup H
Genet Med 2007 Feb;9(2):88-100. doi: 10.1097/gim.0b013e31803068c7. PMID: 17304050

Recent systematic reviews

Simmers R, Goodwin A, Al Saif H, Couser N
Ophthalmic Genet 2022 Oct;43(5):699-702. Epub 2022 Jun 27 doi: 10.1080/13816810.2022.2089358. PMID: 35762114
Benchetrit L, Jabbour N, Appachi S, Liu YC, Cohen MS, Anne S
Laryngoscope 2022 Jul;132(7):1459-1472. Epub 2021 Jul 7 doi: 10.1002/lary.29742. PMID: 34233033
Schwendicke F, Elhennawy K, Reda S, Bekes K, Manton DJ, Krois J
J Dent 2018 Jan;68:10-18. Epub 2017 Dec 6 doi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2017.12.002. PMID: 29221956
Stefan C, Iliescu DA, Batras M, Timaru CM, De Simone A
Rom J Ophthalmol 2015 Jan-Mar;59(1):14-8. PMID: 27373109Free PMC Article
Hatemi G, Seyahi E, Fresko I, Talarico R, Hamuryudan V
Clin Exp Rheumatol 2014 Jul-Aug;32(4 Suppl 84):S112-22. Epub 2014 Sep 30 PMID: 25268667

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